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亚里士多德和约书亚·贝尔教我们说服力 – 译学馆
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亚里士多德和约书亚·贝尔教我们说服力

What Aristotle and Joshua Bell can teach us about persuasion - Conor Neill

2007年一月九日
9th of January, 2007
约书亚·贝尔 世界上最伟大的小提琴家之一
Joshua Bell, one of the greatest violinist in the world,
他的演奏会座无虚席
played to a packed audience
波士顿宏伟的交响乐大厅可容纳一千人
at Boston’s stately Symphony Hall of 1,000 people
甚至大多席位的票价超过100美元
where most seats went for more than $100.
他很享受在满座的音乐厅表演
He was used to full, sell-out shows.
他处在才华与荣耀的巅峰
He was at the peak of his abilities and fame.
三天后
Three days later,
约书亚·贝尔的演奏却
Joshua Bell played to an audience of
没有一个听众!
nobody!
嗯 大概还有六个人停留了一会
Well, maybe six people paused for a moment,
有个孩子停下看了他一会
and one child stopped for a while looking,
好像他知道有什么特别的事正在发生
as if he understood that something special was happening.
约书亚提起这段经历
Joshua said of the experience,
“被人们忽视的感觉很奇怪”
“It was a strange feeling that people were actually ignoring me.”
约书亚·贝尔当时是在一个地铁站演奏小提琴
Joshua Bell was playing violin in a subway station.
“在音乐厅里 当听到有人咳嗽
“At a music hall, I’ll get upset if someone coughs
或是有人的手机响了 都会让我心烦
or if someone’s cell phone goes off,
但在这里 我的期待马上就消退了
but here my expectations quickly diminished.
甚至当有人丢下一美元时我感到怪异的高兴”
I was oddly grateful when somebody threw in a dollar.”
是什么发生了变化?
What changed?
一样的乐曲
Same music,
同样的小提琴
on the same violin,
用同样的热情来演奏
played with the same passion
通过同一个演奏人的手
and by the same man.
为什么之前人们会听而现在却不听了?
Why did people listen and then not listen?
亚里士多德也许可以解释
Aristotle would be able to explain.
是什么因素影响了说服力?
What does it take to persuade people?
2300年前
2,300 years ago,
亚里士多德写了一本关于说服力的重要著作
Aristotle wrote the single most important work on persuasion,
修辞术
Rhetoric,
有三个影响说服力的主要因素
the 3 means of persuasion:
逻辑
logos,
信誉
ethos,
和情感
and pathos.
逻辑是指在观众的视野内这个观念虽是可接受的
Logos is that the idea makes sense from the audience’s point of view.
却通常与演说家的观念不同
This is usually different from the speaker’s point of view,
因此其演说必须与
so work needs to be done
人们的世界观相吻合
to make the idea relevant to the world view,
与听众们的伤痛和挑战相感应
the pains and the challenges of the listeners.
一个精彩的论点就像美妙的音乐
A good argument is like good music.
好音乐遵循于一些作曲规范
Good music follows some rules of composition;
精彩的论点也遵循于一些逻辑原理
good arguments follow some rules of logic.
他们都使听众获得感应
It makes sense to the audience.
信誉即荣誉 是你被大家所熟知
Ethos is reputation, what are you known for;
可靠度是你是否外在及行为上像专业人员
credibility, do you look and act professional;
信任度在于你的动机是否明确
trustworthy, are your motives clear,
你是否表现出对听众如同对自己一样的关注?
do you show the listener that you care about them as much as yourself?
权威是自信加简洁的信息
Authority is confidence plus a concise message,
清晰强硬的语气
a clear, strong voice.
情感是指情感的互通
Pathos is the emotional connection.
讲述故事是人类创造情感互通的有效方法
Stories are an effective human tool for creating an emotional connection.
有些时刻 听众们还未准备好
There are moments where an audience is not ready
听取某些信息
to hear the message.
一个演说家必须为传达信息营造良好的情绪氛围
A speaker must create the right emotional environment for their message.
是什么发生了变化?
What changed?
为什么人们要千里迢迢来听他一晚的演奏
Why did people travel for miles to hear him play one night,
却没有为他第二天早上的演奏停留一秒
and not even pause for moment to listen the next morning?
答案是缺少了信誉与情感
The answer is that ethos and pathos were missing.
信誉
Ethos
实际上主办约书亚的演奏会的是著名的音乐厅
The fact that the great concert hall hosts Joshua’s concert
这就暗含了对约书亚的认同
transfers its trust to Joshua.
我们相信权威机构 所以我们相信约书亚
We trust the institution, we now trust Joshua.
地铁站则没有我们对音乐才能的信任
The subway does not have our trust for musical talent,
我们不会期望在那里找到伟大的艺术
we do not expect to find great art,
动听的音乐
great music,
或是可信的想法
or great ideas,
因此它无法为约书亚赋予信任感
so it confers no trust to Joshua.
情感
Pathos
音乐厅是为建立情感纽带设计的
The concert hall is designed for an emotional bond
这样的情感关联了听众与艺术家
between an audience and an artist,
一个地铁站台可不是为此设计的
a subway platform is not.
这里的喧闹、匆忙与紧张并不利于
The hustle and movement and stress is just not conducive
演奏者与听众间的情感共鸣需求
to the emotional connection needed between performer and listener.
逻辑
Logos,
信誉
ethos,
情感
pathos,
少了任何一个其他都没有意义
the idea is nothing without the rest.
这就是约书亚·贝尔所学习到的
This is what Joshua Bell learned
在这个2007年一月里寒冷的一天
on that cold, January day in 2007.
如果你有个不错的想法
If you have a great idea,
要如何建立起信任与情感共鸣?
how do you build credibility and emotional connection?

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