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火山的低语帮助科学家预测火山爆发 – 译学馆
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火山的低语帮助科学家预测火山爆发

Volcanic Whispers Are Helping Scientists Predict Eruptions

火山是不可预知的自然能量
Volcanoes are unpredictable forces of nature
世界上大约有1,500座地质活跃的火山
and there are about 1,500 geologically active ones around the world.
咱们细细道来
Let that sink in.
Bárðarbunga火山位于冰岛2014年它从地壳裂缝中喷薄而出
This one, Bárðarbunga in Iceland, spewed thousands of cubic feet of molten lava
熔岩高达千立方英尺
from a crack in the earth’s crust back in 2014.
但按火山学家的标准 它这次属于和平爆发
But by volcanologists standards, that was considered a peaceful eruption.
真的和平么……
Peaceful…

Huh.
有朝一日 Bárðarbunga火山可能会再次爆炸性地喷发
Bárðarbunga could erupt explosively again one day,
导致航线关闭 释放很大的环境污染
shutting down air travel and unleashing a level of environmental destruction
掩埋道路 房屋和我们日常生活中的一切
that would wipe out roads, homes, and daily life as we know it.
全世界都有诸如Bárðarbunga火山之类的活火山
Active volcanoes like this one exist all over the world,
但请不要曲解“活”的意思
but “active” is sort of a misnomer…
活火山意味着随时爆发 也可能不爆发
An active volcano can erupt at any time, but it could also not.
就和冒泡的大锅一样的性质
That’s the nature of these bubbling cauldrons.
它们极其危险 极其神秘……并且很难预测
They’re incredibly dangerous and mystifying… and so hard to predict.
科学家正努力寻找火山爆发的时间规律
Scientists are working hard to figure out when a volcano is going to erupt.
所以我们现在力所能及的好办法就是
So the best we can do now is whittle a prediction down
将火山预测精简成一系列概率和可靠推测
to a series of probabilities and best guesses…
为了做到这一点 火山学家的工具包里少不了几件家伙:
And to do this, volcanologists have a few things in their tool kit:
地震检波器能精确指出岩浆的上升和下降
seismometers that can pinpoint the rise and fall of magma,
热成像能检测火山的热量
thermal imaging to detect the heat around a volcano,
化学传感器能嗅出硫和二氧化碳之类的火山气体
and chemical sensors that sniff for volcanic gases like sulfur and CO2.
但就算有了所有这些数据点 仍然不能有效预测火山喷发
Even with all of these data points, there’s still no volcano forecast.
没人能说“火山就在几天内喷发”
No one can say “this will erupt in X days.”
科学家们努力预测的同时
As they work toward getting a forecast,
也为自己的工具包添加了另一件家伙:地震噪声干涉测量法
scientists are adding another tool to their kit: seismic noise interferometry.
它能听到火山的“窃窃私语”
It’s like listening to the “whispers” of a volcano.
[火山声音]
[VOLCANO SOUND]
好了继续我们的话题
Let’s break that down.
在一项研究中 研究人员分析了
In a study, researchers analyzed seismic noise moving
四年来穿过夏威夷基拉韦亚火山的地震波
through the volcano Kilauea in Hawaii over a four year period.
地震噪声是地球的低层震动
Seismic noises are low-level vibrations in the Earth;
由地震 海浪产生
they come from earthquakes, ocean waves,
岩浆在火山中翻腾也能产生地震噪声
or in this case, magma swirling inside a volcano.
通过使用地震噪声干涉测量法
By using seismic noise interferometry,
研究员可以测量火山活动时的地震速度
the researchers measured the speed of seismic activity moving through a volcano.
这种方法能够记录震动的传播速度
They were able to record how fast the vibrations were traveling
并隔离内部的噪声或“窃窃私语”
and isolated the noise or “whispers” coming from inside.
通过隔离地震噪声
By isolating the seismic noise,
科学家们能够识别火山内部压力增强的声音
scientists were able to identify the sounds that indicate an increase in internal pressure,
它是地震爆发的警告信号
which is a warning sign for a future eruption.
然后研究人员将这些结果和第二组数据进行比较
Going one step further, the researchers compared those results to a second set of data
第二组数据测量了随时间推移火山顶形成的膨胀和收缩
which measured the bulging and shrinking of a volcano’s summit over time.
基拉韦亚火山是一座非常活跃的火山
Kilauea is a very active volcano.
随着岩浆室内压力的增强和减弱
As the pressure in its magma chamber increases and decreases,
该火山不断膨胀和收缩
it is constantly bulging and shrinking.
这使基拉韦亚火山成为此类研究的主要候选者
This makes it a prime candidate for this kind of research.
研究人员发现了该火山内部
The researchers found a correlation between the speed
地震能量速度与膨胀收缩的关系
of this volcano’s seismic energy and its bulging and shrinking.
岩浆满溢时会导致压力增强
As the magma fills up, it causes an increase in pressure,
进而产生更快的地震波
which produces much faster seismic waves.
火山喷发前往往会出现隆起和破裂
And volcanoes tend to bulge up and out before an eruption.
所以结合这两组数据
So, by combining these two data sets,
研究人员能更准确地预测火山喷发的时间
researchers were able to more accurately predict when an eruption could happen.
科技进步让火山学家更加了解这些活火山的内部运作
Technical improvements like these are bringing volcanologists one step closer to understanding
更加了解导致大规模火山喷发的行为诱因
the inner workings of these explosive mountains and the behaviors that lead to a massive eruption.
我们还有更多工作要做
We’ve still got more work to do,
但地震预测正变得愈加准确
but predicting chaos is getting that much more precise.
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you’re taking the first steps in creating an identity and vision for your brand.
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No domain extension will help tell your story like a .com or .net domain name.
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地球上火山喷出的熔岩达1,000摄氏度
Volcanoes spew lava at 1000 degrees Celsius on earth,
但是你知道宇宙中有喷冰的火山吗?
but did you know there are volcanoes out in our universe that spew ice?!
请继续关注本频道的银河冰火山视频
Learn more about galactic ice volcanoes here.
你亲眼见过火山吗?你想去一睹真颜吗?
And have you ever visited a volcano or want to one day?
请在评论中告知我们 并订阅我们的频道Seeker
Let us know in the comments and subscribe for more Seeker.
感谢观看
Thanks for watching.

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视频概述

本视频为你介绍如何更准确地预测火山喷发。

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收集自网络

翻译译者

ccz

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aWshCrG-BJY

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