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重生的扁虫

Want a Whole New Body? Ask This Flatworm How | Deep Look

PBS数码工作室
PBS DIGITAL STUDIOS
感谢“CuriosityStream”对PBS数码工作室的赞助
Thanks to CuriosityStream for supporting PBS Digital Studios.
[音乐]
[MUSIC]
微观深望
DEEP LOOK
这个傻乎乎的小东西叫做涡虫
This goofy little guy is called a planarian.
当然了 它就是池塘底下那些扁虫中的一种
Sure, it’s just a flatworm at the bottom of a pond.
但是它有个十分特别的超能力
But it has a very special superpower,
其中一个是科学家特别想利用的
one that scientists would love to harness.
演示给你看……
To show you…
唔……这里将要上演血浆片里的剧情了
well… it’s going to get a little bit slasher movie here.
好了 别担心
OK, don’t worry.
它会……挺过去的……
It’s going… To be… OK…
真的
Seriously.
我保证
I promise.
这一点也不疼
It doesn’t even hurt.
对大部分生物来说 到这里生命就结束了
That would be curtains for most organisms.
我的意思是 这部分只是躯干 没有头也没有尾巴
I mean, this piece here is just a chunk, with no head and no tail.
但是你看
But watch.
在显微镜下你可以看到
You can see under a microscope
过了一夜后伤口愈合了
that overnight its wound heals closed.
好吧 我们或许也能做到
OK, maybe we could do that
当然了 时间要更久一些
more slowly, of course.
但是之后 它开始重生了 长出了新的组织
But then it starts to regenerate, growing new tissue.
这个白色的部分叫做胚基
It’s that white part, called the blastema.
经过一周……看到那些小点了吗?
In a week… See those tiny little spots?
这些是重新长出的眼睛
They’re new eyes grown from scratch.
但是涡虫……我现在能叫它涡虫吗?
But the planarian… can I call it that yet?
它看起来还是一坨不知是什么的东西
it still kind of looks like a blob.
到了第12天 它终于看起来像个涡虫的样子了
By Day 12, it’s starting to look like a proper planarian.
它长出了头
It’s got a head
一个全新的头
an entirely new one.
还有一条新尾巴
And a new tail.
而且它开始了涡虫日常的生活行为
And it’s doing its regular planarian things,
比如说……排便
like, uh, pooping.
这是因为重生形成的第一个器官
That’s because one of the first things it started regrowing
是一个名为咽的管状器官
was a tube called the pharynx,
这里是东西进出的地方
which is how things go in and out.
它吮吸食物
It sucks up food,
比如科学家正喂给它的牛肝
like this beef liver that scientists are feeding it.
三周后 它看起来完全正常了
After three weeks, it looks totally normal.
从一条涡虫 收获了四条涡虫
From that one planarian, you get four.
其他动物 比如这只蝾螈
Other animals, like this newt,
可以重新长出脚趾或尾巴
can regrow a toe or a tail.
但涡虫是唯一可以一种可以重新长出头的动物
But planarians are practically the only animal that can regrow a head.
那为什么我们做不到呢?
So why can’t we do that?
这一切都是源于一种叫干细胞的强大细胞
Well, it all comes down to powerful cells known as stem cells.
这里的绿点就是干细胞
They’re the green dots here.
它们占了涡虫身体的20%
And they make up one fifth of a planarian’s body.
干细胞可以转化为不同种类的细胞
They can turn into different kinds of cells
形成身体新生的所有部分
and make every new body part.
我们只有在胚胎时期才有这种干细胞
We only have stem cells that act like these when we’re embryos.
一旦长大了 我们就几乎丧失了这种能力
Once we grow up, we pretty much lose this ability.
尽管科学家已经可以让我们重新长出手指头
Though doctors have been able to get us to grow back a fingertip.
但如果我们能够重新长出一个器官呢?
But what if we could grow ourselves anew?
或者整条手臂 或者肝脏?
A whole arm, or a liver?
科学家正试图弄清涡虫是怎么做到重生的
Scientists are trying to figure out exactly how planarians do it,
或许有一天这些不起眼的扁虫
and maybe one day these humble flatworms could
能给我们在治愈伤口上提供新的灵感
inspire new ways to heal our injuries.
嗨 还是我——劳伦
Hi, it’s Lauren again.
这种涡虫来自旧金山
This kind of planarian is from San Francisco.
那些不是耳朵 它们是耳廓
Those aren’t ears; they’re auricles.
耳廓让涡虫可以感受周遭环境
It uses them to feel around.
在Patreon关注我们 你可以看到更多“微观深望”内容
You can tune into more Deep Look by following us over to Patreon.
你可以得到会员专属的特别福利
You’ll get special members-only benefits
比如我们制作视频的幕后花絮
like behind-the-scenes peeks at how we make our show.
链接在视频详情里
Link in the description.
谢谢观看 下次再见
Thanks. And see you soon.
感谢“CuriositySteam”对PBS数据工坊的赞助
Thank you to CuriosityStream for supporting PBS Digital Studios.
“CuriositySteam”是一个订阅制流媒体服务
CuriosityStream is a subscription streaming service
提供来自各种创作者的
that offers documentaries and non-fiction titles
内容丰富的纪录片和非虚构短片
from a variety of filmmakers,
包括“CuriositySteam”原创视频
including CuriosityStream originals.
《Age of Big Cats》讲述了
“Age of Big Cats” is the untold story
七种主要的大型猫科动物占据食物链顶端
of the seven major species of big cats who clawed their way to the top
并统治这片大陆的故事
and came to dominate the land.
你可以到curiositystream.com/deeplook了解更多
You can learn more at curiositystream.com/deeplook,
注册时记得使用邀请码“deeplook”
and use the code deeplook during the signup process.

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视频概述

把身体切成四部分……会发生什么?对扁虫来说,意味着它会变成四条扁虫!为什么扁虫有如此神奇的能力,让视频告诉你吧!

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m12xsf5g3Bo

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