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奇蛇之旅

Watch this if you're scared of snakes - Andrew Whitworth

“如果你盯着蛇的双眼 你会发现它什么都知道”
——拉迪亚德·吉卜林《伊姆瑞的回归》
We get it, not everyone loves snakes.
我们都知道 并不是谁都喜欢蛇
You may not want to encounter one in the wild.
在野外 可能你不想碰见它
To each their own!
但各人有各人的想法
That’s why we’re here, to take you on a world tour
因此 我们在这里带领你在安全的家里
of some of nature’s most incredible snakes from the safety of your home,
进行一场寻访自然界最不可思议蛇类的环球之旅
and with your very own intrepid guide.
和你一起的 还有你的勇敢小向导
All the snakes we’ll be visiting belong to a group called the vipers.
接下来我们要参观的所有蛇都属于毒蛇这一种类
As of 2021, there are 368 species of viper worldwide.
截至2021年 世界上存在368种毒蛇
The name comes from the term viviparity, which means giving birth to live young.
这一名字来源于词语“viviparity” 指“直接生育幼崽”
Unlike most snakes, which lay eggs,
与大多数产卵的蛇不同的是
most vipers have eggs that hatch inside the mother,
大多数毒蛇会直接在母体内产卵孵化
who then gives birth to up to dozens of tiny snakes.
之后母蛇会生出多达几十条小蛇
Not glad you’re safe at home yet?
是不是该庆幸你在家里很安全?
Vipers are also often highly venomous,
毒蛇通常都是剧毒的
with two hollow fangs that fold flat to the roofs of their mouths.
有着折叠在上颚的两个空心尖牙
This allows the fangs to be extra long,
因为可以折叠 这就让尖牙可以长得很长
unfolding into imposing weapons when the viper prepares to strike.
当毒蛇准备发起袭击时 尖牙就展开成强大的武器
So how about we pay them a surprise visit?
那么我们也出其不意去拜访一下它们怎么样?
First stop: the southeastern United States,
第一站:美国东南部
where we can hear the viper before we can see it.
在那里 不见其蛇 先闻其声
The eastern diamondback rattlesnake is the largest of 36 species of rattlesnake.
东部菱斑响尾蛇是36种响尾蛇中最大的一种
Rattlesnakes can shake their rattles up to 90 times per second
必要时 响尾蛇为了警告捕食者
to warn off predators for hours if needed.
会持续摇尾数小时且频率高达每秒90次
The rattle consists of hollow, interlocked segments made of keratin,
尾部是由角蛋白构成的空心联锁段组成
the same substance that makes our nails and hair.
这种角蛋白是和构成我们指甲和头发一样的物质
When the snake shakes its tail, these segments hit each other,
当响尾蛇摇动尾巴时 这些部分就会彼此撞击
creating a shockingly loud noise.
制造出巨大声响
Now onto the mountains of western Iran, where a spider crawls across a rock,
现在我们来到伊朗西部的山上 一只蜘蛛正爬越一块岩石
making easy prey for a passing bird…or not.
成为某只路过的鸟儿极易捕获的猎物…或者正好相反
The spider-tailed horned viper is perfectly camouflaged, almost invisible,
蛛尾拟角蝰将自己彻底地伪装起来 几乎看不见它
except for its unique bulbous tail-tip with long drooping scales
除了它独特的树根状尾尖
that look like a leggy spider.
尾尖有长且下垂的鳞片 看起来就像一只长腿蜘蛛
Spider-tailed vipers are only about 50 centimeters long,
蛛尾拟角蝰只有大约50厘米长
so they can lure small birds within striking range
所以它们不用缩进狭窄的石头缝里
without compromising their ability to squeeze into narrow rock crevices.
就可以把小型鸟引诱到攻击范围内
In the rainforests of Latin America lives a viper
在拉丁美洲的雨林里生活着一种毒蛇
that couldn’t be more different from the spider-tailed viper,
这种毒蛇完全与蜘蛛尾毒蛇大相径庭
if you can find it.
前提是你能找到这种毒蛇
It’s one of the most elusive snakes in the world:
它是世界上最难发现的蛇之一:
the bushmaster.
巨蝮
The bushmaster is a pit viper.
巨蝮是一种蝮蛇
Between each eye and nostril, it has a heat-sensing pit
在其每只眼睛和鼻孔之间 有一个感温颊窝
with a membrane covered in highly sensitive receptors
其薄膜覆盖有高度敏锐的感受器
that respond to temperature changes
这些感受器对小到千分之一摄氏度的温度变化
as small as one one-thousandth of a degree Celsius.
都会做出反应
These pits gather infrared information that is integrated with visual information
这些颊窝将与在视顶盖中的
in the optic tectum.
视觉信息融合的红外线信息聚集起来
This allows the bushmaster to “see” the heat signature
这就能让蝮蛇“看见”
of approaching prey or predators,
正在接近的猎物或是捕食者的热信号
helping it decide whether or not to strike and strike more accurately.
帮助其决定是否去袭击 同时也帮助它进行更加精确的袭击
This comes in handy for guarding a nest.
这在保卫巢穴时就派上用场了
Unlike most other vipers, the bushmaster lays eggs
不像其它大多数毒蛇那样
in hollowed out tree buttresses or burrows made by other animals.
蝮蛇在空心的树洞里或是其他动物挖的洞里产卵
It must be large enough to defend its nest.
它的体型肯定大到足以守卫自己的巢穴了
In fact, the bushmaster is the largest viper in the world,
实际上 蝮蛇是世界上体型最大的毒蛇
reaching lengths of over 11 feet, with huge fangs and deadly venom.
它的长度超过11尺 有着巨大的尖牙和致命的毒液
Meanwhile, in the forests of sub-Saharan Africa,
与此同时 在撒哈拉以南非洲的森林里
there’s a shorter, chunkier viper that’s even more venomous than the bushmaster.
有一种比蝮蛇短粗 甚至毒性更强的毒蛇
The African Gaboon viper has the longest fangs of any snake,
非洲加布翁毒蛇有着比所有蛇都长的尖牙
yes, all 3,879 snake species, not just vipers,
没错 指的是所有3879种蛇类 不仅仅只是毒蛇
and can deliver 1,000 milligrams of venom in a single bite,
仅是咬一口 就会释放1000毫克的毒液
enough to kill ten adult humans.
量大到足以杀死10个成年人
Although deadly, Gaboon vipers have a reputation
尽管如此致命 加布翁毒蛇却以
for being slow-moving and placid creatures.
行动缓慢且温和而出名
When they do strike, they hold onto their rodent prey while the venom takes effect,
当它们进行袭击时 会在毒液发挥作用过程中
then quickly swallow it down.
紧紧咬住猎物 并迅速吞下
At this point, you may be worrying about our guide, but never fear.
在此刻 你可能会担心我们的小向导 但不用害怕
rodents like our little desert kangaroo rat have their own skills
像小型沙漠长鼻袋鼠这种啮齿动物
to evade the serpent’s tooth.
有自己逃离毒蛇尖牙的应对技巧
They stomp their feet at rattlesnakes, kick sand towards them,
它们在响尾蛇身上重踏 朝其身上踢沙子
and evade their strikes with acrobatic leaps and powerful kicks,
用杂技般的跳跃和有力的踢腿功夫来躲避响尾蛇的袭击
helping them live to guide another snake tour.
这些应对技巧帮助它们活下来继续为我们引领另一场蛇之旅

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视频概述

本视频带我们足不出户了解一些世界闻名的毒蛇,向害怕毒蛇的你普及一些有关毒蛇的知识

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

lauv

审核员

审核员SRY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s_Cs1nbbv_M

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