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动物也会经历青春期? – 译学馆
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动物也会经历青春期?

Wait…Animals Go Through Puberty Too?

大家好 感谢收看今天的DNews Plus
Hey everyone, thanks for tuning into DNews Plus today.
我是特雷斯 这是青春期系列三集中的第一集
I am Trace, and this is our first episode in the series of three on puberty.
每个人都有青春期
Puberty happens to everybody.
所以 我们想知道关于它的一切
And, so we wanted to know what it is all about.
确保你订阅了我们的节目这样你就可以获得这个系列的全集
Make sure you subscribe so you get all the episodes in the series.
你可以通过声云和iTunes收听我们的节目
You can check us out over on soundcloud and iTunes
如果你只想听而不想看到
if you just wanna hear, you don’t wanna see
我的怪诞青春脸的话
my weird puberty face.
我们本周将要学习的是
And what we gonna learn this week is
青春期到底是如何发生的 比如
how puberty comes about exactly, like,
为什么我们不是一出生就可以生育
why aren’t we born ready to reproduce?
动物也会经历青春期吗
Do animals go through puberty?
影响青春期的萌生因素有哪些呢
What things affect the onset of puberty?
青春期到底是个什么东西呢
What is this puberty thing exactly?
还有 就算我们可以逆转青春期的影响
And even if we can reverse the effects of puberty.
非常酷
Supercool.
但首先 让我们讨论一下青春期的发展史
But first, let’s talk about the evolution of puberty.
老化是生命的一部分
Aging is a part of life.
你知道的 任何东西都会变老
You know, everything ages.
不是所有东西的死亡都是因为老化
Not everything dies because of age.
那又是另一码事了 但是
That’s a whole other story, but,
所有的东西都会老化
everything does age.
我们讨论过这个问题
We’ve talked about it
还尝试弄明白如何逆转它
and try to figure out how to reverse it,
并试图理解为什么几乎人类一出现就有了变老这回事
and try to understand why it happens pretty much as long as there’s been humans.
这些年我们已经了解了很多关于老化的事情
And we’ve learned a lot about aging over the years.
老化基本上就是你身体变老时它所经历的变化
And aging is basically changes that your body goes through as it gets older,
尽管老化在这个星球存在很长时间了
as it’s been around on this planet for long periods of time.
然而 一些重大的变化
Some of the biggest changes, however,
最快速的变化 发生在青春期
the most rapid changes come during puberty.
但是为什么青春期要发生在青春期的时候
But why does puberty happen at the time it does?
为什么不是你一从妈妈的肚子里蹦出来
Why aren’t you just popped out of your mom,
就准备好开始生你自己的小宝宝
ready to start, you know, making your own babies?
有机体的生命长度是我们都听过的一个术语
The length of the life of an organism is a term we’ve all heard,
你知道的 就是寿命
you know, life span.
人的寿命差不多已快速增长
The human life span has been increasing exponentially more or less.
据国家卫生统计中心
According to the National Center for Health Statistics,
1907年美国人的预期寿命
life expectancy for a man in the United States in 1907
约为45.5岁
was only about fourty-five and a half years.
到1957年 预期寿命已上长到约66.5岁
By 1957, it had gone up to sixty-six and a half, thereabouts,
到了2007年 已经增为75.5岁了
and in 2007, it’s gone up to seventy-five and a half.
尽管研究表明
Studies have shown though,
实际上我们并没有活得那么长
that we aren’t actually living that much longer.
只是婴儿死亡率下降了
It’s just the infant mortality rates have plummeted,
这是这些数据中一个很重要的因素
and that’s a large factor in these statistics,
所以之前这些数据有偏差
so the numbers were skewed before,
现在我们的小宝宝们不会死亡
and now that our babies aren’t dying,
我们就活得更长
we are living longer.
我们经常把最长寿命与平均寿命弄混
We often confuse maximum human life span with life expectancy,
它们不是一码事儿
and those are not the same thing.
两个同时出生的人将有不同的经历 不是吗
Two people born at the same time are gonna have a different experience, right?
一个可能在婴儿时期就死掉
One could pass away as an infant,
另一个可能会活到70岁
the other could live to be 70,
所以平均生命将仅为35岁
so the life expectancy would only be 35,
前提是如果你只有那个数据组
if you only had that data set.
但那不表明生活在那个区域的大多数人
But that doesn’t mean the majority of people living in that area
只会活到35岁
are going gonna live to 35.
婴儿死亡率歪曲了这个数据
Infant mortality skews this data.
所以 人的寿命应该是多长
So how long are humans supposed to live?
最长寿命是什么
What’s the maximum human life span,
平均寿命是什么
the average human life span?
从进化论观点看
Well, from an evolutionary point of view,
仅够我们生出另一个小孩
only long enough for us to pop out another baby.
那不就是进化所关注的一切吗
That’s really all that evoluntion cares about , right?
所以 如果真是那样
So if that’s the case,
为什么我们的生殖系统不早些形成
why is it that our reproductive systems don’t develop sooner?
为什么我们不能够更早地生孩子
Why can’t we pop out kids sooner?
不是吗 很多很多的动物
Right? A lot of, a lot of animals
和植物
and a lot of plants
还有很多细菌和其他东西
and a lot of bacteria and things,
你知道的 它们可以立刻繁殖
you know, they can reproduce right away.
它们不需要等待 再回到我们人类身上来
They don’t need to wait, and that comes down to ourselves.
在细胞增殖 即有丝分裂过程中
During the cellular reproductive process called mitosis, chromosomes
带有遗传物质的染色体在细胞核中再生细胞
with genetic material are reproduced in the nucleus.
当染色体翻倍 子染色体将变成两个子细胞
Once the chromosome is doubled, those are sent to 2 daughter cells.
如你所知 一个细胞变成两个细胞
You know, you get 1 cell and then you get 2.
这个分裂的细胞在分裂之前是完整的染色体
The dividing cell then gets a complete chromosome before it separates.
在这过程之前 母细胞通常体积翻倍然后分裂
Proceeding this process, the mother cell usually doubles in size and then splits.
有丝分裂具有周期性 这就是整个过程
It’s a cycle, Mitosis. So that’s the process,
是基础生物学 有丝分裂
it’s basic biology. Mitosis.
但是我们只生长孕育一段固定的时间
But we only grow or gestate for a certain amount of time
而且我们出生时非常需要帮助
and we’re really needy when we’re born, right?
婴儿不会真的自己做那么多
Babies don’t really do that much on their own.
关于为什么是这样有一些说法 其中两个是这样的
And there are a few theories to why this is. Here are two of them.
长期公认的理论是分娩困境
One long held theory was the obstetrical dilemma.
基本上我们的大脑在母亲怀着我们的时候不会发育完全
Basically our brains don’t fully develop inside of the mother’s body,
因为我们骨盆狭窄 而产道直接穿过骨盆
because we have narrow pelvises and the birth canal goes right through the pelvis.
所以如果我们有一个发育完整的大脑
So if we had a fully developed brain,
它是穿不过产道的
it wouldn’t make it out the birthing canal.
它会卡在那里 导致婴儿和母亲死亡
it would get stuck in there and that would kill the infant and the mom,
这不是一个进化优势
not exactly an evolutionary advantage.
这是一种说法
So that’s one theory.
我们需要依靠更多后期发育
We have to develop more, later.
罗德岛大学的人类学家Halley Dunsworth做了更多的研究
More research was done by an anthropologist at the University of Rhode Island named Halley Dunsworth.
我们把这个研究叫代谢理论 因为
We’re going to call this the Metabolic theory because, you know,
我们无法找到其他的命名
it doesn’t really have a name that we can find.
她说道
And she says, quote, “there’s not a unique
“对妊娠期长短和婴儿大小没有特殊的骨盆限制”
pelvic constraint on gestation length and baby size,
“但就代谢角度而言 母亲有一定的能力限度”
but there is a certain capacity that a mother has metabolically.
“一旦达到了那个限度 婴儿就会出生”
And once that capacity is reached, the baby is born.
总的来说 当孕妇体型变化时她会发现这一点
Basically she found that when you account for body size,
更多是在说母体的代谢能力
it’s more about the mother’s metabolism
还有她能够给婴儿提供多少
and how much she can give to the infant.
差不多一个女人怀孕期持续不能超过约9个半月
More or less a woman can’t sustain a pregnancy for more than about 9 and a half months.
那是因为人能承受的最大代谢率
And that’s because the max metabolic rate
平均在2次到2.5次之间
that humans can sustain between 2 and 2.5 times on average.
所以过不了多久 母亲不得不生出小孩
So after a little while, the mom has to have the baby.
越往后对母亲会越危险
It’s gonna become more dangerous, for her.
所以我们知道了我们出生后将在体外继续发育
So with that in mind if we’re developing outside of the body,
那么在发育的某个阶段
afterward, then it would make sense that at some point
我们需要进入青春期
in that development we would need to kick into
就很合理了 不是吗
the puberty system. Right?
我们需要学习怎样变成
We need to learn how to or start developing how
或者开始成长为一个有性别的生物而不仅是成长中的生物
to become a sexual being as opposed to just a developing being.
另外 人类的生育时间并不比我们相邻族类短很多
By the way, human gestation isn’t that much shorter than our closest relatives.
红毛猩猩生育时间比我们短些
Orangutans’ is a little shorter.
对于黑猩猩和大猩猩 我们生育时间稍长
Uhh.. chimps’ and gorillas’, ours is a little longer.
但是大多数动物在胎儿期过后不久 至少在体型上已经完全成熟了
But most animals are fully mature at least in size not too long after embryonic development.
我们人类需要更长时间
We take a lot longer.
在出生时 我们形成了生殖器官但是它们还没有实质功能 没有被启动
At birth, we have developed our sex organs but they’re not functioning yet, they haven’t been swtiched on.
我们的生殖器官直到我们青春期还在发育
Our sex organs grow all the way until puberty, they’re still in develoment.
但是人类不是唯一要经历青春期的动物
But humans aren’t the only animals that go through puberty.
事实上 据密歇根州立大学的一位
In fact, according to a wildlife information specialist
野生动物信息专家吉姆哈廷
at MiChigan State University named Jim Hartin,
所有的动物都会经历青春期
all animals go through puberty.
我的意思是 不是像我们一样的方式 你懂的
I mean, not the same way that we do, you know.
它们不会生气 乱扔东西 朝它们父母大叫 各种叛逆
They don’t get angry and throw thing and yell at their parents and rebel and stuff,
但是 它们的确会随时间推移变得性成熟
but, they do transition to sexual maturity over time.
他说 如果你用性成熟转变过程角度看这个问题
He said a quote, “If you look at it that way as in their transitioning to sexual maturity,
你可以说 所有的动物也都会经历某种青春期
you could say that all animals go through a kind of puberty, too.”
猴子 黑猩猩 大猩猩都和人类有类似的生理变化
Monkeys and chimpanzees and gorillas all have similar biological changes to humans.
雌性有月经周期 雄性体型变大
And the females have monthly menstrual cycles, the males become larger
肌肉越来越发达 越加处于掌控位置
and more muscular and more in charger.
还有灵长类动物屁股变鲜红以示生育能力
Another primate butts change to bright red to show fertility.
我很欣慰我们不会这样 那会很奇怪的
I’m kind of glad that we don’t do that, it become weird.
海龟要长到一定大小才会变得性成熟
Turtles don’t become sexually mature until they reach a certain size.
一些海龟种类在达到那个大小之前跟雌性海龟看起来一模一样
Some species of turtles look exactly like female turtles until they reach that size,
当它们达到那个大小后尾巴变粗 壳变色
and then they get thicker tails, and their shells change color,
非常疯狂
It’s super crazy.
很多动物性成熟明显的标志是侵略行为增多
And the clear sign of reaching sexual maturity for a lot of animals is a rise in aggression,
我们人类也会这样
which we goes through as well.
我没开玩笑 你想想
As I was just joking about, you know.
跟父母吵架 跟朋友吵架 跟所有人吵架
You fight with your parents, you fight with your friends, you fight with everybody.
所有人无时无刻不在争执
Everybody is fighting all the time.
我读哈利波特五 你也是
I read Harry Potter Book five, so did you.
他非常生气
He got really angry,
那只是不是我的最爱而已
and it was just not my favorite.
无论怎样 没什么好惊讶的
Anyway, no surprise there.
所以一旦青春期开始 老天啊 事情都开始变化了
So once puberty starts, man, oh man, the things change.
那是我们明天在节目中会说到的
And that’s what we’re gonna talk about tomorrow here on Dnews plus.
会非常有意思的
It’s gonna be super cool.
朋友们 我们今天只说了一些关于这个话题表面的东西
We’re just scratching the surface of this topic, you guys.
所以记得订阅 这样就不会错过下几期
So make sure you subscribe so you get the next couple of episodes.
如果你想了解其他非常非常酷炫的东西
So If you want to learn some other really really cool stuff,
看看Great Courses plus
Check out the Great Courses plus.
我们非常感谢他们赞助了这一期
They sponsored this episode so we want to thank them for that.
Great Courses plus可以根据你的需要提供给你一个巨型图书馆
The Great Courses plus gives you on-demand access
那里各领域的专家会给你
to a huge library where really really awesome video courses
呈现非常不错的视频课程
presented by experts in their fields.
你能通过那个节目大开眼界
You can check out experiencing the hubble,
领略宇宙之浩瀚
understanding the greatest images of the universe.
非常非常酷
It’s really really, really really cool.
我无法言喻
I can’t say really enough.
如果你想要Great Courses plus的课程无限使用权
If you want unlimited access to all of the Great Courses plus lectures,
你可以帮忙注册一下 从今天开始你的免费月
you can help us out by signing up to start your free month today.
这不仅帮助了这个节目 你也可以学到很多其他很酷的东西
It helps the show, and you get to learn a whole bunch of other cool stuff.
登录thegreatcoursesplus.com/dnewsplus
Go to thegreatcoursesplus.com/dnewsplus.
记住 是thegreatcoursesplus.com/dnewsplus 描述里有链接
Remember, that’s the Great Courses plus.com/Dnews plus. There’s a link in the discription.
所以 青春期是我们所有人尴尬的时期吗
So puberty is a awkward time for us all?
你有经历过声音失控的尴尬场面吗
Did you have any voice cracking that caused an embarrassing situation for you?
我当时很瘦
I was just gangly.
我非常瘦
I was so gangly.
我有个非常尖细的声音 我的声音没有变深沉
And I had a really high voice. My voice didn’t deepen.
我现在声音也没有非常低沉
I mean I don’t have a super deep voice now.
我的声音一直没变
My voice didn’t deepen until I was like,
直到我差不多13岁
13…
应该是这样的
I think,
非常尴尬 在公交车上所有人都是
which is awkward to be on the bus and everybody was like,
[低沉声音] “嘿 你好吗”
“Hey man, what’s up?”
我却是 [细尖声音] “你好吗”
and I’m like, “How’s going?”.
一点都不好玩
Not awesome.
总之 在评论区写下你的青春故事让我们知道
Anyway, let us know your puberty stories down in the comments.
一定要订阅哦 这样你就可以得到明天的Dnews plus
Make sure you subscribe so you get tomorrow’s episode of Dnews plus.
我是特雷斯 我们明天见
I’m Trace. We’ll see you then.

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视频概述

青春期是如何形成的?所有的动物都有青春期吗?

听录译者

汉堡君不想起床

翻译译者

Kirsten

审核员

T

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RIaLE-i3kHI

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