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鲁道夫·斯坦纳的教育理念 – 译学馆
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鲁道夫·斯坦纳的教育理念

Waldorf School Education

华德福教育是以鲁道夫•斯坦纳的人智说原理为基础的
Waldorf education is based on the principles of anthroposophy by Rudolf Steiner.
1919年 斯坦纳在德国的斯图加特建立了第一所学校
Steiner founded the first schoolin 1919 Stuttgart Germany
教育来自华德福-阿斯托里亚卷烟厂
to educate the children of the factory workers
的工人们的孩子
from the Waldorf Astoria Zigaretten Fabric
因此有了这个名字
– hence the name.
所有的孩子 无论社会地位和天赋如何
All kids, independent of social status or talent
都接受同样的教育
received the same instruction,
从而使学校成为教育界社会公正的先驱
which made the school a pioneer of social justice in education.
华德福教育的目标是培养自由的
The goal of a Waldorf education is to develop free,
但道德上有责任感
but morally responsible individuals
具有非常强的社交能力和创新能力的人
equipped with a high degree of social competence and creative capabilities.
事实性知识 家庭作业和考试分数则受到较少的关注
Factual knowledge, homework and tests scores receive less attention.
讲故事和实验是主要的教育方法
Storytelling and experimentation are the main method of instruction,
通过12年的教育课程 学生会学习数学
Over the twelve-year curriculum, students learn math,
文学 历史和科学
literature, history and science as well as
也会学各种各样的艺术和手工技能
a wide variety of arts and hands-on skills.
初级学生学习画画 编织 纺织和用蜡雕刻
Elementary students paint, knit, weave and sculpt with wax.
较高年级的学生制作图案 书籍 陶器和雕刻石头
Older ones make patterns, books, pottery and sculpt in stone.
所有人都会学音乐
Everybody learns to do music.
先是吹长笛
First of all play the flute,
然后一些人弹弦乐器 另一些加入合唱团
then some play string instruments and others join the choir.
学生们玩非竞争性的游戏
Students play non-competitive games
学习跳韵律舞蹈
and learn to dance eurhythmy.
他们在最初的几年
They do organic farming and learn two foreign languages,
在被教受歌曲 讲故事和会话的过程中
which in the first years are taught through songs,
也学了有机耕作和两门外语
storytelling and conversations.
在8年级和12年级
In grade 8 and 12
整个班要学习古典的戏剧
the entire class develops a classical drama
而且会在他们的父母和朋友面前表演
which they perform in front of their parents and friends.
华德福教育对几乎所有的主要学科
Waldorf uses a unique project based approach to
都采用一种独特的基于项目的方法
almost all main academic subjects.
而不是重复的时间表
Instead of repetitive schedules,
一个特定的科目 比如历史 数学 科学
a specific subject such as history, math, science or even
甚至园艺都会支配大早上的两个小时
gardening dominates the first two hours in the morning
为期4到6周
for a period of 4-6 weeks.
那之后 一个新的科目会得到主要的关注
After that, a new subject gets the main focus.
斯坦纳还发明了一种通往科学的经验办法
Steiner also invented an experientialapproach to science
凭借学生观察 之后用他们自己的话和图示
whereby students observe and later describe scientific concepts
去描述科学的概念
in their own words and drawings
而不是先从课本上学习那些概念
rather than learning about them in a textbook first.
华德福学校因此觉得电脑
Waldorf schools therefore consider computers
只在孩子青少年时期
useful to children only in their teens,
在他们掌握了基本的
after they have mastered fundamental,
历史悠久的发现知识和学习方法之后才有用
time-honored ways of discovering information and learning.
在个人发展和移情的精神层面
In the spirit of personal development and empathy,
竞争和成绩是被回避的
competition and grades are being avoided.
相反 老师会评估学生个性的成长
Teachers instead assess the student’s individual growth of character.
在更高年级的学生准备大学和入学考试时
tests scores and grades are only slowly introduced to
考试分数和成绩才会慢慢地介绍给他们
older students as they prepare for college and entrance exams.
现今在60个国家有超过一千所华德福学校
Today there are over a thousand Waldorf schools in 60 countries,
使它成为最大的独立学校运动之一
making it one of the largest independent school movements.
华德福教育已成为欧洲公认的教育理论
Waldorf has become a recognized educational theory in Europe
它的学校已收到国家的资金支持
and its schools have received state funding.
著名的华德福教育的家长有克林特•伊斯特伍德
Famous Waldorf parents include Clint Eastwood,
蓝尼•克罗维兹 福布斯家族和许多
Lenny Kravitz, the Forbes family and many parents
来自硅谷的科技行业的家庭
from Silicon Valley’s tech sector
尽管斯坦纳对科技和大众传媒有批评性意见
despite Steiner’s critical view of technology and mass media.
史蒂夫•乔布斯曾告诉一位科技记者
Steve Jobs once told a tech journalist
问他的孩子喜不喜欢新款iPad
who asked whether his children like the new iPad
“他们没用过” 他继续说道:
that they haven’t used it and continued:
“我们限制他们在家使用电子产品的时间”
“We limit how much technology our kids use at home.”
备受推崇的精神病学家威廉•格拉瑟有句名言:
Acclaimed psychiatrist William Glasser famously said
“我们从读过的东西中学到10%的知识
that we learn 10% of what we read,
从听到的话语中学到20%的知识
20% of what we hear,
从看到的事物中学到30%
30% of what we see,
但从我们经历的事情中能学到80%
but 80% of what we experience
有人可能会说 尽管华德福教育采用的是低技术含量的教学方法
one could argue that despite their low-tech approach,
但它的实验学习法却是非常现代的
the experimental learning method of Waldorf education is exceptionally contemporary.
你觉得呢
What do you think?
请在下面的评论里分享你的看法吧
Please share your thoughts in the comments below!

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视频概述

视频介绍了华德福教育的发展和教育方式

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收集自网络

翻译译者

果松松

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BkrgkslnD9g

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