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人们捐献器官时会对身体产生什么影响

What Actually Happens To Your Body When You Donate Your Organs?

全美大约有95%的人支持器官捐献
About 95 percent of Americans support organ donation,
但是只有不到一半的人愿意捐献
but less than half sign up to be a donor.
这是为什么呢?
Why is that?
各位清醒的器官们大家好 我是DNews的Jules
Hey there, conscious collection of organs, Jules’ here for DNews.
没人确切知道为什么人们不愿成为捐献者
No one knows exactly why people refuse to be organ donors.
器官捐献是一个棘手并且十分私人的事情
Organ donation is a tricky subject, and super individual.
一项研究表明 大部分人得到有关器官捐献的信息
According to one study, most people gathered information on organ donation
是通过看一些非科学系统的节目
by watching scientifically inaccurate shows,
像是《实习医生格蕾》
like Grey’s Anatomy.
另外一项研究结果也支持了这个结论
Another study backed up that data,
显示超过一半的人
showing more than half of people
是从电视上学到关于器官捐献的知识的
learned what they know about donation from television,
另有12%的人 是从朋友那知道的
and another 12 percent, from their friends.
不出所料 72%的人都害怕捐献器官
Unsurprisingly, 72 percent of people were afraid of organ donation.
所以让我们来打破《实习医生格蕾》给我们带来的误解
So, let’s burst this Anatomically Grey bubble
来聊聊在器官捐献的时候究竟会发生什么
and talk about what actually happens during organ donations.
首先 当一个病人进了医院以后
First, if a patient enters a hospital,
没人会想他是否是
literally no one is thinking about whether or not
一个器官捐献者
they are an organ donor.
如果是紧急情况 医生们就忙于拯救生命
If it’s an emergency, then they’re working to save the person’s life,
如果不是 那么他们就会努力让病人恢复健康
and if not, they’re trying to make them healthy again.
可是 事实上
But, it’s a fact of life
医生们也不总是能成功挽救生命
that they don’t always succeed.
当一个人确实死亡了
If the person does die,
只有在那时 医生们才会去确认他是否是器官捐献者
only then do they check if the person was a donor.
只有在那时才会
Only then.
当然 退一步来说 死亡本身就非常复杂
And of course, backing up a step, death itself can be complicated.
一些人将心脏跳动等同于存活
Some people connect the presence of a heartbeat to life,
但是从1981年起 法律规定
but since 1981, legally,
不是心跳 而是大脑活动决定了个体死亡与否
it’s not the heartbeat, but brain activity that determines life or death.
如果脑死亡了 那就不可挽回了
If the brain dies, it’s not coming back.
顺便说一句 那些脑死亡的病人
And patients who are brain dead, by the way,
可能还留存有基本的身体机能
may still have basic functions, sometimes assisted
有时靠机器辅助 或者完全靠机器维持
or completely controlled by machines.
有时一些刚死亡的人会靠呼吸机
And sometimes the cadaver will be on a ventilator at the time of death
来维持血液流动 氧气供给 和器官的活性
to keep the blood pumping, oxygen moving, and organs alive.
有时 死亡会很容易被分辨出
Sometimes, death is easy to spot:
重伤 失血过多 窒息 脑出血 肿胀 中风等
major injury, blood loss, suffocation, hemorrhage, swelling, stroke and so on.
都使得脑死亡的诊断变得更容易
All make the diagnosis of brain death easier,
但是这个结论从不会轻率地作出
but it’s never taken lightly.
脑死亡不是像电视上那样偶然或轻率就可以决定了
Brain death isn’t an accidental or flippant diagnosis like it is on tv.
没有带着彩色图表的高级机器监控着你的脑活动
There’s no fancy machine with colorful charts monitoring your brain activity.
相反 医生们 是的 会有两个医生 会进行“脑死亡测试”
Instead, doctors, yes, there are two, will conduct a “brain death test”.
根据美国神经病学学会的要求
According to the American Academy of Neurology
这就意味着要检测是否还存在
this means checking for reflexes controlled
受脑干控制的神经反射
by the brain stem.
医生们会检测瞳孔对光反应
They’ll shine a light into the pupil,
刮一下喉咙背侧 戳一戳以制造一些细微的疼痛
scratch the back of the throat, poke to cause minor pain,
注一点水进耳道里以检测是否有眨眼反射
and put water in the ear canal trying to get eye reactions.
如果没有反应 他们会被取下呼吸机
If there’s no response, they’re disconnected from the ventilator later
去检测他们有没有“呼吸驱动”
to see if they have a “respiratory drive”,
或者他们想不想呼吸
or if they want to breathe.
如果他们对于上述测试都没有反应
If they react to none of these,
医生们就会判定病人的脑干已经不再控制他们的身体了
doctors then decide the person’s brain stem isn’t controlling their body,
这时就可以说他们脑死亡了
and they’re considered brain dead.
呼吸机再被打开 然后医院会通知家属
The ventilator is turned back on, and the family is informed.
医生会查看捐赠者名册 并与逝者家属商谈病人遗愿
The doctors then check donor rolls, and discuss final wishes with the family.
如果逝者的遗愿是捐献他的器官
If the person’s wish is for organ donation,
医生就会查找器官和组织的匹配者
then they look for organ and tissue matches.
心脏 肾脏 肝脏 肺 胰腺 肠子
The heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, pancreas, and intestines,
皮肤 骨组织 眼角膜 肌腱 韧带
skin, bone tissue, corneas, tendons, ligaments,
还有血管都可以被移植——
and blood vessels can all be transplanted —
这虽然听起来很多
that might sound like a lot,
但其实还留有很多
but that still leaves a lot behind.
医生照顾已故的器官捐赠者
The doctors take as much care with deceased donors
就像照顾活着的病人一样
as they do with living humans,
和对待其他病人一样 在无菌手术室操作
taking the donor to a sterilized operating room like any other.
当医生摘除可用的器官和组织时
And an anesthesiologist monitors fluids and body conditions
麻醉师会监控液体和身体情况
while surgeons remove organs and tissues that can be used,
并检查是否有任何未被发现的疾病或损伤
and inspect them for any unknown disease or damage.
然后医生会将摘除下来的器官冷冻 运送给被捐赠者
They then cool them for transport to the donee.
一旦器官摘除顺利完成
Once the organs are safely removed,
死者会像其他手术一样被缝合
the person is closed like any surgery,
然后医生关闭呼吸机
and the ventilator is shut off.
死者的身体会被清洁干净 头发会被梳理好
The body is cleaned, hair is washed,
然后遗体会被归还给家属
and the body is returned to the family.
整个过程非常快 关于这个过程 有过许多传闻
Real quick, there are a lot of myths out there about this process.
捐献者可以被放入敞盖棺材 没有问题
Donors can have an open casket funeral, there’s no problem with that.
器官捐献手术的操作
Organ donation is performed
就像任何一台其他普通的手术一样
just like any other surgery.
当你进医院的那一刻
And doctors will absolutely work as hard as possible
医生们会尽可能地挽救你的生命
to save your life if you come in
无论你拥有多少适合做移植的器官
no matter how many desirable looking organs you might have.
最后 无论你多大岁数
And finally, no matter how old you are,
你的器官都是有用的
your organs can be helpful.
捐献他们的器官对人们来说是困难的
Organ donation is tough for people.
一个仍有呼吸和心跳的躯体
A breathing body with a heartbeat
很难被大多数的亲属接受它已是尸体
is difficult for many family members to accept as a cadaver.
即使你曾经登记成为一名器官捐献者
And even if you sign up to be a donor,
并以合适捐献的方式死亡
and die in a way suitable for donation,
你的家人有时也会不顾你捐赠的遗愿
your family can sometimes override that wish.
有报道说 只有千分之三的人死去之后
That said, only 3 in 1000 people die in such a way
适合捐献器官
that allows for donation.
死者必须总体健康 没有病毒感染
They have to be generally healthy, without viral infection,
并且他们必须是在医院去世的
and they have to die in the hospital sitting.
超过119000的孩子 女人 男人
Over 119,000 children, women and men
在器官捐献的等待名单上
are on the waiting list for organ donation,
并且每天有22个人死在等待移植的过程中
and 22 die each day waiting for a replacement.
毫不意外的是 很多人致力于
Unsurprisingly, lots of people are working to
劝说人们去世后捐献他们的器官
get more people to donate their organs.
《美国移植杂志》
The American Journal of Transplantation
刊登了一篇最近的研究 详述了
published a study recently detailing
西班牙如何做到每一百万人里就有四十个器官捐献者的
how Spain reached 40 donors per million people.
这是很庞大的数目
That’s huge.
在澳大利亚 每一百万人里有18个
In Australia, it’s 18 per million,
在以色列是每百万11个 厄瓜多尔每百万2个
in Israel, it’s 11, and in Ecuador, it’s 2.
感谢美国的努力
Thanks to efforts in the U.S.,
在榜单上我们的数值比较高 每一百万人里有26个捐献者
we’re pretty high on the list at 26 per million.
最后 虽然西班牙是领头羊
In the end, Spain might be in the lead,
但正真的赢家是那些当他们不再需要的时候
but the winners are the people who are willing
愿意把自己身体的一部分捐出去的人
to give up parts of themselves they no longer need,
以及那些
and the stories of those
接受了生命馈赠的人们的故事
who receive the life-saving donations.
那为什么我们还要在第一步进行器官匹配呢?
So why do we even have to match organs in the first place?
这是一个研究者团队的想法
That’s what one group of researchers’ thought,
他们弄清楚了如何从任何一个人身上
so they figured out how to donate from anyone
移植器官给另一个人
to anyone else.
Amy在这里可以讲述那个故事
Amy’s got that story right here.
如果你们喜欢有趣的鲜为人知的故事
And if you guys like interesting and obscure facts,
我知道你们喜欢
which I know you do,
可以在《你知道吗》看看我们朋友的内容
check out our friends at Did You Know
九个事实让你比别人更聪明
for nine facts that will make you smarter than everyone else.
你愿意捐献你的器官吗?
And do you plan to donate your organs?
为什么愿意或者为什么不呢?
Why or why not?
请在下面评论区留言让我们知道
Let us know down below in the comments,
还有不要忘了点赞和订阅
and don’t forget to like and subscribe for more DNews
以获取每日更多的DNews内容
every day.

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视频概述

每年都有许多人需要通过器官移植拯救生命,大部分人都死于等待途中,今天就让我们来了解为何愿意捐献器官的人那么少,还有器官捐献后会发生什么。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W_lEJsNcnWA

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