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其它星球上的季节会是怎样?

What Are Seasons Like On Other Planets?

你有想过其他星球的四季会是什么样的吗?是不是厌倦了
Ever wonder what seasons are like on other planets? Do you ever get tired of having to
年复一年的从雪裤换到泳裤的生活呢?如果你厌倦了地球上每年都一样的季节,
switch out your snow pants for swim trunks? Well, if you’re tired of dealing with Earth’s
那么宇宙中众多的星球都为你呈现了不同的选择。比如宇航员们
predictable seasons, many planets in our universe present other options. For example, astronomers
正在考虑一个新近发现的开普勒413b星球,或许它可以
are pondering a recently discovered planet called Kepler 413b, that they think might
有一个和权利的游戏一样的四季。没错,它和维斯特洛大陆非常像,拥有一个变幻莫测的四季,
have Game of Thrones-ike seasons. Yes, much like Westeros, it has seasons of wildly varying
比如毫无征兆地从夏天变为冬天。从某个角度听起来,
length – moving from summer to winter seemingly without warning, which from a wardrobe perspective
似乎是一个大麻烦。那么科学家们是怎么知道那里的季节是什么样的呢?
sounds like a huge hassle. But how do scientists know what seasons are like there? The answer
对宇宙中的每一个星球来说,这个答案都是不一样的。
comes down to a trait that varies from planet to planet all across the universe.
(介绍)
(Intro)
每个星球的季节变化来源于每个星球自身的轴倾角——
Planets get their seasons, if they have them, from their axial tilt – that jaunty little
即自身的自转轴和轨道面所形成的夹角。比如地球,以23.5度的角度绕地球公转。
angle at which the poles tilt relative to the orbital plane. Earth, for example, sits
这个倾斜角意味着
at 23.5 degrees as it orbits the sun. This tilt, or obliquity, means that for part of
在365天的公转的一部分时间里,阳光更多的照射在北半球,创造了夏天,而这时的南半球却是冬天。
our 365-day orbit, sunlight strikes the northern hemisphere more directly, creating summer,
当我们沿着轨道移动,整个现象
while it’s winter in the southern hemisphere. And as we move through our orbit, the whole
就相反了。阳光以更小的倾斜角照射在北半球时,
thing is of course reversed, and the sun then reaches the northern hemisphere at a more
就创造了冬天。这整个循环的产物便是大约各自
oblique angle creating winter. The result of the whole cycle is four roughly equal seasons
持续90天的四个季节。
each lasting about 90 days.
但是让我们想象一下不同情况下的选择,比如一个星球没有倾斜角或是有一个非常大的倾斜角,
But imagine the alternatives to this scenario, like if a planet had no tilt at all or a huge
亦或是一个不停变动的倾斜角。不过这样的事情确实是存在的,你可以在我们的太阳系中找到例子。
tilt or a tilt that changed over time. As it happens, you can find examples of these
比如水星、金星和木星,它们没有倾斜角,
extremes within our own solar system. Mercury, Venus, and Jupiter, for example, have zero
或只是有一个非常微小的倾斜度,因此在这些星球上是没有季节之分的。而与此同时,火星、土星和海王星
or very little tilt and thus no seasons. Mars, Saturn and Neptune meanwhile have tilts like
拥有着和我们相似的角度,这使它们每年的季节持续时间都差不多。
ours plus or minus a few degrees, creating even seasons from year to year. And don’t
不要跟我提天王星,它的角度达到了近98度,几乎是以躺着的姿态绕着太阳公转。
get me started on Uranus. It’s tilted a full 98 degrees, basically lying on its side
这意味着它的一级直接指向太阳,
and rolling around the sun. This means that one pole is pointed directly at the sun and
然后逐渐倒转,度过一个天王星年。所以在它的北半球,42地球年的夏天接着42年的冬天,不断循环。
gradually reverses over the course of a Uranian year. So summer in the northern hemisphere
如果天王星不是太阳系中最冷的星球,42年的夏天,
lasts 42 Earth years followed by 42 years of winter. 42 years of summer, now that’s
也许可以当做是一个假期了。
a vacation, or it would be if weren’t, like, the coldest planet in the solar system.
但是现在让我们先把太阳系放一边,来看这个开普勒413b星。
But now, let’s leave our solar system and consider Kepler 413b. Its axial tilt actually
实际上它的倾斜像一个陀螺一样,不断地摇摆和旋转不定,
wobbles, or precesses, like a spinning top, varying by as much as 30 degrees over 11 of
这意味着开普勒413b上的季节变化快而猛烈,并且每年都不一样。
its years. This means seasons there change fast, furiously, and unreliably from year
你很难知道你应该从你的衣柜里拿帽子还是拿比基尼。
to year. You’d hardly know whether to reach into your closet for a balaclava or a bikini.
其实我们的星球也在经历这样的变化过程,只是更加的缓慢。我们的倾斜角变化了26000年才
Our planet also undergoes this kind of precession but much more gradually. Our tilt changes
变成了现在的23.5度。这个角度每72年就会变化一次。
23.5 degrees over 26,000 years. That’s one degree every 72 years. There are probably
宇宙中也许存在着许许多多的如413b这样拥有自己独特的倾斜角的星球,
lots of other planets like 413b out there with their own weird axial tilt oddities just
等待着被发现和探索。但是至今为止,宇航员们仍未找到很多季节变化如此剧烈的星球。
waiting to be discovered. But so far, astronomers haven’t found many other examples with such
这仅仅告诉我们,我们在小说中能想得到的任何事情,也许就在宇宙中发生着。
extreme variations of seasons. Just goes to show – anything we can imagine in fiction
现在,如果你想要经历像权力的游戏中一样的季节,
may be out there in the universe. For now, if you want to experience Game of Thrones-like
你就得等到我们能够跨过2300光年的距离,来到开普勒413B星的那一天。
seasons, you’ll have to wait until we can travel 2,300 light years to Kepler 413b.
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