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Welcome To The Dirt – The Beginning of Trench Warfare I THE GREAT WAR - Week 8

1914年 9月18日
September 18th 1914
前六周里 我们回顾了战争快速推进的阶段
This week, we see the mobile and fast paced war of the past six weeks turning into something
本周战斗升级 超出人们的想象 其恐怖 致命程度远胜战争之初最血腥的战斗
never imagined that would prove more sinister and deadly than even the bloodiest battles
这一周 阵地战打响
of the war’s beginning. This week began the war in the trenches.
我是印地·奈德尔 欢迎收看《第一次世界大战》
I’m Indy Neidell. Welcome to the Great War.
本周初 德军从马恩河撤退
At the beginning of the week, the Germans were retreating from the Marne River, having
虽然遭到了英法两军的阻击 但德军还远远没有被击败
been stopped by the French and the British, but they were far from beaten, while on the
另一方面 东线的奥匈帝国军队好似一盘散沙
eastern front the Austro-Hungarian army was in disarray, retreating from the advancing
被持续推进的俄国打得节节败退 似乎即将完全溃败
Russians and seemingly on the verge of collapse.
Here’s what happened next: On September 13th, there was a meeting in
在法国 约瑟夫·霞飞将军的司令部里举行了一次会议 法国在八月遭遇惨败
France at General Joseph Joffre’s headquarters. Joffre had been in large part responsible
霞飞负有极大的责任 但现在他正因九月的捷报而大受嘉奖
for the French disasters of August, but he was now getting a lot of credit for the success
会议氛围甚为乐观 讨论的主题为
of September. The meeting was full of optimism, and what was being discussed was how long
it would take to push the Germans back across the border. Some thought four weeks, some thought
还有人认为只需三周 人们再一次觉得战斗在圣诞节前便可结束
only three. Once again, people were talking of a war that would be over by Christmas.
可是 从实际情况来看 法国军火供给不足
However, in practical terms, the French were running low on ammunition and were not really
没有好好利用德国撤退的机会 尽管英国也在进攻
able to exploit the German retreat, and though the British were also advancing, they were
但推进速度慢的可怜 德国方面 在前任总参谋长精神崩溃之后
advancing very slowly. As for the Germans, their brand new Chief of Staff Erich Falkenhayn,
来自普鲁士战争部的埃里希·法尔肯海接任其位 振奋了德军的士气
Prussian Minister of War was a shot in the arm after his predecessor’s nervous collapse.
And on September 13th, a bloody month of fighting began as the Germans stopped their retreat
on what is one of the best defensive positions in France- the Aisne River. The river itself
埃纳河约30米宽 两岸的低洼地延伸近2千米
is about 30 meters wide, with flat low-lying ground stretching out for nearly 2km on either
完全没有隐藏地点 沿河岸继续往前 一座山脊骤然耸立
side with no possibility of concealment. Then, there’s suddenly a ridge over 100m high
其高度超过百米 趋近于一座高原
that levels off to a plateau.
浓雾之中 距山脊数英里处 德军在河的北面开挖战壕
The Germans dug in on the north side of the river, a couple of miles from the ridge in
a dense forest, but commanding a huge field of fire.
同一晚 英军跨过埃纳河 在浓雾中行军
That night, the British crossed the river and advanced under a heavy fog, but in the
而当早晨浓雾散去时 英军遭遇扫射 损失惨重
morning the fog cleared and they were raked with fire and suffered heavy losses. By that
9月14日的早上 尽管他们在河北岸安营扎寨
morning of September 14th, though, they were established on the northern bank, but the
但军队状况十分糟糕 许多人一连几天没有进食 他们全身湿透 筋疲力竭
troops were in a terrible state. Many hadn’t eaten for days and they were soaked, exhausted,
整个队伍都处于德军的视野之下 情形令人堪忧 而接下来的几周里
and overlooked along the entire line by the German army. Not good. But for the next few
德军想把英军赶回河的另一边 英军则英勇奋战 最终攀上山脊
weeks they gamely struggled to mount the ridge while the Germans tried to drive them back
尽管双方每天都要损失数千人 但战斗依然僵持不下
to the river. Despite thousands of casualties each day on both sides, neither succeeded.
双方都不打算撤军 1914年9月14日
Nobody was planning on retreating though, and on September 14th 1914, British Commander
John French gave the first orders for the British to entrench. The Germans were digging
与此同时 德军也正在挖掘 这便是阵地战的开始
in as well, and this was the beginning of trench warfare.
瞧见了吗 埃纳河之战是战事转变的开端
See, the battle of the Aisne was the start of something different. The British troops
在埃纳河作战的英军称 这场战斗的惨烈程度远超早期在蒙斯或卡托的战斗
who fought there reported that it was far worse than the earlier battles at Mons or
原因很简单 战斗持续时间太长 好似永无止尽
Le Cateau, for the simple reason that the battle was so interminably long, and this
这正是此种新型作战方式的本质 战斗不再只持续一个下午
was very much the nature of the new style of warfare- battles no longer lasted an afternoon,
而是一连打上几个星期 炮火持续不断
but could go on uninterrupted for weeks, with artillery barrages lasting for hours and hours,
and the only way for a man to survive in this war was to make himself invisible, digging
挖掘战壕 藏入其中
himself into the ground.
没有人事先为挖战壕做过准备 尽管德军有铁锹
Nobody was really prepared for digging trenches, though- the Germans had spades, which they
可以挖掘藏匿单人的小洞 躲避炮火
used to dig small holes for individuals when under artillery fire, but the German equipment
但德军所有装备的制定完全依照作战计划 即快速进行的运动战
was all designed to fit German battle plans- which involved a highly mobile war that could
能在数周时间内取得胜利 不过德军确实很快适应了阵地战
be won in a matter of weeks. They did adapt fairly quickly, though, producing things like
为此专门造出了枪榴弹这样的新型武器 还有潜望镜 喇叭裤之类的隐蔽物
rifle grenades and converting things like periscopes and flares for trench warfare.
起初 战壕不是很深 也不相互连接
Initially, the trenches were not connected in trench lines and were not particularly
但很快战壕便不断升级 前线部队可以住在带有仓库的地下宿舍
deep, but they soon became more and more advanced. Front line troops would live in underground
仓库位于墙体之内 面朝敌军 这样他们就不会被炮轰
dorms with storehouses that were built into the wall facing the enemy so they couldn’t
此外还有通讯沟 用于撤退的后备沟
be shelled. There were communication trenches, backup trenches in case of retreat, eventually
最终一条完整的壕沟贯穿整个战线 交战双方通常只相隔100米
a whole network across the entire front- with enemies that were often only 100 meters apart.
对于9月16日突现的新局势 法军司令官弗伦奇这样描述
Commander French described the suddenly new situation on September 16th as “a stalemate
僵局对我们有利 但他也意识到在这场战斗中
in our favor but he realized and said even then that
in this war, a spade was as useful as a rifle.
战斗激烈进行了一个月 西线陷入僵局
But stalemate it was in the west; as the battle raged on day after day for a month. The weather
此外天气糟糕透顶 两军士气低落 但如果他们知道自己实际上还要这样再战四年
was abysmal and spirits on both sides were at a low, but think how much lower they may
have been had they known that the front at which they were fighting would remain virtually
战场东面 双方依然僵持不下
unchanged for the next four years. In the east, though, it was anything but a stalemate.
到9月中旬 德军意识到他们必须行动起来援助奥匈帝国
By mid September, the Germans realized they had to do something to save Austria-Hungary’s bacon.
German General Ludendorff went to visit the Austrian army Chief of Staff Conrad von Hotzendorf.
康拉德是整场战争的总规划师之一 尽管事实证明
Conrad was one of the chief architects of the whole war, though he proved to be a terrible
他的领导能力相当差劲 但他依然得设法说服鲁登道夫奥军处于十分不利的局面
leader, but still he managed to convince Ludendorff that the Austrian army was in such a terrible
因为奥军一直在牵制俄军 以便德军可与法军作战
state because they’d been holding off the Russians so the Germans could tackle the French.
康拉德的军队确实情况不佳 他们已损失了500000名士兵
And Conrad’s army was indeed in a terrible state; they’d already lost 500,000 men,
其中100000人被俘 足足120000人躲进了位于喀尔巴阡山山坡的普热梅斯要塞
100,000 of them captured and the army was shutting itself in to the fortress of Przemsyl
of the slopes of the Carpathians with 120,000 men. You’d think it would have collapsed
普热梅斯要塞会毫无例外地土崩瓦解 但泥土层实在太厚
as all the other fortresses did to modern artillery, but the mud was too thick there
to get artillery into place.
再来看看东面战场 可以说完全是一场后勤灾难
The war in the east, though, was really a logistical catastrophe. The space to cover
战场覆盖面太广 而通信又是如此的糟糕 之后的秋雨把一切都变为了泥土
was so large and communications so awful, then the autumn rains came and turned everything
有太多的士兵需要输送 而铁路运力却十分有限
to mud. There weren’t enough railways and there were just too many men to supply. In
在一些部队里 只有前线士兵才配给步枪 前线士兵阵亡后
some units, only the men in the very front had rifles, and you had to wait until someone
was killed before you could get one.
不过他们有的是人 俄军肯定是有的 而且数以百万计
But they had men. Certainly Russia did- men by the millions. Over in the west, though,
战场西面 英军的主要问题之一是 相较于法军或德军
one of the main British problems had been that her army was very small compared to those
英军的部队规模非常小 但英国前不久才开展了史上最著名的征兵运动之一
of France or Germany, but Britain had just engaged in one of the most famous advertising campaigns in history
9月12日 英国宣布仅仅六周内 已有478000人志愿参军
…and on September 12th, Britain announced that in in only six weeks 478,000 men had
其他欧洲陆军都强制征兵 但英军不想这么做
volunteered. She had managed to raise an army without any of the mandatory service the continental
然而 这也给英军带来了一些问题
armies all used. However, there were some issues with that army. Professional British
受过专业训练的英军对新兵的质量感到绝望 战争至今 一直用滑稽这样的词来形容新兵
soldiers despaired of the quality of the new units, going so far as calling them ridiculous
他们还指出 德国启用征兵制度 艰辛付出40年
and pointing out that it had taken the Germans 40 years of hard work and conscription to
create their army.
One curiosity of the new recruits is that they were mostly formed of “pals battalions”
组成“同党阵营” 这样的编排让新兵们感到疑惑
which were entirely people from the same town or the same profession. This led to a little
顺便说明一下 当时英国人忽略了某个细节
side note- the British didn’t think at the time that without units being geographically
即如果部队组成的地域分布太过集中 那么一天内的某一场战斗之后
mixed, the entire male population of a whole town could be wiped out in a day in a single
一个地方可能失去其所有的男性 英国人终将痛苦地意识到这一点
battle. They would learn this the hard way.
1914年的这一周里 战事转变如此之快是及其罕见的
Rarely has a mood changed in war as quickly as it did on the western front this week in
本周初 随着德军从马恩河撤退
1914. At the beginning of this week, optimism was high in the British and French armies
英法两军情绪高涨 而在各方军队到达埃纳河之后 一切都变了
as the Germans retreated from the Marne, but this was before the armies all reached the
战壕出现 持续数周的战斗和接连不断的炮轰也开始了
Aisne, entrenchment began, and the war of weeks long continuous battles and bombardments began.
本周即将结束之际 我们可以看到军队的质量和创造性
What we see by the end of the week, is that the quality and ingenuity of the armies was
正节节攀升 即使死亡人数也在增多 尽管所有的新发明都旨在提供优势
increasing, even as the death toll mounted, but in spite of all the new advances designed
但双方谁也没捞到好处 快速取胜的战争一去不复返了
to give an advantage, none was gained by either side, and the war of rapid victories was over
东西两线 泥土中的战斗毫无进展 令人痛苦不堪
for good. The excruciating stagnant war in the mud had begun on both the Western and
Eastern Fronts. It would remain in the mud for the next four years.
如果你才刚开始收看我们的节目 想知道战事的起因
If you just joined our show and you wonder how the whole thing started.
Check out our three prelude to war specials
and our very first episode right here.
想要持续跟进100年前的这场战争 请在推特上关注我们
For more updates on the events 100 years ago, follow us on Twitter.



一战进入到了费时费力的阵地战,士兵们苦不堪言。各方军队该如何调整作战计划?且看本期《The Great War》