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眼睛里那些游来游去的是什么? – 译学馆
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眼睛里那些游来游去的是什么?

What are those floaty things in your eye? - Michael Mauser

你是否曾注意过视野里仿佛游来游去的东西?
Have you ever noticed something swimmingin your field of vision?
它可能看起来像是小虫子 或透明的斑点
It may look like a tiny wormor a transparent blob,
每当你试着凑近看时 它就会消失不见
and whenever you try to geta closer look, it disappears,
却总在你急速一瞥间再次出现
only to reappearas soon as you shift your glance.
但可千万不要去冲洗双眼啊!
But don’t go rinsing out your eyes!
你所看到的只是一种被认为是漂浮物的普遍现象
What you are seeing is a common phenomenonknown as a floater.
这些研究对象的学名是“Muscae volitantes”
The scientific name for these objectsis Muscae volitantes,
拉丁语又叫“飞蝇”
Latin for”flying flies,”
正如名字一样 它们会有几分恼人
and true to their name,they can be somewhat annoying.
但是它们根本不是真正的虫子 或任何外来物
But they’re not actually bugs or any kind of external objects at all.
相反 他们存在于眼球内部
Rather, they exist inside your eyeball.
漂浮物看起来像是活的
Floaters may seem to be alive,
因为它们会移动 变形
since they move and change shape,
但它们不是活的
but they are not alive.
漂浮物极小 它们在视网膜上投下阴影
Floaters are tiny objectsthat cast shadows on the retina,
而视网膜是眼球后部的感光肌肉组织
the light-sensitive tissueat the back of your eye.
漂浮物可能是少量肌肉组织 红细胞
They might be bits of tissue, red blood cells,
或者蛋白质团块
or clumps of protein.
并且由于它们都悬浮于玻璃体内
And because they’re suspendedwithin the vitreous humor,
——一种充满眼球的胶状液体
the gel-like liquidthat fills the inside of your eye,
漂浮物才会随着眼球运动而移动
floaters drift alongwith your eye movements,
而且似乎还会在眼球停止运动时微微反弹
and seem to bounce a littlewhen your eye stops.
大多数时候 漂浮物可能仅仅处于勉强看得见的状态
Floaters may be onlybarely distinguishable most of the time.
它们离视网膜越近 越容易看到
They become more visiblethe closer they are to the retina,
就像用顶灯投射灯光
just as holding your hand closer
把你的手贴近桌面
to a table with an overhead light
会产生轮廓更清晰的影子一样
will result in a moresharply defined shadow.
当你看向均匀规律且明亮的表面时
And floaters are particularly noticeable
漂浮物特别容易被辨识出来
when you are lookingat a uniform bright surface,
比如空白的电脑屏幕 大雪 或晴朗的天空
like a blank computer screen, snow, or
它们背景的一致性
a clear sky, where the consistency of the
使分辨漂浮物更容易
background makes them easier to distinguish.
光线越亮 瞳孔越容易聚焦
The brighter the light is,the more your pupil contracts.
就像用一个顶灯灯泡
This has an effect similar to
代替大型的漫射灯光设备
replacing a large diffuse light fixture
也会使影子更清晰一样
with a single overhead light bulb,
二者具有相似的效果
which also makesthe shadow appear clearer.
还有一种视觉现象 看似漂浮物
There is another visual phenomenonthat looks similar to floaters
实则毫不相干
but is in fact unrelated.
当你仰望湛蓝的天空时
If you’ve seen tiny dots of lightdarting about
看到过微小光斑窜来窜去
when looking at a bright blue sky,
你所经历的就是“蓝天内视现象”
you’ve experienced what is knownas the blue field entoptic phenomenon.
在某种程度上 它与看到漂浮物的现象正相反
In some ways,this is the opposite of seeing floaters.
在这种情境下 你看到的不是阴影
Here, you are not seeing shadows but
而是透射光线到视网膜上的“移动视窗”
little moving windows letting light through to your retina.
实际上 这些视窗是由白细胞造成的
The windows are actually causedby white blood cells
白细胞随着视网膜壁上的毛细血管移动
moving through the capillariesalong your retina’s surface.
它们大到
These leukocytes can be so large
几乎能充满毛细血管
that they nearly fill a capillary,
并于其前方打开一个血浆的空间
causing a plasma spaceto open up in front of them.
因为在蓝光下 这块空间和白细胞二者
Because the spaceand the white blood cells
比一般情况下红细胞所呈现的样子
are both more transparent to blue light
都更加透明
than the red blood cellsnormally present in capillaries,
我们才会在眼球各处看到移动的光斑
we see a moving dot of lightwherever this happens,
它们循着毛细血管 随脉搏的跳动而移动
following the paths of your capillaries and moving in time with your pulse.
在理想的观察条件下
Under ideal viewing conditions,
你甚至能看到光斑后有一条黑黑的 尾巴状的东西
you might even see what looks like a dark tail following the dot.
这些就是聚集在白细胞后面的红细胞
This is the red blood cells that have bunched up behind the leukocyte.
有的科学博物馆会举行由蓝光屏幕组成的展览
Some science museums have an exhibitwhich consists of a screen of blue light,
它能让你将这些“蓝天中的小精灵”
allowing you to see these blue sky sprites much more clearly
看得比平时更清晰
than you normally would.
尽管每个人的眼睛都会体验这种效应
While everybody’s eyes experiencethese sort of effects,
数量和类型却大不相同
the number and type vary greatly.
以漂浮物为例 他们常常不被察觉
In the case of floaters, they often go unnoticed,
因为我们的大脑学会了忽视它们
as our brain learns to ignore them.
然而反常情况下
However, abnormally numerous
造成视力干扰的大量或大面积的漂浮物
or large floatersthat interfere with vision
可能是较严重疾病的迹象 需要立即医疗
may be a sign of a more serious condition, requiring immediate medical treatment.
但大部分情况下 内视现象
But the majority of the timeentoptic phenomena,
比如漂浮物 蓝天精灵
such as floaters and blue sky sprites,
只是温馨的提示我们:
are just a gentle reminderthat what we think we see
自以为看到的东西 就像其取决于外界一样
depends just as muchon our biology and minds
取决于我们的生理和心理
as it does on the external world.

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视频概述

当我们看向蓝天,或干脆什么都不看,闭上眼睛的时候,却总会看到视野里小虫一般游来游去的东西;当我们想要仔细看时,它们却又变形,消失不见。它们到底是什么呢?

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y6e_m9iq-4Q

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