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零工时代,我们正在经历什么?

Wealth inequality is literally killing us. The economy should work for everyone. | Alissa Quart

我在《Squeezed》这本书中采访过的一些人说
So, for some of the people I interviewed in Squeezed,
当他们遭遇经济困境时
when they were going through economic hardship,
他们生理上会出现不适
they would get sick physically,
心理上也会饱受折磨
they would be psychologically troubled,
他们不得不服用抗焦虑药
they’d have to go on anti-anxiety medications,
有时他们甚至没有医疗保险
sometimes they wouldn’t even have healthcare,
因此抗焦虑药就成了额外开支
so that would be an added expense.
一些受访者可能经历过那种所谓的“决策疲劳”
some of the subjects might experience something called “decision fatigue”
他们无法在生活中做出决定或者选择
where they’d be unable to make decisions or choices in their lives,
哪怕是基本的选择
basic choices.
因为他们已经被经济的不稳定感压垮
Because they’ve been so overwhelmed by the feeling of economic uncertainty.
成日萦绕在他们脑中的是“我要怎么活下去”
They were thinking constantly ‘how do I survive?’
而不是“我怎样才能生活得更好?”
rather than ‘how do I lead a better life?’
或是“我如何让孩子受到最好的教育?”
or ‘how do I get my kid on the best course? ‘
这种现象非常常见
And so that’s a commonplace, some sort of,
当你缺乏资源的时候 你会不知所措
just that overwhelmed aspect when you don’t have resources
你所能想到的只有这些
That’s all you’re thinking about.
在零工经济时代找工作的人面临的挑战之一是
One of the challenges for people seeking employment in a gig economy
他们是可抛弃的 对吧
is that they’re disposable, right?
他们随时会被别人取代
They can always be replaced by somebody else.
他们可能和优步或来福公司的其他员工没有任何关系
They may not have relationships with another human-being at Uber or at Lyft, whatever.
我们可以说这是一种独立自主
Supposedly it’s this idea of independence
但实际上这更像是自生自灭
but it’s often like in fact this kind of free-floating quality
他们没有明确的老板或同事
Where they’re not clearly connected to a boss or colleagues.
我认为这样是十分危险的
And I think that can be really dangerous,
因为他们的雇主
because then these people’s experiences
并不会有人情味地看待他们的经历
are not humanized to the people who are hiring them
他们不过是一颗无关紧要的螺丝钉罢了
they’re just cogs in wheels
我们真的应该开始思考这一点
and we should really start thinking about that
因为我认为他们真的很脆弱
because I think they can be really debilitating.
我在书中的一个章节里提到了开优步的老师
I talk about teachers who drive Uber in a chapter
其中不少人都是被公司雇佣的
and I think for many of them they were recruited by the company,
四五年前 他们有一条座右铭
they had a motto four or five years ago.
优步——教师引领我们的未来
“ Uber—teachers driving our future ”
教师和护士作为中产阶级的代表 对优步来说很有吸引力
So teachers and nurses were attractive to Uber simply as middle class icons,
但他们的吸引力
but they weren’t attractive enough to, you know
不足以让社区中的教育工作者
the people in their community who were teaching
或者社区中的政治家给他们发工资
or the politicians in their community to give them a wage
让他们不用当兼职优步司机
so they wouldn’t have to drive Uber on the side.
所以对我来说 这也是零工经济的一种风险
So to me that’s one of the dangers of the gig economy too
以前的中产阶级可以当做零工经济的一个标志
that the formerly middle class can be used just as a symbol
他们可以为公司带来一丝体面
and a kind of respectability that they can be offering companies
但是这些曾经稳定的工作仍在寻找更好剥削的老实人
While they’re kind of riffling through these once-stable professions
所以他们还是有可能会被换掉
for solid people that they can exploit.
我写过的很多人不在组织或企业工作
Many of the people I wrote about are not in organizations or even in corporations,
他们是临时工 也就是做兼职工作的合同工人
are contingent, which means that they work part time, on contract
他们打的是零工 我们现在很多人都这样
they work gigs, which is now a huge amount of the population
还有些人因为工作时长太短 很难被算作是正式员工
or they work too-few hours to be counted as employees
虽然我不能肯定
So you know, I’m not sure,
但是大多时候 这是组织的问题
it becomes an organizational thing most of the time
但就像我们在
but in terms of what we’re doing
“经济困难报告计划”中做的
at Economic Hardship Reporting Project
我们尽量给陷入困境的记者们一些钱
we’re trying to pay journalists who have fallen on hard times
一个字一美元 并且报销支出
a dollar a word plus expenses.
这只能说是一个帮他们维持生活的方式
And that’s just like one small way to keep them afloat
你知道吗
You know we have people writing for us
我们有些撰稿人没有暖气
who were living without heat
靠着政府的食品救济券和医疗保险活着
on food stamps, on government medical care
他们真的是在苦苦挣扎
They were really struggling.
最近我注意到了一件有趣的事
And that this is one thing that I’ve noticed has been interesting lately
我把他们称作白领型劳工
I call them sort of white collar alt-labor
就好比是为记者而设的白领工会
this is like white collar unions, almost for journalists,
以前 其他员工都可以加入
for other employees in the past
不是只有已加入工会的自由业记者才能加入
who’re not necessarily unionized freelance journalists
我们只能做到一部分
And what we’re doing is part of that,
但是还有很多其它问题在不停地出现
but there’s all sorts of other things cropping up.
我写过照顾者合作社
There are collectives for caregivers that I’ve written about,
他们在一起工作
so they’re sort of working together,
他们拥有一些应用
they’re owning the apps where they rent out
并通过这些应用提供房屋清洁和保姆服务
where they try to get customers for housecleaning or nannying
所以我在想 组织到底能做些什么?
And so I think, what can organizations do
组织可以试着向有困难的职工
Organizations can try to empower their poor workers
提供一些资源
by giving them resources,
包括经济上的资源和公司自己的内部资源
both economic and from the companies themselves
比如应用 可以让员工们拥有部分所有权
for instance, like an app that they themselves would own a part of
而不是全部由公司独占
rather than just simply the company owning the app
然后由工人们仅仅充当完成任务的小角色
and the worker just this teeny piece of teeny “ task rabbit
相反 他们会成为应用的一部分
They would instead be a part of the app.
我认为我们也可以考虑合作社模式
Cooperatives is another way I think
尤其是基于互联网的合作社
that we can start to think about that especially, web-based cooperatives.
那很重要
That’s becoming really important
因为财富在不断地聚集
given the concentration of wealth.
仅有极少数人拥有这样的公司
where we have a teeny number of people owning these companies,
而成千上万的人在为他们工作
And just hundreds of thousands of people working for them,
为他们开车 打扫房屋等等
driving Uber, cleaning houses, etc.
我们可以从那些享有数字经济红利的人
We can start talking about people owning a share of the digital economy
以及他们所从事的零工谈起
and the gig work that they are doing.

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在零工时代我们应该如何破局

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rR5gViXEOxo

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