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这个狡猾的蜗牛整吞了一条鱼 – 译学馆
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这个狡猾的蜗牛整吞了一条鱼

Watch These Cunning Snails Stab and Swallow Fish Whole | Deep Look

大新闻
Big news.
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You can now support Deep Look on Patreon.
节目之后精彩更多
More after the show.
鸡心螺(芋螺)的惊人之处
Cone snails are striking
不止一二
in more ways than one.
它们潜伏在珊瑚礁附近
They lurk in the sand around coral reefs.
等待我们对壳之下一探究竟
And wait till you see what’s under the hood.
那华丽的外表下隐藏着一列
That pretty veneer is hiding an impressive
惊人的工具……以及武器
array of tools…and weapons.
鸡心螺的呼吸管道叫做虹吸管
A cone snail’s breathing tube, called a siphon,
实际上更像是由一层肌肉组织
is actually more like a sheet of muscle
卷成的呼吸管
rolled into a snorkel.
除了将水吸入深居壳内的腮中
Besides drawing water to gills deep in its shell,
这条呼吸道也可以嗅到
the siphon also can pick up the scent
毫无戒备的猎物的气味
of unsuspecting prey.
那就是鸡心螺的捕鱼时刻
That’s when the cone snail goes spearfishing.
它那可伸长的喙中包裹着秘密武器
Its extendible proboscis is packinga concealed weapon.
一根细小中空的刺 成分为几丁质
A tiny, hollow harpoon made of chitin,
也就是构成龙虾壳的坚硬材质
the same tough stuff in a lobster shell.
刺的末端布满了一种感受器
And the end of the proboscis is tricked outwith receptors.
味蕾
Taste buds.
它们帮助鸡心螺进一步靠近猎物
They help it close in on its target.
发动攻击时 鸡心螺的速度跃升至光速
When it strikes, the snail’s pace jumpsto light speed.
插入猎物体内的刺
The embedded harpoon doubles
像皮下注射器一般
as a hypodermic needle
将麻醉用的毒液注入到猎物体内
to inject the victim with paralyzing venom.
猎物被制服 摇摇欲坠之际
As it reels in the catch,
鸡心螺的另一个秘密工具 喙部
the cone snail uses another covert tool called a rostrum.
便张开来 整个地将鱼吞下
It opens up to swallow the fish whole.
有些鸡心螺则捕食更加相似的猎物
Some cone snails hunt more familiar prey.
其他螺类
Other snails.
小点的螺向下挖 只把壳露在外面
The smaller snail digs down to hide its shellopening.
掠食者企图寻找突破口
The predator looks for a way in.
找到后
When it finds it,
捕猎者就会多次向猎物注射毒液
the hunter hits its prey with more than one shot of venom.
鸡心螺发射毒刺之前的五分之一秒内
A lot is going on in the fifth of a second
发生了很多事情
before the snail fires that harpoon.
我们来倒回并慢放一下
So let’s rewind and break it down.
首先 内部肌肉使喙部收缩 为攻击做好准备
First the proboscis flexes as the muscles inside prepare for the strike.
然后毒液涌入喙部
Then the venom floods into the proboscis,
刚好停在毒刺后边
but stops just short of the harpoon.
一种环形肌将这种致命液体兜住
A round muscle holds the lethal fluid in check,
如同打结的软管 同时产生了更大的压力
like a kink in a hose, building even more pressure.
随后 一切喷涌而出
Then, everything blows,
推动着毒液进入到中空毒刺中去
and propels the venom into the harpoon,
毒刺又进入到猎物体内
the harpoon into the prey.
令科学家们对鸡心螺感兴趣的是
What has scientists interested in cone snails is
它们的毒液不仅是不同种之间有差异
that their venom varies not only from species to species,
同种的不同个体之间也有差异
but also from individual to individual,
甚至同一个体的不同次喷射都会有不同
and even from shot to shot.
事实上它们似乎是在用数千种不同物质
In fact they seem to mix their venom cocktail
即时地调制着毒液鸡尾酒
on the fly from thousands of unique ingredients,
每种都有着不同的用途
each with its own purpose.
所有这些变化都意味着
All this variety means a world
蜗壳之下又一方新的制毒天地
of new drugs could lie under that shell.
某些疾病也可以借以进行治疗
Novel ways to treat things
如慢性疼痛 阿兹海默症和糖尿病等
like chronic pain, Alzheimer’s, and diabetes.
大部分鸡心螺攻击造成的疼痛如同蜂蜇
Most cone snail strikes hurt as much as abee sting.
不过仍有少数可以要你命 比如这个地纹芋螺
A few can kill you though, like this geography cone,
它拥有世界上最致命的叮刺
it has the most venomous sting in the world.
给你一个忠告
Here’s a tip:
在澳大利亚浮潜时 千万别收集这种贝壳
Don’t go gathering these shells when you’re snorkeling in Australia.
马特·奥多德:或者如我所说
Matt O’Dowd: Or as I say,
是个锥壳就别管了
if it’s a cone, leave it alone.
劳拉:这是来自Space Time的马特·奥多德
Laura: It’s Matt O’Dowd from Space Time!
马特·奥多德:你好啊 劳拉
Matt O’Dowd: Good’ay Laura.
劳拉:马特花很多时间思考大事
Laura: Matt spends as much time thinking about very big things,
比如这宇宙 而我们
like the universe, as we
多是在思考很小的东西
do thinking about very small things.
马特·奥多德:是的 但如果你想看特别小的东西
Matt O’Dowd: That’s right, but if you want really small,
你应该看看我们的量子力学专栏单
you should check out our quantum mechanics playlist.
劳拉:太棒了
Laura: Nice.
大家可以在Patreon上同时支持Deep Look和Space Time呦
You can support both Deep Look and Space Timeon Patreon.
访问以下链接和内部简介来了解更多
Follow the links here and inner descriptionto learn more.
感谢观看
Thanks for watching.
马特·奥多德:稍后见
Matt O’Dowd: Catch you later.

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译制信息
视频概述

鸡心螺是各种芋螺的统称,它们依靠毒刺来捕猎小型动物。接下来,我们来看看它们具体是怎么捕猎的吧

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jYMjLgPFSso

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