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关于阿尔兹海默症我们也许全错了 – 译学馆
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关于阿尔兹海默症我们也许全错了

We Might Be Totally Wrong About Alzheimer’s

开场乐
[♪ INTRO ]
科学家们对阿尔兹海默症的认识可能完全是错的
Scientists might be completely wrong aboutAlzheimer’s.
在美国 阿兹海默症是死亡的主因之一
It’s among the leading causes of death
但尽管经过数十年的研究
in the U.S., but despite decades of study, doctors
医生还是不知道如何延缓神经变性
still don’t know how to slow the progression
以及痴呆的过程
of neurodegeneration and dementia, let alone
更不用说消灭它
stop it.
那可能是因为
And that might be because,
根据昨天《神经元》杂志发表的一项研究显示
according to a massive study published yesterday in the journal Neuron,
关于阿尔兹海默症起因的主流理论的假设是错误的
the prevailing hypothesis of how thedisease starts is wrong.
原因可能不完全是蛋白质堆积
Maybe it’s not all about protein buildup.
也可能涉及病毒
Maybe there are viruses, too.
如果这些发现与进一步的审查相悖 一切都将改变
And if the findings hold up against further scrutiny, that could change everything.
关于阿尔兹海默症起因的主流观点是瀑布假说
The most popular idea for how Alzheimer’s starts is the amyloid cascade hypothesis.
该理论表面
It says the disease stems
病症起因是β-淀粉样的蛋白生产过剩或者堆积
from the overproduction or accumulation of proteins called beta-amyloid,
在大脑中凝结成斑块
which clump together into plaques in the brain.
这些斑块形成纤维蛋白缠结
These plaques lead to the formation of tangles
最终造成
of fibrous tau proteins, and ultimately cause
神经元的衰亡
the death of neurons.
问题是
The trouble is,
多年来制药公司一直在研制减少淀粉样蛋白
pharmaceutical companies have been cooking up drugs that reduce amyloid-beta
或者清除斑块的药物
production or clear out plaques for years,
但没有一种药物能阻止或者延缓这种疾病
and none of them have stopped or slowed the disease in people.
因此此前研究人员就决定
So the researchers behind yesterday ’ s study decided to come
从不同的角度来解决问题
at the problem from a different angle.
而不是紧盯淀粉
Instead of starting with amyloids or any other idea
或者其他关于疾病是如何开始或发展的观点
about how the disease starts or progresses,
他们使用数学模型
they used mathematical models.
这个方法的优势是
The upside of this approach is
他们不需要假设发生了什么 相反
that it doesn ’ t require assumptions about what ’ s happening. Instead,
它依赖于大量有关数据
it relies on massive amounts of data about everything,
从基因
from the genes and their
和所有可视症状的基因表达水平上
expression levels all the way to visible symptoms of the disease,
来解释其中的奥妙
to explain what ’ s going on.
这种方法需要大量数据
This method takes a lot of data,
他们可以通过“Brain Banks”—从自愿死后为研究献身的人
and they were able to get it through brain banks — collections of brain tissue samples
身上收集大脑组织样本
from people who elected to donate their brains for research after they died.
因为他们想了解阿尔兹海默症的起因
Because they wanted to spot things that initiate Alzheimer ’ s,
科学家将健康的大脑组织
the scientists compared healthy
与那些从有斑块和缠结
brain tissue to those from people who had plaques and tangles
但是还没有病状的
in their brains but didn ’ t
大脑组织作比
have symptoms yet.
因此他们有这种疾病
So they had the disease,
但这是更早时候的事了
but it was early on—that way, the team wouldn ’ t be misled
那样 研究小组就不会被这种疾病导致的病症误导了
by things that happen in the brain later as a result of the disease.
他们还专门研究了
And they specifically looked for networks
表现十分不同的早期阿尔兹海默症和健康大脑的基因网络
of genes that were behaving very differently in these early Alzheimer ’ s brains and healthy controls,
和导致差异的基因推手
and for the genes that were driving those differences.
结果发现许多基因都是
Turns out, many of these genes were also ones
在你感染了病毒后激活或者消失的
that get dialed up or down when you ’ re infected
因此
with a virus. So,
更令他们吃惊的是 它们驱动方式的数据涉及到了病毒
much to their surprise, their data-drivenapproach implicated viruses.
虽然这看起来不可能
And while that might seem out of left field,
但病毒导致阿尔兹海默症的说法
the idea that microbes might be behind Alzheimer ’ s
并不是什么新鲜事
isn ’ t new — in fact,
事实上 这种说法至少已经存在半个世纪了
it ’ s been around for at least half a century.
一些科学家已经注意到病毒感染与阿尔兹海默症之间的关联
Some scientists have noticed links betweenvarious infections and Alzheimer’s disease,
就像在动物模型中一些感染
like that some infections can cause plaques to form
可能造成了斑块
in animal models, or that certain
在患病的大脑中通常病毒更频繁出现
microbes show up more often in diseased brains.
对于他们提出的替代模型
These links were compelling enough
这些联系是有够吸引眼球的:
for them to propose an alternate model for Alzheimer’s:
病原体假设 也就是说斑块仅仅是
the pathogen hypothesis, which says the plaques are just part
疾病的一部分 而不是成因
of the disease — not the cause.
但是这种观点在此领域还没有引起很大关注
But the idea hasn’t gotten much tractionin the field.
所以一旦研究团队从新研究中发现了与病毒的联系
So as soon as the team from this new study saw a connection to viruses,
他们就知道
they knew they
他们应该深入研究了
had to dig a little deeper.
他们审查了超过600个大脑样本
They checked for evidence of more
来自四个不同脑区域的500多种病毒
than 500 viruses in four different brain regions in over 600 brain samples.
结果表明 阿尔兹海默症患者的大脑中提高的
The results showed that two viruses in particular,
人类疱疹病毒类型的两种病毒尤其明显
which were types of human herpes viruses, were elevated in Alzheimer’s brains.
尽管名字如此 这些却不是
Despite the name, these aren ’ t the viruses
生殖器疱疹病毒 而是
behind genital herpes, and instead are most
而是跟红疹类似的
closely related to the strain behind roseola,
常见于青少年中皮疹和发烧时
a rash and fever common in young children.
他们也从其他的大脑库中也筛过
They screened brains from other brain banks,
超过900个大脑样本
too—more than 900 brains all together—and
这些阿尔兹海默症患者大脑也有很多这些病毒
those Alzheimer brains also had lots of theseviruses.
但是他们的工作没有完成
But they weren’t done.
就其本身来说 他们收集的数据只是另一种关联
By itself, the data they’d gathered wasjust another correlation.
它可能没有任何意义
It might not mean anything.
所以他们做了大量测试来检测
So they did a bunch of tests to see
证据的可信度 总的来说
if the evidence, as a whole, was consistent with
是否与病毒在阿尔兹海默症中起作用的观点一致
the idea that these viruses could play a role
确实如此
in Alzheimer ’ s—and it was.
人们的大脑从这些病毒中
The more genetic material people had in their brains
获得的基因材料越多
from these viruses, the more severe
病情就越严重
the disease was.
研究团队还发现
The team also found that certain small differences
在人们DNA中 某些微小的差异可能使病毒
in people ’ s DNA might be allowing the viruses
造成更大的伤害
to do more damage.
换句话说 他们认为
In other words, in their view,
那些患阿尔兹海默症风险最高的人
those at highest risk for Alzheimer ’ s are likely to be people
可能是那些有一定遗传倾向结合病毒感染的人
who have certain genetic predispositions combinedwith a viral infection.
他们甚至在老鼠身上做试验
They even tried an experiment on mice where they removed one
他们去除了这些病毒中的
of the genes turned down
一种基因的表达
by one of these viruses,
这导致了大脑斑块的增加
and that led to an increase in brain plaques. So,
因此这个研究小组做了很多调查
the team did a lot of investigating,
这些结果表明
and the results strongly suggest that viruses
病毒至少在一定程度上导致了这种疾病
are at least partially to blame for the disease.
但值得重点关注的是这并不是因果关系的证明
But it’s important to note that this isn’tproof of causation.
研究者清楚的知道这一点
The researchers were very clear about that.
因此现在就向疱疹病毒宣战
So it ’ s way too early to declare war
来对抗阿尔兹海默症为时太早
on herpes viruses to fight Alzheimer ’ s.
例如 这可能有奇怪的副作用发生
For example, this might be a weird side effect
因为阿尔兹海默症莫名其妙的
that happens because Alzheimer ’ s somehow
很容易在早期让人们大脑感染
makes people more susceptible to brain infectionsreally early on. Or,
或者相关病毒可能莫名其妙的
it ’ s possible that the viruses are involved somehow
让症状变得更糟糕
in making symptoms worse, but aren ’ t
但是并不是疾病真正的诱因
the actual trigger of the disease. Basically,
基本上 有很多证据暗示在某种程度上
there are a lot of hints that viruses might be to blame
病毒可能是罪魁祸首
in some capacity, but it ’ s
但是还不清楚临床上如何解释
not clear how this translates clinically.
无论如何 情况都趋于复杂
No matter what, the full picture is goingto be complicated.
阿兹海默症的产生和发展有多诱因
It ’ s entirely possible
这是有可能的
that what we call Alzheimer ’ s is triggered or progresses in
因此病毒可能涉及到了一些病例
multiple ways — so the viruses could be involved in some cases but not others.
也有可能是人免疫系统的问题
And maybe the person’s immune system matters,too.
不管怎样 这个新研究意味着科学家有很多东西要考虑
Either way, this new study means scientists have a lot to think about.
自从研究者
And since the researchers stumbled
使用无偏方法偶然发现了与病毒的联系
upon the viral link using an unbiased method, it may
这可能说服怀疑者 为如临床试验等的筹得资金
win over enough skeptics to get funding for more experiments, like a clinical trial.
这可能是
And that just might lead to a whole new way
一种全新思考阿尔兹海默症的方法
of thinking about Alzheimer ’ s—and eventually,
并且最终阻止或者治好它
ways to prevent or treat it.
感谢观看这期的SciShow视频
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow!
特别感谢我们的Space总裁
And an extra special thanks to our perennial President of Space,
SR Foxley在众筹网站
SR Foxley, for supporting
对我们的支持
us on Patreon.
我们非常感激
We really appreciate that.
如果你想要知道科学最新头条
If you want to understand the science behind the latest headlines,
或者仅仅想
or just get to know
更加了解这个宇宙 呆着这儿
this universe a little better, stick around!
我们每天都会出一个新视频
We publish a new episode every single day,
因此你可以去youtube或者scishow网站去订阅
so go to youtube.com/scishow to subscribe.
闭场乐
[♪ OUTRO ]

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视频概述

从科学的角度去了解一下为什么有些人会患阿尔兹海默症

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

山有木嘻嘻

审核员

审核员 LD

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ha3JdNofoy8

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