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什么是普遍人权? – 译学馆
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什么是普遍人权?

What are the universal human rights? - Benedetta Berti

人权的定义是
The idea of human rights
我们每个人 无论是谁 无论生在哪里
is that each of us,no matter who we are or where we are born,
都享有同样的基本权利和自由
is entitled to the samebasic rights and freedoms.
人权不是特权 它不能被授予或废除
Human rights are not privileges, and they can not be granted or revoked.
它们也是普世且不可剥夺的
They are inalienable and universal.
这听起来似乎非常简单
That may sound straighforward enough,
但一旦有人想将它付诸实践
but it gets incredibly complicated
便显现出令人难以置信的复杂
as soon as anyone triesto put the idea into practice.
那么基本人权究竟是什么?
What exactly are the basic human rights?
是谁提出了人权?
Who gets to pick them?
又是谁采用了什么手段保障它呢?
Who enforces them, and how?
人权概念背后的历史无比悠久
The history behind the concept of human rights is a long one.
它跨越几个世纪 不同的社会 宗教和文化
Throughout the centuries and acrosssocieties, religions, and cultures
我们一直在努力界定正义 公正和权利的概念
we have struggled with defining notionsof rightfulness, justice, and rights.
但普遍人权最现代化的主张
But one of the most modern affirmationsof universal human rights
出现在第二次世界大战的废墟上
emerged from the ruins of World War II
随着联合国一起建立起来
with the creation of the United Nations.
建立联合国的条约
The treaty that established the UN
告诉我们其宗旨之一
gives us one of its purposes
重申坚定维护基本人权的信念
to reaffirm faith infundamental human rights.
在这种精神的鼓舞下
And with the same spirit,
1948年 联合国大会决议通过了《世界人权宣言》
in 1948, the UN General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
这份由埃莉诺•罗斯福担任主席的国际委员会撰写的文件
This document, written by an internationalcommittee chaired by Eleanor Roosevelt,
同时为现代国际人权法奠定了基础
lays the basis for moderninternational human rights law.
这份宣言
The declaration is based on the principle
以“人人生而自由 地位和权利平等”的原则为基础
that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.
它在其中列出30条条款
It lists 30 articles recognizing,among other things,
包括不歧视原则以及生命和自由的权利
the principle of nondiscriminationand the right to life and liberty.
这自由既指消极的自由
It refers to negative freedoms,
如免于酷刑或奴役的自由
like the freedom from torture or slavery,
也指积极的自由 如活动和居住的自由
as well as positive freedoms, such as the freedom of movement and residence.
它包括基本的公民权利和政治权利
It encompasses basic civiland political rights,
比如言论自由 宗教信仰自由或和平集会的自由
such as freedom of expression, religion,or peaceful assembly,
权利即是在社会 经济和文化方面的权利
as well as social, economic,and cultural rights,
诸如受教育的权利
such as the right to education
自由选择职业的权利
and the right to freely choose one’s occupation
以及被公平给予酬劳的权利
and be paid and treated fairly.
这份宣言坚持权利的普遍性
The declaration takes no sides
不可分割性和相互依赖性
as to which rights are more important,
而对哪些权利更重要不持任何态度
insisting on their universality, indivisibility, and interdependence.
在过去的几十年里 国际人权法律的完善
And in the past decades,international human rights law has grown,
加深并增强了我们对人权的理解
deepening and expanding our understandingof what human rights are,
以及如何更好的保护人权
and how to better protect them.
如果这些原则发展实践得很好
So if these principlesare so well-developed,
那么为什么在世界各地
then why are human rights abused
人权却被一次又一次的
and ignored time and time again
忽视甚至践踏?
all over the world?
总体来说 其问题在于
The problem in general is
普遍执行这些权利
that it is not at all easy
或对犯法者的惩罚绝非易事
to universally enforce these rightsor to punish transgressors.
尽管拥有高度权威和民众极大的尊重
The UDHR itself, despite beinghighly authoritative and respected,
但UDHR 本身是一项宣言 而非硬性法律
is a declaration, not a hard law.
因此 当个别国家违反它时
So when individual countries violate it,
其处理机制是薄弱的
the mechanisms to address those violations are weak.
例如 联合国负责保护人权的机构
For example, the main bodies
主要负责监督和调查
within the UN in charge of protecting human rights
侵权人犯的行为
mostly monitor and investigate violations,
但他们不能强迫各国改变政策
but they can not force states to, say,
或给予受害者补偿
change a policy or compensate a victim.
这就是为什么一些人批评说
That’s why some critics say it’s
在一个国家利益占主导地位的世界
naive to consider human rights a given
考虑人权是天真的
in a world where state interestswield so much power.
他们还对人权的普遍性提出质疑
Critics also question the universalityof human rights
并且强调人权的发展
and emphasize that their development
在很大程度上受少数且主要是西方国家的干扰
has been heavily guided by a small number of mostly Western nations
并不利于包容性
to the detriment of inclusiveness.
那么结果呢?
The result?
产生了认同公民政治自由高于社会政治权利
a general bias in favor of civil political liberties over socio-political rights
个人权利高于集体或团体权利的普遍偏见
and of individualover collective or groups rights.
其他人则捍卫基本人权法律
Others defend universal human rights laws
同时指出它们在制定国际标准
and point at the positive role they have
帮助组织人士开展活动中
on setting international standards
发挥了积极作用
and helping activists in their campaigns.
他们还指出 并非所有国际人权文件都是无用的
They also point out that not all international human rights instruments are powerless.
如欧洲人权协会设立法庭
For example, the European Conventionon Human Rights establishes a court
允许其47个成员国及其公民提起诉讼
where the 47 member countriesand their citizens can bring cases.
而法庭发布的决定 每个成员国必须遵守
The court issues binding decisions that each member state must comply with.
人权法律在不断发展
Human rights law is constantly evolving
我们对其看法和定义也在不断改变
as are our views and definitions of what the basic human rights should be.
民主和发展的权利究竟有多么基础
For example, how basic or importantis the right to democracy
多么重要?
or to development?
随着我们的生活普遍数据化
And as our lives are increasingly digital,
是否需要设立使用网络的权利?
should there be a rightto access the Internet?
数据隐私权呢?
A right to digital privacy?
你认为呢?
What do you think?

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视频概述

本视频重点介绍了普遍人权及其部分发展历史。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

橘苓

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nDgIVseTkuE

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