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人之初性本善

We Are Built To Be Kind

图一
人之初 性本善
One of the hardest questions when you think about the evolution of human species
分析人类进化问题的时候 其中一个最困难的问题
from the standard framework of evolution, which really is about individual survival,
从进化的标准机制 即个体的生存
competing, getting your genes to the next generation,
竞争 以及将基因传给下一代 这几点来看
one of the hardest questions within that frame work is
最难的问题之一就是
why are people so frequently and routinely good and generous
为什么人类常常表现得如此友善慷慨
and sacrificing, right?
且有奉献精神 对吧?
And you know, most people think that Darwin had this idea of “survival of the fittest”
大多数人认为 达尔文提出了“适者生存”的观点
that really it’s the most ruthless and bloodthirsty who really thrive and survive.
即最残忍嗜血的物种才能生存壮大
That is not Darwin’s view of human evolution at all,
而那根本不是达尔文对人类进化的观点
he really felt that sympathy is the strongest instinct that human’s have.
实际上他认为 同情心才是人类最突出的本能
Communities that have the most sympathetic members
一个拥有最具同情心的成员的族群
will flourish and raise the greatest number of offspring.
能繁荣兴盛 并养育最多的后代
That notion of Darwin’s led to this sense
达尔文的这一理念形成这样的观点:
that out of the vulnerability of our offspring
由于刚出生的孩子比较脆弱
emerged, first of all social structures like cooperative care giving
他们首先形成的的是相互合作 关心的社会结构
and then also physiological systems shaped by evoluion
其次才是进化而成的生理系统
that help us take care of the carriers of our genes:our offspring
这有助于照顾我们的基因携带者:后代
We have learned from neuroscience down at UCLA
我们从加州大学洛杉矶分校的神经科中得知
that if you feel physical pain,
如果你感到疼痛
a part of your brain lights up and if I see you have that physical pain
你大脑中的一个部位会亮起 如果我看你感到疼痛
the same part of my brain lights up.
我大脑中的相同部分也会亮起
It’s as if we’re “wired” to have the same experience of other people.
这就好像我们拥有了和他人“相连”的感受
Empathy is this really complicated task
同情心确实是个复杂的课题
It really engages the frontal lobes, these newer regions of the cortex
它与前额叶这些大脑皮层中较新的区域有关
that are involved in more complex symbolic processes
前额叶参与了更复杂 抽象方面事情的处理
like language and imagining the future.
例如语言和对未来的想象
Because empathy requires that you think:
因为共情需要你思考:
there’s someone else out there who has
总有一些人
feelings and thoughts that may be different from mine
和我有不同的感受和想法
–that’s a really complicated cognitive achievement.
所以共情真的是个复杂的认知成果
In my lab, the Berkeley social interaction lab,
在我的伯克利社交实验室
we showed images of prototypical suffering to our participants
我们向实验参与者 展示了一些苦难人民的原型图
They trigger massively powerful reactions of compassion
这些图片激起了他们强烈的同情心
and what we found in the brain is that
并且我们发现大脑中一个
a very old part of brain called Periaqueductal Gray
一个非常古老的 叫做“中脑导水管周围灰质”的区域
which is common in the mammals when they take care of things,
在各种哺乳动物照顾孩子时
lights up when you feel compassion.
都会在感觉同情时亮起
So that tells us,
由此可知
compassion is really old in the nervous system as Darwin speculated.
正如达尔文的推断 同情在神经系统中很早就有
缺乏同情心
My students and I got really interested in social class.
我和我的学生们对社会阶层很感兴趣
What does it do to the human mind?
那么它和人的心智有何关系?
Our lab and other labs are interested in something called the vagus nerve.
我们和其他几个实验室对交感神经很有兴趣
It’s the longest bundle of nerves in the human nervous system.
在人体神经系统中 交感神经是最长的神经束
In our research compassion, the feeling of caring for someone in need,
在我们的研究中 关心需要帮助的人的的感觉
activates the vagus nerve.
即同情心 激活了交感神经
Lower class individuals, if we show them images of suffering,
如果我们向低层阶级的人展示苦难图片
they have a vagus nerve response.
他们的交感神经会有反应
You don’t see that in upper class individuals.
而在上层阶级的人中就观察不到这个反应
It literally is a compassion deficit that’s produced by lots of wealth.
从字面上讲 这是由大量财富造成的同情心缺失
Next set of studies on charity: who gives?
下一组是对慈善方面的研究:谁捐款?
Economic analyses would say if I have a lot of money,
经济分析学家会说 如果我有很多钱
it should be easy to give.
那捐款就很容易
If I have 900 bucks in my bank account,
如果我银行账户里有900美元
giving away money — it really matters, you know,
将钱捐出去——这确实很重要
it matters what you put in your fridge.
因为这影响到我冰箱里能放什么
And in spite of that what we find is lower class individuals give more,
尽管如此 我们发现低阶层的人们反而捐款更多
and this is replicated in studies of philanthropy.
这一现象在慈善研究中如出一辙
You know one of things this science tells us is
这项科学研究告诉我们一点
there is enormous strength in these
这些比较贫困的群体
poorer communities of generosity and empathy
反而更慷慨大方并富有同情心
that you know, many people in more privileged
这是许多条件优越的人
circumstances miss — it’s strong community.
都不具备的品质——这样的群体非常强大
Yeah, you know 60 percent of what we do
的确 我们做的60%的事
is really about maximizing an individual’s personal gratification and desire,
都是为了最大程度地满足个人愉悦和欲望
just the classic survival of the most competitive
这刚好是最具竞争力的经典生存状态
— but 40 percent of the time, we’re really doing things for other people
但是有40%的时间我们是在为别人做事
and we sacrifice and we risk exploitation and we still do it.
我们奉献自己 冒着被剥削的风险却依然这样做
And not only that but, it actually becomes personally fulfilling and inspiring
此外 帮助他人其实给人们带来个人满足感与激励感
to engage in that work, we find these secondary delights in enacting on behalf of others.
我们从中体会到了间接的快乐
And I think that it really requires that we redefine human self-interest.
我认为这要求我们不再自私自利
You know, the great ethical traditions have always been encouraging this
伟大的道德传统一直宣扬这点
and now we’re seeing the science say, yeah that brain
而如今科学研究也表明大脑
really cares about other people.
确实会为他人着想

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视频概述

本视频根据调查研究阐述了同情心是如何形成,同情心的产生与大脑的联系以及同情心带来的影响等问题。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

直冲云霄

审核员

审核员CR

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SsWs6bf7tvI

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