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家用自来水里含有多少铅?

We tested NYC water for lead and the results were confounding

Under New York City, 6,800 miles of pipes carry more than 1 billion gallons of water
每天有超过10亿加仑的水 从偏远的水库
from distant reservoirs to city faucets every day.
通过6800英里的地下管道 进入到纽约千家万户
Most of those pipes are made out of iron and steel,
这些管道大部分是钢铁材质
but some of them are still made out of lead.
有些则是由铅制成
It’s really easy stuff to make pipes out of but it’s also toxic for humans.
铅制水管工艺简单 但对人体有害
The city has made a lot of progress in reducing the number of lead pipes.
纽约市做了大量工作以减少铅管的使用
But they still exist,
但有一些建筑仍在使用铅管
and they can be a big problem for people living here.
对于这些住户而言 铅管是个大问题
A lot of us here at the Verge live in New York City
我们公司很多同事都住在纽约
and some of us live in buildings
其中一些人就住在
where lead might still be a problem.
可能铺设有铅管的建筑物里
So we’re going to find out,
因此我们打算弄明白
why leading water is such bad news,
为什么含铅水这么可怕
and what it takes to find out if you are being exposed.
如何了解是否曝露在含铅水的危害中
The first one though that’s suspect.
第一份水样看起来很可疑
I think what made Flint so alarming
我认为让弗林特市民如此担心的原因是
is that we have laws to protect us from lead and those laws were broken.
保护市民远离铅危害的法律被废除了
And folks were told
市政当局告诉人们
their water was safe across the city where it was not
生活用水是安全的 但情况并非如此
That’s Marc Edwards,
这是Marc Edwards
a professor of civil engineering at Virginia Tech
弗吉尼亚理工大学的土木工程教授
He helped bring the issues of drinking water
他曾在2014年向国家提出
in Flint Michigan to national attention in 2014.
密歇根州弗林特市的生活用水问题
The EPA had everything to do with creating Flint
联邦环境保护署已经尽力解决这个问题了
In Flint this all started when the city switched water suppliers as a cost-saving measure.
起初 弗林特市为了节省开支 更换了自来水公司
The new water was more corrosive,
新的供水比之前的腐蚀性更强
and as it passed into people’s homes, it ate away at the lead pipes and solder
在输送的过程中 自来水侵蚀了铅管和焊料
putting lead into the water supply.
铅溶进了水里
Flint is currently in the last legs of an effort
目前该市正在尽最后的努力
to replace all of the lead service lines in the city
更换仍在使用的所有铅管
which should be done by the middle of 2019
这项工程将在2019年年中完成
But while Flint got hit the most dramatically
尽管弗林特用最戏剧性的方式解决了问题
other cities also have this problem.
但其它城市也存在这种问题
The water quality of New York City’s water supply is a point of pride
对860万居民来说
for the city’s 8.6 million residents.
纽约市的水质是一种骄傲
And for most of them their water is just fine
经过数千英里的管道输送
even after traveling thousands of miles through pipes.
大部分市民的生活用水仍是安全的
But sometimes even clean New York City water
但有时 干净的纽约供水
can start corroding lead piping just like what happened in Flint.
也会发生像弗林特市那样腐蚀铅管的问题
Most of the distribution pipes have been updated,
虽然大多数输水管己经更新升级
but in a city as big as New York, some things fall through the cracks.
但在纽约这样大的城市 也难免有监管漏洞
And regulation doesn’t cover every case.
监管总是会有疏漏
According to federal law,
根据联邦法规定
a given area isn’t considered unsafe
只有超过10%的居民生活用水水样
until more than 10 percent of residential water samples
检测出铅含量超过环保局规定的标准
test above the EPA’s recommended lead levels.
才会被认定为生活用水非安全区域
That threshold hasn’t been met in New York,
纽约在安全范围内
but even a small percentage
但就算是很小的比例
can still mean a lot of affected buildings,
也意味着很多居民楼会受到影响
which leaves residents to just wonder
这让市民们惴惴不安
The real problem with lead is
铅污染这类问题
it’s a shared responsibility model,
由多个市政部门共同管理
meaning the water company can’t get the lead out of your house.
这说明供水公司无法保证你家中没有铅污染
In a city like New York
像纽约这样的城市
5 percent of the homes probably have some pretty dangerous levels of lead
大概有5%的家庭生活用水 铅含量严重超标
and it’s up to you as the consumer to try to figure that out.
这需要靠用户自己设法去检测
So if it’s on us to figure it all out, let’s try it.
要靠我们自己去检测 那就试试吧
[jazz piano music]
[爵士钢琴乐]
First we put out a call to colleagues and friends
首先我们打电话给可能会碰到
who might have at-risk water
生活用水铅超标的同事或朋友
We focused on areas that the government has flagged as higher risk
我们重点关注那些被政府标记过的高危区域
A recent study warned against the smaller older buildings
最近的一项研究对小型老旧建筑发出了警告
especially those built in the 1920s and 1930s.
特别是建于上世纪20 30年代的房子
Lead pipes and soldering weren’t banned until 1986.
直到1986年 铅管和焊料才被禁止使用
So housing much newer than that could be suspect, too.
所以早于1986年建的房子也值得怀疑
A couple of our samples came from the Bedford-Stuyvesant and river build neighborhoods
我们的部分样本来自贝德福德—史蒂文森和滨江建筑物
which the study specifically call that
这些区域都是研究特别提到的
Finding leading drinking water is tricky
检测饮用水铅含量是一件棘手的事情
because old buildings could had their pipes replaced.
因为老旧建筑可能已经更换了水管
So it’s hard to predict whether yours is at risk.
所以很难推断水管是否被污染
Plus water laden with lead can look smell and taste
况且含铅的水不论是看 闻 喝
exactly the same as water without the metal.
都跟正常的水没有任何区别
So contamination is rarely obvious.
铅污染真的很难被察觉
But tests are available.
但是实验室检测是可行的
We’re starting out with a test
现在开始检测
that doesn’t actually measure the amount of lead
现在检测水样是否含铅
just whether or not it’s present.
而不是检测铅的含量
But that will give us a better idea of where to look.
这是一个很好的检测方向
Really any amount is scary
不管有多少含铅量都很可怕
because lead sticks around once it gets into the body,
因为它们只要进入身体
It builds up in people’s bones over time.
就会在人的骨骼里累积
And it can affect the brain nervous system and kidneys.
影响大脑 神经系统和肾脏
It is particularly dangerous to children because they’re smaller.
对小孩来说尤其危险 因为他们年龄更小
So smaller amounts can dramatically impact their development,
就算是少量的铅也会影响他们的生长发育
lead adversely affects every organ system of human body.
对身体器官产生不利影响
It’s particularly bad for young children, developing fetuses, pregnant mothers.
铅尤其对青少年 发育中的胎儿和孕妇不利
That will mess you up.
铅会把你搞得一团糟
But it’s not going to get into your skin,
但铅不会渗透皮肤
which is why experts recommend you test at a kitchen sink and not your shower.
这就是专家建议从厨房水槽而不是从浴室取样测试的原因
Of the eight tests we did, one looked like a definite yes for lead.
我们的8份测试水样中 有一份看起来是绝对含铅的
That water came from friends living in Bedford-Stuyvesant in Brooklyn.
含铅水样取自 住在布鲁克林贝德福德史蒂文森的朋友
A few others were inconclusive.
其它水样尚未确定
We really couldn’t tell whether they were positive or negative.
我们无法确定其它水样是否含铅
We decided to retest our sample from Bed-Stuy and another maybe using a fancier test.
所以我们决定采用另一种更好的方法重测水样
For this one you send the sample off to an outside lab
这种方法是直接把这份水样送到外部实验室
and get more details and results back.
检测更多的细节和结果
We weren’t there for the collection.
我们没去现场取样
so we asked our friends to film it on their phones for us
所以就让朋友用手机拍了一个小视频
The samples we’re using for this test are called first draw,
这次测试的水样被称为初样
meaning you collect the water first thing in the morning
初样要确保采集的水是
after it’s been sitting undisturbed in your pipes all night.
第二天一早流出水管的水
That’ll tell you the most about the lead content in your building’s pipes.
这样的水最容易测出是否含铅
If you wanted to test the pipes leading to your building,
如果要检测水管中的水是否含铅
you’d flush your own pipes first by running your tap for 30 seconds.
应先打开水龙头 等待水持续流出30秒后再采集
We sent both samples out and we waited.
两份水样已经送出去了 就让我们静等结果吧
In the meantime we learned something concerning,
与此同时 我们了解了一些相关的信息
Marc Edwards has been studying all of the available at-home test kits,
Marc Edwards研究过所有家用测试设备
like the while-you-wait test we used.
比如之前用过的快速测试设备
And his early results are not promising.
结果并不理想
I think I can tell you right now
我想我现在可以告诉你
that I would not use those tests with confidence,
我也没有信心用这些设备
that they do have an error rate.
因为它们有一定的出错率
And that many times when you use them
用设备检测多次
you could have high lead in that sample and it will tell you your water’s safe.
会得出水样含铅量很高 但同时又显示水是安全的
The lab tests are more safe,
实验室测试更可靠一点
but they only tell you how much lead is in your water at that one moment in time.
但测试结果只会显示此时此刻 水样的含铅量
So even if you get a low test result,
如果你使用的是铅管
if you have lead pipes, lead could easily break off
即使检测的含铅量很低 铅很容易被忽略
and enter your water supply in the future.
铅仍会渗入以后的生活用水中
And what good is testing?
那测试的好处是什么?
How frequently are you going to get a low sample one time
你要多久进行一次水样检测
and fool yourself into thinking your water’s safe?
用检测结果欺骗自己 认为自家的水很安全?
In those cases especially if you’re vulnerable
这种情况下 尤其是你身体不好
and you want to protect yourself against that lead,
你希望保护自己远离铅污染
we know that one test is not adequate anymore.
只检测一次样品是远远不够的
So the question is is it even worth it to test?
那么问题是 真的值得测试吗
Should you just assume it’s unsafe?
还是你直接假设它不安全吗?
Should you test it five times 10 times?
你需要要检测5次 10次吗?
At what point can you have confidence?
得到哪种结果你才会放心?
It’s a real can of worms.
问题真是令人头大
So it’s hard to know
真的很难弄明白
what lessons we should even learn from our tests.
从检测试验中我们得到了什么
And as an added twist the lab results came back with a surprise for us.
扭曲的实验结果让我们感到震惊
Both tests were basically negative
两次测试结果都不大好
are maybe sample contained lead at a very low one part per billion
可能样品中铅含量 大概只有十亿分之一
and our positive sample had no measurable lead at all.
而结果却显示检测不到铅
We were pretty surprised so we called the lab back.
我们特别震惊 所以打电话给实验室
This is a little bit strange
这真的有点奇怪
because when we did this test
我们做这个检测
with some initial kind of while-you-wait tests,
是和最原始的快速测试的方法一起做的
it came back with kind of a positive result
快速测试的结果显示
that showed that lead was there.
水样中是有铅的
Why might that have happened?
这到底是怎么了?
We often call these test strips ‘random color generators’,
我们经常把快速测试称为“随机测试”
because we have done our best to make sense of them ourselves,
因为我们真的是尽全力来做这个事情了
and often times they seem completely arbitrary in what they produce.
有时候 检测结果是随机产生的
There are false positives and there are also false negatives.
有错误的 也有正确的
The lead can possibly hide from the strip.
铅可能就隐藏在这些随机性当中
What kind of advice would you give for someone
对于十亿分之一发现水有问题的人
who found one part per billion in their water?
你能给他们一些建议吗?
My recommendation to anyone who detects lead in their water is
我建议任何在水里检测到铅的市民
to assume that it could be much worse than actually detected right?
要做好比实际检测结果更坏的打算
Because it could be 6:30 on a Monday that you took the sample,
因为你可能在周一早上6点30分采样
but for whatever kind of local reasons are defining your personal local environment
也可能在铅含量多一些的周三早上取样
maybe on Wednesdays the lead is much more exposed
不管是什么原因 都取决于你当时取样的环境
and so you have 10 part per billion.
即十亿分之一的可能性
So always assume the worst You have nothing to lose.
考虑最坏的结果 不会损失什么
Buying these treatment products is fairly inexpensive
买这些设备也很便宜
and easy to do and they give you a great sense of security.
操作也很方便 会给你带来极大的安全感
For the record a $30 water filter
准确地说 30美元买个过滤器
is cheaper than the lab test we bought.
比实验室测试还便宜
So in lots of scenarios
所以在众多建议中
that may be the best option for dealing with suspect water.
这是处理不放心水源的最好选择
The takeaway from all of this is that the problem will not go away on its own.
事实上 问题不会自动解决
So as long as we have any lead infrastructure,
只要我们发现任何铺设铅管的建筑
we’re going to keep wondering.
我们都要持怀疑态度
[light music]
[轻音乐]
Hey everyone Thanks for watching episode two of Trial and Error.
嗨 非常感谢各位观看试错法第二期
We did let everyone know the results of the tests.
测试结果大家都知道了
and hopefully our friend in Kensington
希望肯辛顿的朋友们
will get a water filter or take more tests.
能买个过滤器 或者多做测试
to figure out where the lead is coming from.
找出铅的来源
If you like this video, be sure to check out the others on our channel
如果喜欢这期节目 一定要看我们的其它视频
and don’t forget to like and subscribe.
不要忘记点赞和订阅哟

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视频概述

关于美国一些地方自来水中含铅量的一个调查和测试,以及我们在日常生活中怎麽样保护自己尽量不受铅的水的危害。

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翻译译者

悟舟

审核员

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vwrv34lBgVo

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