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脑电波是什么? – 译学馆
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脑电波是什么?

What Are Brain Waves?

大家好 我是《一分钟地球》节目的Kate
Hi, this is Kate from Minute Earth.
各种动物运动方式五花八门
Animals move in all kinds of ways,
但是它们的运动都有一个共同点 那就是节奏
but one thing all that motion has in common is rhythm.
驱使动物运动的简单神经回路
So it’s not really that surprising
基本上类似于小型节奏机器
that the simple neural circuits driving these motions
它以放电模式来协调动物的运动
are basically little rhythm machines,
实际上这也没那么
with electrical patterns that give rise to coordinated
令人惊奇
motion.
或许更令人惊奇的是
Perhaps more surprising is
那些不负责运动的超复杂神经回路
that crazy complex neural circuits that aren ’ t dedicated to
同样也有节奏
movement also have rhythm:
我们大脑中的所有神经细胞一直都在同步
All over our brains all the time, millions of neurons are syncing
有时候同步发生在瞬息之间
up – sometimes for just a fraction
并且产生电流的起伏
of a second – and generating electrical ups and
我们将之记录为脑电波
downs that we can record as brain waves.
在健康的大脑中 这些电波是持续的
In healthy brains, these waves are very consistent –
例如 平日起床时
for instance, during normal waking activity,
你的大脑会产生一种叫β波的波形图案
your brain produces a pattern called the beta rhythm, and,
但是在最深度睡眠时
in deepest sleep, it generates
会产生一种节奏更慢的δ波
a slower delta rhythm.
另一方面 在不健康的大脑中
In unhealthy brains, on the other hand,
我们会看到反常的波形 这意味着
we see abnormal brain waves, which suggests that
节奏正发挥着重要作用 问题在于起什么作用
the rhythms do something important; the question is, what?
脑波的作用之一是它似乎和人的长期记忆有关
One of brainwaves’ roles seems to have to do with long-term memory.
在睡眠某一阶段
During one stage of sleep, short,
大脑深处短而有力的节奏会按相同顺序
powerful rhythms deep in the brain trigger the same
触发那些睡前活跃的神经细胞
sequences of neurons that were active before sleep,
并且让它们继续
creating lasting connections between
保持活跃
them.
我们发现 一旦没有这些节奏
We ’ ve found that, without these rhythms,
某些记忆是无法形成的
certain kinds of memories can ’ t form.
脑电波到底起什么作用
We have lots of other ideas
我们还有许多其他想法
about what exactly brain waves do – from holding information
从将信息如电话号码 记入我们的脑海
like phone numbers in our minds,
甚至到控制我们的神智是否清醒
to dictating whether we ’ re even conscious.
或许我们大脑里的节奏比这更重要
Or maybe the rhythms in our brains are even more important
可能它们的主要功能是
than that – maybe their main
控制大脑的时间
function is to keep time
让大脑的所有部分都能保持充分的同步
for the brain – to keep all the parts sufficiently synchronized
以便它们协同工作
so that they can work together.
大脑里的同步不仅使神经细胞群
Synchrony in the brain not only enables groups
同时做出反应 将一种强烈且清晰的
of neurons to fire together and send a strong,
信号从大脑的一部分发送到另一部分
clear signal from one part of the brain to another,
它能协调大脑的不同部分以达到
it tunes different parts of the brain
相同频率 整合各部分之间的信号
in to the same frequencies, coordinating the signals between them.
在某种程度上 难以想象
In some ways, it ’ s crazy to think
我们的大脑所处理的难以置信的事依赖于重复
that the the incredible things our brains do rely on repeating,
且转瞬即逝的脑电波活动
yet fleeting patterns of electricalactivity. But,
但是 另一方面
on the other hand,
神经系统进化的最初目标
generating rhythms is sort of what nervous systems evolved to
就是生成节奏 没有节奏
do in the first place – we really
我们真的什么也做不了
can ’ t get anywhere without them.
大脑是复杂的
Brains are complicated.
然而这可能会使科学家感到沮丧
And while it might be frustrating to scientists
因为我们至今仍无法构造出
that we haven’t been able to build artificial
人工脑回路 这也意味着人类至今仍不能被完全替代
brain circuits, it also means that humansaren’t completely replaceable…yet.
但是随着智能机器更加智能
But as smart machines get smarter,
它们正在取代我们越来越多的工作
they’re going to replace more and more of our jobs.
这就是本期视频的赞助者
That’s why this video ’ s sponsor –
东北大学校长Joseph E.Aoun 出版了名为Robot-Proof新书
the new book Robot-Proof by Northeastern University
一位受过高等教育的未来主义者
President and higher-ed futurist Joseph E. Aoun –
提出建议的原因 他建议大学要在那些
proposes that universities need to
不会被自动化替代的职业的教育
do more to ensure lifelong education for humans
做出更多的终身教育工作
in careers that are the least likely to be
特别是那些有创造性的和创新企业方面的职业
automated – in particular, those that arecreative and entrepreneurial.
想要知道如何让自己成为机器人 证明你自己
To learn more about how to become Robot-Proof yourself,
请点击的链接查看详情
click the link in the description.

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视频概述

想要了解我们日常生活中的各种运动是由什么来支配的吗?想要对我们人体神经元有更多了解吗?热爱科学的朋友们请走进视频,探索更多的奥秘吧!

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Qu9KnohYG0

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