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北极圈融化与致命细菌的复活

We're melting the Arctic and reviving deadly germs

In December 2016,
2016年12月
a remote community in Siberia
西伯利亚的一个偏远地区
experienced a mysterious outbreak.
爆发了神秘疫情
experienced a mysterious outbreak.
爆发了神秘疫情
90 people were hospitalized,
90人入院治疗
and a 12-year-old boy died.
一个12岁小男孩死亡
Soon, Russian officials identified what had killed him:
不久后俄罗斯官方确认了致其死亡的元凶
The deadly infectious disease anthrax.
致命传染病 炭疽
The outbreak had started among reindeer.
该病先在驯鹿中爆发
To contain the spread,
为遏制炭疽继续传播
they burned over 2,000 reindeer carcasses.
他们焚烧了2000多头驯鹿尸体
The strange thing was,
奇怪的是
there hadn’t been an anthrax outbreak in the area for more than 70 years.
该地区已经70多年未爆发过炭疽了
So, to figure out where it came from,
为了弄清楚源头
scientists started looking underground.
科学家们展开了深入研究
We’re Melting the Arctic and Reviving Deadly Germs
北极圈融化与致命细菌的复活
In the coldest parts of the world,
在全球最冷的地方
there’s a layer of the Earth that stays frozen all year.
有一种土层终年冰冻
Every summer, the soil above it thaws,
每年夏天 上层土壤开始解冻
but this deeper layer stays hard as rock.
但是下层土壤仍然坚硬如岩石
This is permafrost.
这就是永冻层
Most permafrost is here,
大部分永冻层都在这里
in the Northern Hemisphere around the Arctic.
在北半球北极区附近
And because it never thaws,
由于永冻层从不融化
permafrost acts kind of like the freezer in your kitchen.
就像厨房里冰箱的冷冻室一样
When plants and animals here die,
这里的动植物死亡后
they don’t actually decompose.
实际上它们并未腐烂
Instead, they become preserved in the frozen earth ,
而是被封存在冻土中
like a time capsule.
就像是时间胶囊
And it’s been that way for thousands of years.
这样已经持续几千年了
But that’s changing.
但是 这一切在发生变化
Today, humans are burning carbon
现在人类燃烧碳
and making the atmosphere warmer.
使得大气层变暖
And that’s causing the permafrost to thaw and shrink.
这使得永冻层开始融化 面积减少
By 2100,
到2100年
only these areas will still have any permafrost.
只有这些地区还会存在永冻层
And that’s causing some problems.
这就会导致一些问题
When permafrost melts ,
永冻层融化后
the land above it becomes unstable,
其上方的陆地变得不稳定
which can lead to landslides.
容易导致塌方
Man-made structures start to fall apart,
由于下方的地面坍塌
as the ground underneath them collapses.
人造的建筑也开始倒塌
And dead plants and animals that had been frozen for years
冰冻多年的动植物残骸
are starting to thaw out.
开始解冻
are starting to thaw out.
开始解冻
As they’re exposed to air and bacteria,
由于暴露在空气和细菌中
this organic material starts to decompose.
这些有机物开始腐烂

That releases greenhouse gases
并释放温室气体
like carbon dioxide and methane.
如二氧化碳和甲烷
But that’s not all it releases.
但它们释放的并不仅于此
In Siberia, scientists think that the anthrax outbreak
科学家们认为西伯利亚炭疽的爆发
came from a long-dead reindeer carcass
是由于很久之前的驯鹿尸体
that thawed out along with the permafrost.
随着永冻层一起解冻造成的
Anthrax spores from the carcass would have spread across the area
尸体中的炭疽芽孢在这一区域传播
and infected reindeer grazing nearby.
污染附近的草场
And it’s not just anthrax.
除炭疽之外
Scientists worry that,
科学家还担心
as permafrost melts,
随着永冻层的融化
it could unearth all sorts of diseases
很多我们认为已经控制住的疾病
we thought we had under control.
可能会死灰复燃
35 million people live around permafrost.
现有三千五百万人住在永冻土层分布地区
But the carbon released, as permafrost melts,
随着永冻层解冻
will accelerate the impacts of climate change everywhere:
碳排放会加速对世界各地气候的影响
Rising seas, heat waves,
海平面上升 热浪来袭
droughts in some places, and floods in others.
一些地方干旱 另外一些地方发洪水
And now we can add one more thing to that list,
现在我们可以在这个影响清单里再加上一项
diseases we thought we conquered.
那就是我们认为已经征服了的疾病

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视频概述

科学家们在西伯利亚地区发现了一种致命性细菌炭疽

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

BECKY凌莉

审核员

审核员LJ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tSA5HNFBwnk

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