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关乎性命的大脑未知区 – 译学馆
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关乎性命的大脑未知区

We Didn’t Think This Part of the Brain Existed, and It Could Save Your Life

我们的大脑被大约半杯量的液体包围着
Your brain is bathing in about half a cup of fluid,
这些液体每小时至多分泌24毫升
with up to 24mL being made an hour…
但因头骨坚硬而不会流出去
but your skull is pretty firm and doesn’t expand,
那么这些液体会流向哪去呢?
so where does all this fluid go?
这很像楼房通过排水系统中的管道排出多余的水
Much like how buildings drain excess fluids through pipes that lead into a sewage system,
我们的身体里也有一个血管脉络帮助我们运输血液中的物质
our bodies also have a network of vessels for moving things,
比如流动液体之类的
like fluids, around.
它被称之为淋巴系统
It’s called the lymphatic system,
因为这个系统贯穿全身
and while this network seems to run all throughout the body,
直到最近 才在人类的脑部附近观测到
it hadn’t been observed around much of the brain in humans… until recently.
运用地磁共振成像 或者是MRI
Using magnetic resonance imaging, or MRI,
临床医生注入一种像染料一样的物质
clinicians injected a dye-like substance to
帮助他们视像化人类和狨猴大脑内的淤积
help them visualize the pooling of liquid in human and marmoset brains.
在这两个物种的磁共振成像中
In MRIs of both species,
他们发现证据表明液体是从大脑周围的血管中流出
they saw evidence that fluid leaked out of the blood vessels surrounding the brain.
并且收集到类似于淋巴血管的东西
And collected into what seemed like lymphatic vessels!
这是一个重大发现
This is a big deal,
因为我们并不知道这些淋巴血管在哪
because we didn’t know where these lymphatic vessels were
或者说它们甚至是否存在
or if they were even there.
现在我们知道它们是脑部附近的结缔组织――硬脑膜
Now we know they’re part of the outermost layer
最外层的一部分
of connective tissue surrounding the brain– called the dura.
这个发现将会开拓更多的研究领域
This finding will open up so many more avenuesof research….
想象一下你不知道管道在你家的哪儿
Imagine that you didn’t know where any of the pipes were in your home,
或者说你甚至不能够找到马桶 说真的
or that you couldn’t even find the toilet, really…
如果什么东西坏了
If something were ever going wrong,
你不能够弄清问题的根源
you wouldn’t be able to find the source of the problem
并且给出详细的描述
and Sparing you the detailed description.
它会是一个臭烘烘的烂摊子
it’d be a stinkin’ mess.
我们很多年都没能够完全认识到
And we’ve gone years without being able to
我们浪费了大脑的能力
fully identify this path of waste out of the brain,
这可能与老化引起的退行性疾病有关
and this might be relevant to degenerative diseases related to aging.
比如阿尔兹海默症
Like Alzheimer’s disease,
有毒的副产品在大脑中增多 而不是消失
where toxic by-products build up in the brain instead of getting removed.
但是只有一个途径
But that’s just one avenue,
淋巴系统的作用很多 不仅仅是排出垃圾
the lymphatic system does so much more than remove waste.
在人类身体的其他部分以及在啮齿动物的脑子里
In other parts of the human body and in rodent brains,
淋巴系统帮助运输
the lymphatic system helps traffic
存在于血液和不同组织中的免疫细胞
immune cells between the blood and different tissues.
有趣的是 当血管
Interestingly, while the blood vessels
直接供应血液给大脑 有一个防护层
directly supplying blood to the brain have a protective layer
被称作血脑屏障 它控制物质的进入
called the blood brain barrier controlling what gets in,
动脉和脑外的淋巴管
the arteries and lymphatic vessels outside the brain
并没有相同的闸门系统
don’t have the same gating system.
这意味着它们是一个更简单的进入点
This means that they are an easier entry point
帮助那些功能失调的免疫细胞快速到达大脑
for dysfunctional immune cells to get on the highway to the brain.
这在人体的其他部分是可以观测到的
This has been observed in other parts of the human body,
在啮齿动物的大脑中也可以
and also in rodent brains,
但这个研究并没有更深入
but this study didn’t get that far.
相反 它证明了淋巴管存在于硬脑膜之中
Instead, it showed the lymphatic vessels were present in the dura,
液体聚集于此 然后排出大脑
that fluid collected in them, and that it drained out of the brain.
但是 未来的研究将致力于
But, future studies will focus on
免疫细胞是否能够通过这些血管 穿行在大脑中
whether immune cells can also travel into the brain via these vessels.
因为如果它们能够
Because if they can,
研究人员推测 在多发性硬化症等疾病中 这些新定位的淋巴管可能
the researchers hypothesize these newly located lymphatic vessels might
错误地将免疫细胞输送到大脑周围
be incorrectly trafficking immune cells around the brain in diseases like multiple sclerosis.
关于大脑附近的淋巴系统
There are still lots of mind-blowing questions to ask
仍有许多令人兴奋的问题要问
about the lymphatic system surrounding the brain.
但是我们起码知道我们大脑不会因为里面的液体而爆炸
But hey, at least we know how our heads won’t literally explode from all the fluid in em!
感谢收看
Thanks for watching,
朱利安有一个很棒的视频 是有关血脑屏障以及它如何运作
Julian has a great video about the Blood Brain Barrier and how it works.
它很棒 你能够从这儿观看到
And it’s awesome. You can watch it here.
噢还有最后一件事
Oh and one last thing:
过去用老鼠的研究发现
Previous studies in mice found that
在睡眠中出现液体浮动增长
there’s an increase in fluid flow during sleep,
所以也许这些淋巴血管有额外的功能
so perhaps these lymphatic vessels are working extra duty to
当我们处于睡眠状态时排出毒素
pump out toxins while we slumber
可能这就是为什么睡眠是如此的重要
and maybe that’s why sleep is so important?

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视频概述

那些我们不曾发现的大脑区域,可能恰恰会挽救你的生命。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RO3gTX1nlYE

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