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古汉语听起来是怎样的?以及我们怎么知道的 – 译学馆
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古汉语听起来是怎样的?以及我们怎么知道的

What "Ancient" Chinese Sounded Like - and how we know

中国拥有悠久的语言历史
China has a long linguistic tradition.
你知道在欧洲人重建西方原始语言几百年前
Did you know Chinese scholars were digging into old pronunciations
中国学者就已经开始钻研古汉语发音了吗?
centuries before Europeans were reconstructing proto-languages?
今天我们就讲讲 他们如何揭开古王朝语言的奥秘
This is the tale of how they uncovered their ancient imperial language.
中文发音一直让我头痛不已
I struggle with Chinese pronunciation.
我的祖父在我生日时
I have ever since the dictionary and cassettes
曾经给了我一本汉语字典和一盒盒式录音带
my Grandad once gave me for my birthday.
最近我在埋头钻研几百页的
But lately I’ve been burying myself in hundreds
中国语言历史书 你猜我发现了什么?
of pages of Chinese linguistic history, and you know what?
原来不止我一个人受到这样的困扰!
I’m in good company!
中文发音在很长一段时间内 都让中国的专家感到迷惑不解
Chinese pronunciation puzzled experts in China for a long, long time.
比如这位
Like this fellow.
这位学者19世纪40年代就开始重现中国语言
A scholar reconstructing a language in the 1840s.
我之前说过那个故事 现在你们已经知晓了
You know the story by now, I’ve told it before,
将一组相关的语言作比较
compare a group of related languages,
把它们归纳进系谱图
classify them into a family tree,
然后找到他们共同的祖先
then reconstruct their common ancestor.
但是 这一次的故事可不是这样的!
Oh, but that’s not the story this time!
这位学者叫陳澧
This scholar is Chén Lǐ.
他正面临着一个困扰人们几世纪的老问题:
He’s confronting a centuries-old problem.
如何才能恢复古籍中本有的发音?
How do you recover the sounds immortalized in classical texts?
如何才能使古诗韵律有致如从前?
How do you make the old poems rhyme again?
难点在这里: 古代没有录音
Here’s the catch: you have no recordings.
也没有标音
No phonetic transcriptions.
甚至连字母表也没有
Not even an alphabet.
你只能从字面下手
You’re working with characters,
也就是我们之前谈论到的汉字
the Han characters we’ve talked about before.
每一个汉字代表一个音节的字或者词
each one standing for a one-syllable word or word piece.
他仔细翻阅着摆在眼前的书
He scrutinizes the book in front of him.
书籍看起来很陈旧 甚至乏味
It looks old, stodgy even,
但是它背后的故事却很耐人寻味
but it has quite a backstory.
1261年前
1261 years earlier,
陆先生邀请八位好友 秉烛夜谈
Mr Lù invited 8 friends over for a slumber party.
他们一边饮酒 一边交谈
They started their evening with wine and conversation,
但是到了后半夜 他们轻松的闲谈却演变成了一场激昂的争辩
but late in the night, the friendly chit-chat turned into a heated debate
他们争论着古书中字词的准确发音
over the exact pronunciation of old texts.
“北方民众背诵古文的方式是错误的”
The way people recite them in North is wrong.
“不 南方才是错的”
No, they’re wrong in the South.
“够了!”
Enough talk!
陆挥笔写下了
Mr Lù inked his brush and outlined
《却韻》这本书的概述
what would become the Qièyùn.
最后他写满了五个卷轴 记录了根据四个声调划分的
He eventually filled five scrolls with over 11000 characters
11000多个汉字
divided among the four Chinese tones
并且分成不同的押韵组
and subdivided into rhyming groups.
然后他将每个汉字的读音拆解
Then he broke down the sound of each character.
如何做到的呢?
How?
借助两个以上的汉字!
With two more characters!
上面的汉字对应着声母
An upper character to match the initial consonant,
下面的汉字需要和韵母押韵 包括声调
and a lower character to rhyme with the final sounds, including the tone.
举个例子
Take the character here,
这个字的意思是“东方”
meaning”east”.
它的声母是/tək̚/ 后面的韵母为/ ɦuŋ/
It had the initial of /tək̚/ and the final of /ɦuŋ/,
因此 我们最后重现出来的发音就是
so using the reconstructed pronunciation we’ll talk about at the end,
/ tuŋ/
it’s /tuŋ/.
这个方法叫做“反切”
With this method, called fǎnqiè,
利用这个方法你就可以读出一个音节!
you can capture the sound of a syllable!
简单
Simple.
聪明
And clever.
但这本书没有给出中国音韵的综述
But it stopped short of giving an overview of Chinese phonology.
因此就需要进行下一步:
For that, rhymers needed to take another step:
把这些信息制成表格
organize this info into tables.
这个12世纪的音镜上都是韵表
The 12th century Rhyme Mirror is full of rime tables.
这里就有一张
Here’s one of them,
也是书里的第一张表格
the very first table in the book.
开始的标签给出了表格的数字:
The starting label gives the table number –
一 以及这些音节的韵脚
number one – and the kind of rhyme these syllables have,
发音类似/uŋ/
a sort of /uŋ/.
第一排是声母的六个发音分类
Along the top row are six articulation categories for consonants,
下面一排 是四个声调
and down the side, the four tones.
每一个声调的四排都给了关于这个音节更多的信息
The four rows per tone give more info about the syllable,
然而它们的解释却受到争议
but their interpretation is debated.
不妨这样试试 找到一个声母
So try this: find me a tongue sound,
也就是一个清楚的舌音(声带不发声)
a lingual that’s clear, meaning voiceless,
并且是第一声
and has the first tone.
因此对于这种音节类型 我们就可以凑出类似
So for this syllable type we’ve pieced together something like
/tuŋ/的发音
/tuŋ/.
接下来这个只有部分清楚
And then there’s a partly-clear one,
意思是送气的/h/
meaning aspirated /h/,
连起来可能就是/tʰuŋ/?
so kind of /tʰuŋ/?
这个词意思是肮脏或者是泥泞的
And this one is dirty or muddy,
这是一个发声音 因此可能就是/duŋ/?
which means a voiced sound,so maybe /duŋ/?
好了 那这些圆圈呢?
Ok. What about all these circles though?
它们又是什么意思呢?
What do they mean?
没有音节
Syllable not found.
因此 当你想找唇音时
So when you look for a lip sound
在这个表格中的第一声就会发的很清楚
that’s clear for the first tone in this chart,
在这里你找不到类似/puŋ/的发音
you find nothing like /puŋ/ recorded here.
但是你可以找到/buŋ/ 也就是艾蒿的意思
But there is a /buŋ/, mugwort!
以此类推 那么你就挖掘出了古语发音了
Just like that, you’re excavating old pronunciations,
并且是汉语押韵式发音
Chinese rhyme style.
自此 自信满满的学者们用了几百年时间
And so confident scholars spent centuries
还原古代汉语音节的发音
sounding out ancient Chinese syllables
并且教导后人中文正好有36个声母
and teaching that Chinese had exactly 36 initial consonants.
然而陈澧并不完全买账
But Chen Li’s not convinced.
他开始重新梳理《反切》
He’s combing through old fǎnqiè,
一丝不苟地将各种声母和
Meticulously chaining together initials of initials,
韵母连接比对
and finals of finals.
最终他的连接集合发现了缺陷
His linked sets revealed flaws.
声母并不是36个 而是有41个
There weren’t 36 initials, there were 41.
其中五个需要被分割成两个
Five of them needed to be split in two.
不仅如此
But there’s more:
他还发现 韵律表中的发音和《反切》中的发音并不相同
the sounds in the rime tables are not the sounds in the Qièyùn.
因为这两者是两个不同的阶段
These are two different stages.
在后来的研究中表明
Later research will go on to show
即便是早期的发音本身也是很复杂的
that even the earlier stage itself is complicated.
这是一种古文学方言的折中妥协
It’s a compromise between ancient literary dialects.
回想刚才关于南北方发音的深夜辩论
Thinking back to those late-night debates over the north vs the south,
这听起来确实有道理
that sounds about right.
但是所有的这些努力留给我们的只是一些分类
But all this hard work merely left us with categories,
一些表格
boxes.
关于四个声调的表格
Boxes for four tones.
关于声母的表格 关于韵母的表格
Boxes for initials. Boxes for finals.
好了猜测到此为止
Enough with the guesswork.
那么这些表格里的字
What are the precise sounds
准确的发音又是怎样的呢?
that really fit into these boxes?
在20世纪早期 有一个瑞典人来到了中国
In the early 1900s a Swede traveled to China
研究这些古音律和发音表格
and dug into the old rimes and tables,
然后他又增添了重要的一页
but then added an important piece:
那就是关于汉语的多种不同变体
the many living varieties of Chinese.
卡尔格伦非常兴奋
Karlgren was fascinated.
他制作了研究报告 并且整理成文档
He created surveys and set out to document them,
然后他用他的调查结果
and he used his results to fill out
把古音律的分类用真实的发音表现出来
the rime categories with real sounds.
如何做到的呢?
How?
举个那个第四声的例子(又叫去声)
Well, take that fourth tone (also called the checked tone).
在南部沿海地带
Along the southern coast,
这些去声音节末尾都有一个止音
these checked tone syllables have a final stop sound.
来看看这个古汉字 意为国家
So this old character, meaning country,
在普通话中发音为/ kuo ˧ ˥/
is /kuo˧˥/ in Mandarin,
在粤语中 它的发音是/ kwok̚ ˧/
but in Cantonese it’s /kwok̚˧/.
谁的年代更久远呢?
Who’s older?
我们来看看卡尔格伦“方言”清单上的最后三种语言
Well, look at the last three languages in Karlgren’s list of”dialects”:
韩语 日语和越南语
Korean, Japanese and Vietnamese.
他们使用的是汉字词发音
They use Sino-Xenic pronunciations,
即以汉字为基础的发音
meaning”China-foreign”,
也就是他们当初引用中文时 汉字于他们的发音
basically the way the characters sounded to them when they were imported.
在他们的词汇中同样也有那个k
Their words also have that k.
这就说明那个汉字的古发音
It points back to an ancient pronunciation for that character
是以一个辅音结尾的 就比如/kwək̚ ˧/
that ended in a consonant, like /kwək̚˧/.
语言学家们以此继续提炼这些重现后的发音
Linguists went on to refine these reconstructions
并且为这些古汉语绘制了声音肖像
and to paint acoustic portraits of Ancient Chinese
这在今天的普通话中听起来简直就像外语
that would sound downright foreign in Mandarin today.
它们甚至指出了卡尔格伦忽略的很微小但是很重要的区别
They even revealed small but important distinctions Karlgren missed,
就像这一对“重纽”的发音
like these pairs of chóngniǔ.
就当我在这里对中文发音头痛不解时
And they taught me one last thing while I was over here
它们还给教给了我很重要的一课
struggling to understand Chinese pronunciation.
并不存在叫做古汉语的语言
It’s not a single language called Ancient Chinese.
它只不过是一个语言历史阶段
No, it’s a period in linguistic history
叫做中古汉语时期
called Middle Chinese.
加个“中”……是因为还有更加古老的语言有待发现
“Middle”…because there’s an even older language to uncover,
比这个更加古老1000年
a thousand years older still.
或许有一天 我们的押韵方式也会被记录到古汉语中
Maybe one day we’ll rhyme our way into Old Chinese.
但是在那之前
Until then,
关注我们 并订阅我们的语言频道
stick around and subscribe for language.

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视频概述

古人如何在没有音标没有字母的情况下记录古汉语的发音的?快来一起看看吧!

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Abbi Gao

审核员

审核员 D

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ME8wzyR6pO8

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