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我们来认识一下全球第一只被驯化了的狐狸 – 译学馆
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我们来认识一下全球第一只被驯化了的狐狸

We met the world’s first domesticated foxes

Fox number one. So,
狐狸1号
that is me, locked in a pen in San Diego.
那是关在圣地亚哥的围栏里的我
And that is a very special red fox from Russia.
还有一只非常特别的来自俄罗斯的赤狐
We’re testing whether the fox likes me,
我们想要测试这只狐狸是否喜欢我
because it’s actually bred to be friendly towards people. And,
因为它被专门培育得亲近人类
in that moment, I’m really hoping it passes the test.
当时 我真心希望它能通过这次测试
I’m just minding my own business.
我什么也没干
Exotic pets are weirdly compelling,
外来宠物异常受欢迎
especially on social media.
尤其在社交媒体上
They’re like a glimpse into this alternate reality
它们像是照进虚拟现实的一道光
where we domesticated raccoons instead of cats and dogs. But,
在这个世界里 我们驯服浣熊而非猫和狗
they’re not really domesticated.
然而 它们并没有真正被驯化
Animals like cats, dogs, horses, pigs,
猫 狗 马 猪等等这些动物
we bred them for generation after generation
我们一代一代地驯养它们
to live alongside humans.
使之与人类一起生活
Exotic pets are hand raised, but they’re basically still wild animals
外来宠物由人工养育 但本质上它们仍是野生动物
with maybe one exception.
或许有一个例外
(soft music)
[轻音乐]
We drove up into the hills outside San Diego
我们驱车进入圣地亚哥外面的山里
to meet a very few rare animals.
去寻找一些极其稀有的动物
They’re foxes that are born without any built-in fear or aggression towards humans.
这些狐狸天生不怕人 也没有攻击性
They wag their tails at you; they like treats.
它们朝你摇尾巴 还喜欢零食
They’re very curious about you, though they are a little camera shy.
它们对人充满好奇 尽管面对镜头有点害羞
There’s nothing quite like them. Aww,
它们的行为简直不像狐狸
I got a lick, I got a lick.
噢 它舔我 它在舔我
We’re visiting Amy and David Bassett at their Canid Education and Conservation Center.
我们去犬科动物教育和保护中心拜访了艾米和大卫·巴塞特
It’s sort of an interactive zoo built
这里像一个互动式的动物园
to introduce the general public to foxes.
让狐狸了解人群
The Bassetts got them as pets, but not from an exotic pet breeder.
巴塞特一家把狐狸当宠物 但不是从宠物饲养员那儿买的
They’re the result of a nearly 60-year long Russian science experiment. Victor,
它们是一项长达近60年的俄罗斯科学实验的产物
sit, sit, good fox
维克多 坐下 坐下 乖狐狸
good fox
乖狐狸
It all traces back to a Soviet geneticist
这要从一个叫德米特里·贝利耶夫的
named Dmitry Belyaev
苏联遗传学家说起
In the 1950s, Belyaev hit on an idea
19世纪50年代 贝利耶夫忽然有个想法
that was radical for its time, that domesticated animals like dogs
这个想法在当时看来很激进 他认为
are friendly to people because of genes
家畜比如狗 之所以对人类友好
that govern their behavior. Meaning,
是因为基因控制着其行为 也就是说
the process that turned wolves into dogs
几万年前 狼驯化为狗的过程
tens of thousands of years ago was essentially evolution.
本质上是一种进化
There were friendliness genes that won out in wolves
当它们适应了与人比邻而居的生活
as they adapted to live alongside humans.
存在于狼体内的友善的基因便胜出了
These foxes exist because of the way
正是由于贝利耶夫试图验证这一想法
Belyaev tested his idea.
这些狐狸才出现了
In 1959, his team began selectively breeding foxes
1959年 其团队开始在俄罗斯偏远的
at the Institute of Cytology and Genetics
新西伯利亚的细胞学和遗传学研究所里
in remote Novosibirsk, Russia.
选择性地繁育狐狸
The criterion was simple.
挑选的标准很简单
The foxes that showed the least fear or aggression
当实验人员靠近时
when approached by experimenters were allowed to breed.
越少表现出恐惧和攻击性的狐狸就能入选
The less friendly foxes weren’t.
那些不太友善的则被淘汰
They selected the next generation of foxes the same way,
他们用同样的办法挑选下一代狐狸
and the next generation, and the next, for decades.
一代接一代 持续了几十年
Belyaev died in 1985,
贝利耶夫在1985年去世
but the work continued and by 2004
但这项试验一直在继续
nearly 70% of the foxes had reached
到2004年 将近70%的狐狸
an elite level of friendliness.
达到了与人友善相处的程度
By some measures, they had domesticated the fox,
通过一些办法 他们驯养了狐狸
which is how a few years back
这是几年前两个爱狗人士
two dog lovers found themselves in over their heads.
没能做到的
We had absolutely no idea.
我们毫无办法
They’re very cheeky, very mischievous, get into everything,
它们极其鲁莽 极其顽皮 到处乱钻
chew and tear everything apart.
或咬或撕 破坏一切
David and Amy currently own five
目前 大卫和艾米
of the only 10 or 15 Belyaev foxes
共养了5只贝利耶夫狐狸
in the United States.
而全美国只有十到十五只
They cost around $9,000 to buy and import one
一只狐狸大约需要花$9000
all the way from Siberia and they came with a learning curve.
从西伯利亚购入 并且还需要训练它们
We learned quickly that they are not really house trained. So,
我们很快发现 它们没有受过室内训练
they will poop and pee everywhere. So,
所以 它们会随地大小便
it’s not very easy to have them
所以 很难把它们放在厨房里养
in your kitchen, say, when they jump on the counters and poop.
因为它们会跳到厨房称上拉便便
The Bassetts have since
巴塞特一家调整了自己的生活
adjusted to life with foxes,
以跟狐狸相处
but they’ve learned that being domesticated is one thing,
但他们发现 驯化是一回事
being man’s best friend is another.
而成为人类的朋友是另一回事
While they are certainly tame, they’re fascinating and incredible animals,
狐狸驯化以后 是非常迷人和美妙的动物
they’re still foxes and when you domesticate a fox,
但它们仍是狐狸 而驯化狐狸
you don’t make a dog, you make a domesticated fox.
你不是要把它变成狗 你是要把它变成一只驯化的狐狸
Anymore than when you domesticate a horse you make a dog.
不然就像你驯马 结果却驯出一条狗来
So, Belyaev did not
所以 贝利耶夫
recreate the dog, but for anyone studying
没有再创造出狗 但对于那些
how wolves evolved into dogs,
研究狼如何进化为狗的人们
the foxes might still represent a behavioral stepping stone.
这些狐狸或许可作为行为模式方面的阶石
They’re on a path to doghood, if you like.
你喜欢的话 还可以让它们表现出狗性
Clive Wynne is professor of psychology
克莱夫·温尼是亚利桑那州立大学的
at Arizona State.
一名心理学教授
He studies the unique relationship between dogs and people
他研究狗和人类之间的特殊关系
and the way that dogs go above and beyond simple friendliness towards humans.
以及狗对人类那种超越了简单友谊的行为
Dogs have this emotional availability.
狗狗对人类的感情十分忠诚
I something call it hyper-sociability that
它们乐意随时准备与人建立情感联系
they are so very, very ready and willing to form emotional relationship.
有时我把它称作超社会性
Accord to Clive, at least 14,000 years ago
克莱夫说 在至少14000年前
hyper-social dogs emerged from a population of wild wolves
一些热衷社交的狗从野生狼群中冒出头来
and no one’s really sure how it happened.
没人说得清这是怎么发生的
I mean, that is the million-dollar question, and we don’t exactly know.
这个问题至关重要 但没人知道答案
But, the Belyaev foxes
不过 贝利耶夫的狐狸
might offer a clue.
或许提供了一条线索
Clive and his team have a simple test
克莱夫和他的团队做了一个简单试验
to see how far along the foxes are
来观察这些狐狸
on their path to doghood.
离成为狗还有多远
And they told us how to carry it out. So,
他们告诉了我们怎么做
the experiment is really simple.
这个试验很简单
I have a one-meter radius circle
用一个半径一米的圆圈
all the way around me and they’re gonna bring
把我围起来 然后
in a fox one at a time
把狐狸放进圆圈里
into this enclosure.
每次一只
The idea was to see how much of two minutes
目的是想看看两分钟内
the foxes would spend inside my circle.
狐狸在圈子里表现如何
We tried first with the three
首先 我们测试了
Belyaev foxes
三只贝利耶夫的狐狸
and one-by-one they trotted up, sniffed me,
它们一个接一个跑过来嗅我
and then relaxed somewhere else,
然后走到一边小憩
which has been Clive’s experience with the foxes, too.
结果与克莱夫对狐狸的试验相同
they greet, and they interact, and then they move on
它们打了个招呼 感知彼此 就走开了
For comparison, we also tested a fox
作为对比
that was hand-reared by humans, but genetically wild.
我们还测试了人工养育但含野生基因的狐狸
It never set foot inside the radius
它不会走进圆圈里
and it never relaxed. And,
也从未放下戒备
for a final contrast, we tested a dog.
最后 我们测试了一只狗来做对比
I gotta ignore you for two minutes. Afterwards,
我必须无视你两分钟
we got to spend some more time
之后 我们又花了一些时间
with the Belyaev foxes
研究贝利耶夫的狐狸
and they were completely tame with us,
它们十分温顺
just not so friendly.
只是没那么友善
Clive and the Bassetts suspect that this is
克莱夫和巴塞特一家猜测
because of their early lives as lab animals.
这是因为它们早年生活在实验室
They were bred for generations to be friendly,
为了使之对人友善 它们被繁育了几代
but then barely socialized as youngsters,
却很少像青少年那样社交
and that’s important, too.
而这一点也很重要
The fact that I am such a nice guy
我是个好人这件事
isn’t just the beautiful genes that I inherited from my parents,
并不仅仅是继承自父母的优良基因
but the experiences of life that I’ve had along the way.
还是我一路走来的人生经历
Clive and his team plan to keep studying fox
克莱夫和他的团队计划继续研究狐狸的行为
behavior to build out a roadmap for how dogs became dogs. But,
来描绘出狗之成为狗的进化路线
locked inside each of those foxes is another roadmap,
然而 藏在这些狐狸体内的是另一条路线
one that might help explain domestication in any animal.
一条能帮助解释驯化任何一种动物的路线
In some situation, it’s like a single gene.
有时候 它是单基因
In some situation, it’s still few genes.
有时候 它又像几个基因共同决定
Anna Kukekova is a professor of animal sciences
安娜·库科柯瓦是伊利诺斯大学香槟分校的
at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
一名动物学教授
Since 2002, she’s been collaborating with the institute
从2002年开始
in Russia on genetics research.
她和俄罗斯机构合作进行基因研究
Her goal is to reach the absolute core
她的目标是探寻狐狸实验的核心
of the fox experiment, the specific genes involved in fox domestication.
找到参与驯化的特定的基因
And a few weeks ago,
几周前
she and her team published a paper
她和她的团队在《自然生态与演化》上
in Nature, Ecology, and Evolution that made a lot of progress.
发表了一篇有关众多研究进展的文章
Now we know that there are about hundred regions in fox genome
现在我们知道了狐狸的基因组里有约一百个区域
which in some way can contribute to some behaviors,
在某种程度上控制着某些行为
so tame behavior, friendly behavior, or aggressive behavior.
驯化行为 友好行为或者攻击行为
Anna’s research is valuable,
安娜的研究非常有价值
because it directly compares the genes
因为这个研究
of wild and domesticated foxes.
直接把野生狐狸与驯养狐狸的基因做对比
We can do that with wolves and dogs,
我们也可以把狼和狗做对比
but we can’t infer as much about it.
但这样就不能推测出这么多东西
As dogs evolved, friendliness just wasn’t
因为随着狗的进化 友善已不是
the only trait that mattered.
它们唯一重要的特质
For example, they also had to digest human food. So,
比如 它们还必须能消化人类的食物
we can see which genes changed from wolves to dogs,
我们能看到从狼到狗的基因变化
but it’s harder to know whether those really are behavior genes.
却更难知道这些基因是否真是控制行为的基因
On the other hand, there was only one fox trait
另外 贝利耶夫只基于一种特质来挑选狐狸
that Belyaev selected for, friendliness towards humans. So,
即对人的友善
here it’s a little easier to associate behavior with DNA.
所以 找到关联行为的DNA容易些
Can we actually nail down some regions to a single gene
我们能否盯住单独一个基因的某些部分
and try to demonstrate that this gene actually has affected behavior?
来试图论证这个基因能影响驯化行为呢?
And we were successful.
我们成功做到了
This is such a big deal,
这一点至关重要
because there’s a lot of overlap in mammalian genes. So,
因为哺乳动物的基因有很多重叠之处
these genes that Anna found,
安娜发现的这些基因
they could help us understand domestication across the board. And,
有助于我们全面地理解驯化
given that, it’s possible that we could use
鉴于此 我们可以
gene editing tools to domesticate
使用基因编辑工具
entirely new animals in the lab, maybe.
在实验室里驯养一种全新的动物
Yeah, we were thinking about that.
是的 我们有在考虑
You know, I have doubts that we ever will be able
我怀疑我们甚至可以
to create a mouse which wags its tail.
创造出一只会摇尾巴的老鼠
I don’t think it will work.
我觉得做不出来
But, we’ll see.
但等着看吧
But, back in reality,
不过 回到现实
where does that leave the foxes?
那些狐狸会去哪里?
They’re still being bred for the experiment,
它们仍然在这个实验中 继续被繁育
but they’re also trickling out into the world as pets,
但也会逐渐作为宠物进入社会
which puts them in a strange no-man’s land
这将把它们推到一个奇怪的
between a wild animal and a companion.
介于野生动物和同伴之间的真空地带
They were not created the same way dogs were
它们不是用狗的方式培育出来的
and they’re certainly not dogs now. But,
当然现在它们的确不是狗
if you know to look for it,
然而 如果你懂得找寻
there’s a hint of something familiar about them.
你会发现指向它们之间的相似之处的线索
You take the short moments when they’re scared
当它们害怕的时候 你需要花点时间
they’ll come to you.
等它们走向你
If you’re open to it and you realize what that means.
当你心无防范时 就会明白那意味着什么
What’s the significance of this semi-wild animal
这种半野生动物这样做有什么意义呢?
who just came to you for comfort and that’s kind
它们不过是来向你寻求慰藉
of what you have to understand
为了与狐狸作伴
in order to bond with a fox.
你必须明白这点
It’s these small moments that have
就是这些小小的瞬间
huge significance to them.
对它们却有着巨大的意义
(soft music)
[轻音乐]
So, one thing we didn’t talk about
那么 有一件事我们还没提及
was that even though Belyaev
那就是尽管贝利耶夫
only selected for friendliness, there were a lot
初时只是以友善为挑选条件
of physical changes to the foxes, too.
现在这些狐狸的形体也发生了很多变化
Their coats were different, their ears got floppier,
它们的皮毛不同了 耳朵更下垂
even their skulls changed.
甚至头骨也改变了
It’s called domestication syndrome and you should read about it,
这叫做驯化综合征 你真该去了解一下
because it is wild.
它真是太不可思议了

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被驯化的狐狸会和狗一样吗?

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视频来源

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