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如何睿智地重新编码生命 – 译学馆
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如何睿智地重新编码生命

We can reprogram life. How to do it wisely | Juan Enriquez

有一位演员叫做达斯汀·霍夫曼。
So, there’s an actor called Dustin Hoffman.
几十年前, 他拍了一部电影,你们可能听说过
And years ago, he made this movie which some of you may have heard of,
叫做《毕业生》。
called “The Graduate.”
电影中有两个关键的场景。
And there’s two key scenes in that movie.
一个是勾引的画面。
The first one is the seduction scene.
但是这不是我今晚的主题,
I’m not going to talk about that tonight.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
在第二个场景中, 他被一位长者带到游泳场边
The second scene is where he’s taken out by the old guy to the pool,
作为一位毕业生, 长者只对他说了一个词,
and as a young college graduate, the old guy basically says one word,
仅仅一个词。
just one word.
当然,你们都知道那个词
And of course, all of you know what that word is.
就是“塑料”。
It’s “plastics.”
(笑声)
(Laughter)
但现在问题是, 他给出的建议完全错了。
And the only problem with that is, it was completely the wrong advice.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
让我来给你们讲讲为什么错了。
Let me tell you why it was so wrong.
因为这个词应该是“硅”。
The word should have been “silicon.”
为什么说应该是硅呢?
And the reason it should have been silicon
因为那时半导体的专利
is because the basic patents for semiconductors had already been made,
已经得以注册,
had already been filed,
人们已经建立了半导体产业城。
and they were already building them.
所以硅谷就是在1967年建立的,
So Silicon Valley was just being built in 1967,
正好是这部电影发行的那一年。
when this movie was released.
在电影发行的第二年
And the year after the movie was released,
因特尔公司成立了。
Intel was founded.
所以说如果这位毕业生 听到了正确的答案,
So had the graduate heard the right one word,
或许他就会和这两位一样
maybe he would have ended up onstage — oh, I don’t know —
出现在台上。
maybe with these two.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
那么,想想看
So as you’re thinking of that,
我们现在会给出什么建议,
let’s see what bit of advice we might want to give
不要让我们的毕业生 最后沦落为特百惠的销售员。
so that your next graduate doesn’t become a Tupperware salesman.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
在2015年, 当你把一位毕业生带到游泳池边
So in 2015, what word of advice would you give people,
你会说什么词呢,只说一个词,
when you took a college graduate out by the pool
你给人们的建议会是什么词呢?
and you said one word, just one word?
我想这个答案应该是“生命密码”。
I think the answer would be “lifecode.”
到底什么是“生命密码”呢?
So what is “lifecode?”
生命密码是我们 为生命编程的各种各样的方式。
Lifecode is the various ways we have of programming life.
也就说我们并非在电脑上编程,
So instead of programming computers,
而是运用工具来编译病毒
we’re using things to program viruses
逆转录病毒、蛋白质
or retroviruses or proteins
DNA、RNA
or DNA or RNA
动植物以及一系列的生物。
or plants or animals, or a whole series of creatures.
如各位所想,这项惊人的能力
And as you’re thinking about this incredible ability
可以让生命按照程序编写的一样
to make life do what you want it to do,
做你想让它做的事
what it’s programmed to do,
得到你想得到的结果。
what you end up doing
那些已经进行了上千年的事情:
is taking what we’ve been doing for thousands of years,
各种生命形式的
which is breeding, changing,
繁殖、改变
mixing, matching
杂交、匹配
all kinds of life-forms,
我们加速了这一过程。
and we accelerate it.
这并不是一件新鲜事
And this is not something new.
这株芥菜经过了基因修饰,
This humble mustard weed has been modified
如果你以某种方式进行改变, 它就变成了西兰花。
so that if you change it in one way, you get broccoli.
如果你换一种方式, 它就变成了甘蓝。
And if you change it in a second way, you get kale.
如果用第三种方式,
And if you change it in a third way,
得到的就是花椰菜。
you get cauliflower.
所以当你去纯天然的有机菜场时,
So when you go to these all-natural, organic markets,
你所看到的蔬菜
you’re really going to a place
的生命密码在很久以前就被改变了。
where people have been changing the lifecode of plants for a long time.
如今所不同的
The difference today,
只是挑一个政治立场上完全中性的词 来形容它。
to pick a completely politically neutral term —
[智能设计]
[Intelligent design]
(笑声)
(Laughter)
我们正在进行智能设计的实践
We’re beginning to practice intelligent design.
这意味着我们不能随意地进行试验
That means that instead of doing this at random
然后看看几代后会发生什么。
and seeing what happens over generations,
我们需要插入 特定的基因和特定的蛋白质,
we’re inserting specific genes, we’re inserting specific proteins,
然后根据我们的目的修改生命密码,
and we’re changing lifecode for very deliberate purposes.
从而加速试验的结果。
And that allows us to accelerate how this stuff happens.
让我举个例子。
Let me just give you one example.
你们当中可能有人会偶尔产生性欲。
Some of you occasionally might think about sex.
我们已经对性爱的改变习以为常。
And we kind of take it for granted how we’ve changed sex.
所以我们认为 这种改变非常正常和自然。
So we think it’s perfectly normal and natural to change it.
过去,性爱的发生
What’s happened with sex over time is —
通常来讲,最后就意味着孩子。
normally, sex equals baby, eventually.
但是,在今天的社会,
But in today’s world,
性+药=没有孩子
sex plus pill equals no baby.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
再次强调 我们认为这是很自然很正常的
And again, we think that’s perfectly normal and natural,
但在人类历史中 几乎没有这样的例子发生,
but that has not been the case for most of human history.
动物身上也没有。
And it’s not the case for animals.
这样的改变让我们摆脱了束缚
What it is does is it gives us control,
因此性和怀孕不再有必然联系。
so sex becomes separate from conception.
你可以想象到这样的结果
And as you’re thinking of the consequences of that,
接着我们开始使用一些技术
then we’ve been playing with stuff
一些先进的技术,比如“艺术”。
that’s a little bit more advanced, like art.
不是在绘画和雕塑意义上的艺术,
Not in the sense of painting and sculpture,
是指辅助生殖技术。
but in the sense of assisted reproductive technologies.
什么是辅助生殖技术呢?
So what are assisted reproductive technologies?
这是一种类似体外受精的技术。
Assisted reproductive technologies are things like in vitro fertilization.
有时可能有人无法怀孕
And when you do in vitro fertilization, there’s very good reasons to do it.
那么选择体外受精 无疑是一个好选择。
Sometimes you just can’t conceive otherwise.
但是通过体外受精
But when you do that,
性、怀孕和孩子就完全分离开来。
what you’re doing is separating sex, conception, baby.
所以你不仅可以决定生孩子的时间,
So you haven’t just taken control of when you have a baby,
还可以将 受精的时间和地点分离开来。
you’ve separated when the baby and where the baby is fertilized.
所以你可以把孩子和
So you’ve separated the baby
身体和性爱都分开。
from the body from the act.
再举个例子,
And as you’re thinking of other things we’ve been doing,
比如双胞胎。
think about twins.
你可以冻结精子,可以冻结卵子
So you can freeze sperm, you can freeze eggs,
你也可以冻结受精卵。
you can freeze fertilized eggs.
这意味着什么呢?
And what does that mean?
如果你是一位癌症患者, 这绝对是一件好事。
Well, that’s a good thing if you’re a cancer patient.
你即将要接受化疗和放疗,
You’re about to go under chemotherapy or under radiation,
所以你需要保存生殖细胞或受精卵
so you save these things.
这样它们就可以免遭辐射。
You don’t irradiate them.
但是,如果你可以 保存它们,冻结它们,
But if you can save them and you can freeze them,
甚至可以找一位代孕母亲,
and you can have a surrogate mother,
这就意味着 你可以使性脱离时间的束缚。
it means that you’ve decoupled sex from time.
也就是说你可以生下 一对相差50岁的双胞胎?
It means you can have twins born — oh, in 50 years?
(笑声)
(Laughter)
或许相差100年?
In a hundred years?
200年?
Two hundred years?
这些影响深远的改变
And these are three really profound changes
这并不是将来的东西,
that are not, like, future stuff.
这是我们今天认为理所当然的事情。
This is stuff we take for granted today.
因此生命密码蕴含强大的力量。
So this lifecode stuff turns out to be a superpower.
它以一种难以置信地方式改变病毒,
It turns out to be this incredibly powerful way of changing viruses,
改变植物,改变动物,
of changing plants, of changing animals,
甚至可以让我们自己进化。
perhaps even of evolving ourselves.
史蒂夫·加兰和我 对于生命密码有过一些思考。
It’s something that Steve Gullans and I have been thinking about for a while.
我们先说一些危险的情况。
Let’s have some risks.
就像所有有力的科技一样, 比如电力、汽车
Like every powerful technology, like electricity, like an automobile,
还有电脑, 生命密码也可能会被用于歧途。
like computers, this stuff potentially can be misused.
这吓坏了很多人。
And that scares a lot of people.
当你在使用这些科技时
And as you apply these technologies,
你甚至可以把人变成怪物。
you can even turn human beings into chimeras.
大家记得希腊神话中 动物互相交配么?
Remember the Greek myth where you mix animals?
有一些治疗的结果
Well, some of these treatments
甚至会让你改变血型
actually end up changing your blood type.
或者他们会把男性细胞 和女性细胞放入对方体内,
Or they’ll put male cells in a female body or vice versa,
听起来无比可怕。
which sounds absolutely horrible
其实你发现这就是
until you realize, the reason you’re doing that
你在癌症治疗过程中 替换骨髓的过程。
is you’re substituting bone marrow during cancer treatments.
从别人身体上得到的骨髓
So by taking somebody else’s bone marrow,
也许会改变你自己的基本情况,
you may be changing some fundamental aspects of yourself,
但同时也救了你的命。
but you’re also saving your life.
如果你仔细想想,
And as you’re thinking about this stuff,
这个技术已经存在20年了。
here’s something that happened 20 years ago.
这是艾玛·奥特。
This is Emma Ott.
她是个在校大学生。
She’s a recent college admittee.
她主修会计。
She’s studying accounting.
她是两种体育的校队成员 还作为学生代表进行了毕业演讲。
She played two varsity sports. She graduated as a valedictorian.
这都没有什么特别的,
And that’s not particularly extraordinary,
但是她是第一个三亲家庭的孩子。
except that she’s the first human being born to three parents.
为什么?
Why?
因为她很可能通过遗传 得了一种
Because she had a deadly mitochondrial disease
线粒体疾病。
that she might have inherited.
当你把第三个人的DNA
So when you swap out a third person’s DNA
植入这些人的体内,
and you put it in there,
他们就可以活下来。
you save the lives of people.
同时使用生殖工程学的技术,
But you also are doing germline engineering,
如果她有孩子,她的孩子也将
which means her kids, if she has kids, will be saved
永远免于这种疾病的侵害。
and won’t go through this.
她的后代,
And [their] kids will be saved,
和她的后代的后代
and their grandchildren will be saved,
都会被挽救。
and this passes on.
这让人们紧张。
That makes people nervous.
所以20年前, 很多专家表示
So 20 years ago, the various authorities said,
为什么我们不先研究一下 再推广这些技术呢?
why don’t we study this for a while?
使用这些技术是有风险的 但是不用这些技术问题就会继续,
There are risks to doing stuff, and there are risks to not doing stuff,
我们已经使用这些救了很多人。
because there were a couple dozen people saved by this technology,
我们已经思考了20年。
and then we’ve been thinking about it for the next 20 years.
这期间我们不停地说:
So as we think about it,
“也许我们需要更长时间的研究”,
as we take the time to say, “Hey, maybe we should have longer studies,
“也许我们要做这个 也许要做那个”,
maybe we should do this, maybe we should do that,”
凡事都是有两面性的。 用科技治愈致命的疾病也不例外。
there are consequences to acting, and there are consequences to not acting.
治愈致命的疾病
Like curing deadly diseases —
其实是非常反常的。
which, by the way, is completely unnatural.
如果人类死于大量的传染病
It is normal and natural for humans to be felled
比如脊髓灰质炎,天花,肺结核, 那是非常正常的。
by massive epidemics of polio, of smallpox, of tuberculosis.
在人体体内疫苗就是一件
When we put vaccines into people, we are putting unnatural things
很不正常的事,
into their body
但是我们认为利大于弊。
because we think the benefit outweighs the risk.
因为我们培养了特殊的植株 特殊的动物,
Because we’ve built unnatural plants, unnatural animals,
我们才可以养育这70亿人。
we can feed about seven billion people.
我们可以创造新的生物
We can do things like create new life-forms.
乍一听创造新生物实在太恐怖
And as you create new life-forms, again, that sounds terribly scary
太可怕,
and terribly bothersome,
其实你在餐厅的桌子上 就可以看到那些新生物。
until you realize that those life-forms live on your dining room table.
餐厅桌子上买回来的鲜花
Those flowers you’ve got on your dining room table —
和自然完全沾不上边,
there’s not a lot that’s natural about them,
因为人类一直在选育固定的颜色
because people have been breeding the flowers to make this color,
固定的尺寸, 以及强大的生存能力。
to be this size, to last for a week.
你通常不会放野花在这
You don’t usually give your loved one wildflowers
因为它们活不了多久。
because they don’t last a whole lot of time.
这一切的一切
What all this does
都完全颠覆了达尔文的理论。
is it flips Darwin completely on his head.
40亿年前,
See, for four billion years,
地球上生物能否生存 取决于两个原则:
what lived and died on this planet depended on two principles:
自然选择和基因突变。
on natural selection and random mutation.
而这两个原则
And so what lived and died, what was structured,
现在已经被完全颠覆了。
has now been flipped on its head.
我们正在
And what we’ve done
创造一个完全并行的进化系统
is created this completely parallel evolutionary system
这个系统里我们尝试着 非自然选择和定向变异。
where we are practicing unnatural selection and non-random mutation.
让我来解释一下:
So let me explain these things.
这是自然选择。
This is natural selection.
这是非自然选择。
This is unnatural selection.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
狗这个物种实际上
So what happens with this stuff is,
是几千年前的中亚人通过驯养狼
we started breeding wolves thousands of years ago
得到的物种。
in central Asia to turn them into dogs.
然后我们开始把狗培育成大狗
And then we started turning them into big dogs
或者小狗。
and into little dogs.
但是如果你带着一只第五大街上的
But if you take one of the chihuahuas
某个爱马仕包里的吉娃娃
you see in the Hermès bags on Fifth Avenue
去非洲平原放生
and you let it loose on the African plain,
你就可以看到自然选择的发生。
you can watch natural selection happen.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
地球上没有比玉米地更不自然的了。
Few things on Earth are less natural than a cornfield.
如果你进入原始森林 你永远不可能看到
You will never, under any scenario, walk through a virgin forest
同一种植株 在同一时刻
and see the same plant growing in orderly rows
整齐的排列,
at the same time,
什么别的植物都没有。
nothing else living there.
你在种植玉米的时候,
When you do a cornfield,
你决定了什么生什么死。
you’re selecting what lives and what dies.
你在进行非自然选择。
And you’re doing that through unnatural selection.
麦田也一样,稻田也一样,
It’s the same with a wheat field, it’s the same with a rice field.
城市也一样,郊区也一样。
It’s the same with a city, it’s the same with a suburb.
事实地球上一半的地区
In fact, half the surface of Earth
都是人工控制的结果
has been unnaturally engineered
这些地区我们决定物种的生死。
so that what lives and what dies there is what we want,
所以你不可能在曼哈顿的街区
which is the reason why you don’t have grizzly bears
看到灰熊走来走去。
walking through downtown Manhattan.
基因突变是什么呢?
How about this random mutation stuff?
这就是基因突变。
Well, this is random mutation.
这是安东尼奥·艾方塞卡,
This is Antonio Alfonseca.
他还有一个外号叫做章鱼
He’s otherwise known as the Octopus, his nickname.
他是2000年的最佳替补投手。
He was the Relief Pitcher of the Year in 2000.
基因突变让他每只手都拥有
And he had a random mutation that gave him six fingers
六根手指。
on each hand,
这对他投球帮助很大。
which turns out to be really useful if you’re a pitcher.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
那什么是非随机突变呢?
How about non-random mutation?
啤酒,葡萄酒,酸奶
A non-random mutation is beer.
都是非随机突变。
It’s wine. It’s yogurt.
你在森林里走的时候
How many times have you walked through the forest
看见一块纯天然的奶酪的几率有多大呢
and found all-natural cheese?
纯天然酸奶呢?
Or all-natural yogurt?
这些都是非随机突变的结果。
So we’ve been engineering this stuff.
有趣的是,
Now, the interesting thing is,
现在我们对于突变了解的更多了。
we get to know the stuff better.
我们在酸奶中发现了 基因编辑的有力武器
We found one of the single most powerful gene-editing instruments,
CRISPR。
CRISPR, inside yogurt.
我们开始控制细胞
And as we start engineering cells,
利用这个工具制造 十种最常用药物中的八种
we’re producing eight out of the top 10 pharmaceutical products,
包括治疗关节炎的
including the stuff that you use to treat arthritis,
特效药,修美乐。
which is the number one best-selling drug, Humira.
生命密码就是这些东西。
So this lifecode stuff.
它真的超级强大。
It really is a superpower.
真的就像在编码生物一样,
It really is a way of programming stuff,
再也不会有比生命密码对于人类的改变
and there’s nothing that’s going to change us
更大的改变了。
more than this lifecode.
所以在思考生命密码的时候,
So as you’re thinking of lifecode,
在开始准备使用它的时候,
let’s think of five principles
我们要遵守五个原则。
as to how we start guiding,
我希望各位可以给我更多启发。
and I’d love you to give me more.
原则一:
So, principle number one:
我们要承担对生命密码的责任。
we have to take responsibility for this stuff.
之所以我们要肩负起责任
The reason we have to take responsibility
是因为我们是使用者。
is because we’re in charge.
这不是随机的突变。
These aren’t random mutations.
这是我们的选择,我们的工作
This is what we are doing, what we are choosing.
这不是“事情就这样发生了”
It’s not, “Stuff happened.”
这既不是随机发生的。
It didn’t happen at random.
也不会随着 别人的决定而消失。
It didn’t come down by a verdict of somebody else.
我们制造了它,
We engineer this stuff,
根据珀特里·巴恩的原则: 你破坏了规则,你就要对它负责。
and it’s the Pottery Barn rule: you break it, you own it.
原则二:
Principle number two:
我们必须明白并且 鼓励物种的多样性。
we have to recognize and celebrate diversity in this stuff.
曾经至少有33种原始人
There have been at least 33 versions of hominids
存在于这个世界上。
that have walked around this Earth.
除了我们之外绝大多数已经灭绝。
Most all of them went extinct except us.
但是正常情况下的地球
But the normal and natural state of this Earth
应该有不同种的人类同时存在
is we have various versions of humans walking around at the same time,
这也是为什么很多人有尼安德特人
which is why most of us have some Neanderthal in us.
和丹尼索瓦人的特征。
Some of us have some Denisova in us.
一些华盛顿的政客好像 有更多类似的特征。
And some in Washington have a lot more of it.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
原则三:
Principle number three:
尊重他人的选择。
we have to respect other people’s choices.
有人选择不改变,
Some people will choose to never alter.
有人选择改变,
Some people will choose to alter all.
有人选择改变植物 但是不改变动物,
Some people will choose to alter plants but not animals.
有人选择改变自己。
Some people will choose to alter themselves.
有人选择进化自己。
Some people will choose to evolve themselves.
多样性是好的,
Diversity is not a bad thing,
尽管我们认为 人类多样性已经很丰富了,
because even though we think of humans as very diverse,
但是因为我们来自 同一位非洲母亲的基因,
we came so close to extinction
我们也有灭绝的危险。
that all of us descend from a single African mother
而且它的后果是,
and the consequence of that
55只非洲黑猩猩的基因的多样性
is there’s more genetic diversity in 55 African chimpanzees
都比70亿人类丰富得多。
than there are in seven billion humans.
原则四:
Principle number four:
我们应该让四分之一的世界
we should take about a quarter of the Earth
遵循达尔文的原则。
and only let Darwin run the show there.
这四分之一的世界不用连在一起,
It doesn’t have to be contiguous,
也不用被绑定在一起看待。
doesn’t have to all be tied together.
但是要有部分的海洋和部分的陆地。
It should be part in the oceans, part on land.
我们不应该决定 地球上每一个物种的进化。
But we should not run every evolutionary decision on this planet.
我们需要我们的进化系统的运行。
We want to have our evolutionary system running.
我们也需要达尔文进化系统的运行。
We want to have Darwin’s evolutionary system running.
我们需要两个系统并行
And it’s just really important to have these two things running in parallel
而不是压倒性的人工进化。
and not overwhelm evolution.
(掌声)
(Applause)
最后我想说,
Last thing I’ll say.
这是人类有史以来 最激动人心的冒险。
This is the single most exciting adventure human beings have been on.
这是人类拥有过的最大的力量。
This is the single greatest superpower humans have ever had.
如果因为你害怕 因为你想逃避
It would be a crime for you not to participate in this stuff
从而错过了参与进来的机会,
because you’re scared of it,
这将是令你遗憾终生的事。
because you’re hiding from it.
你可以从伦理的角度参与进来 你可以从政治的角度参与进来
You can participate in the ethics. You can participate in the politics.
你可以从商业的角度参与进来
You can participate in the business.
你可以仅仅通过思考 制药业和工业的未来
You can participate in just thinking about where medicine is going,
通过思考我们和世界如何共处
where industry is going,
而参与进来。
where we’re going to take the world.
如果有人出现在游泳池
It would be a crime for all of us
告诉我们了一个词,仅仅一个词 如果那个词是“生命密码”
not to be aware when somebody shows up at a swimming pool
如果我们没有听,没有注意
and says one word, just one word,
那么这将是全人类的遗憾。
if you don’t listen if that word is “lifecode.”
非常感谢。
Thank you very much.
(掌声)
(Applause)

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