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探寻人类未踏足之地

Visiting North Sentinel - An Island Untouched For 60,000 Years

It may not look like it
可能它看起来不像
but this is known as the most dangerous island in the world.
但它确实被认为是世界上最危险的岛屿
At first glance it looks like one of the many islands
乍一看 它只是孟加拉海湾
in the Andaman Islands located in the Bay of Bengal.
安达曼群岛的其中一座岛屿
But, what is that shape of its coast
但它海岸上的这块轮廓是什么?
and what secrets does this island hide?
这座岛屿又隐藏着什么秘密呢?
Prepare to be amazed by the story of
准备好为
what is believed to be the last known pre-neolithic people on Earth
地球上最后存在的前新石器时代人类的故事
and one of the few uncontacted civilizations.
以及为数不多与世隔绝的人类文明之一感到震惊吧
(whimsical music)
[音乐播放中]
Just how have these people remained free
但是这些人怎么与外界
from outside interference for so long?
隔绝了这么长时间呢?
After all, the rest of humanity is spread around the globe.
毕竟 其余人类分散在全球各地
Ironically,although they have not
讽刺的是 尽管他们几千年内没有
left North Sentinel Island in many millennia,
离开北森提奈岛
the Sentinelese are believed to be descended
森提奈人仍被认为是
from one of the first groups of humans to leave Africa.
第一批离开非洲的人类的后裔之一
Historically, European colonization of other parts of the world
历史上 世界上其他地方的欧洲殖民
hasn’t ended well for the Indigenous people.
对当地的人民并不友好
Fortunately for the Sentinelese, they’ve managed to avoid being colonized
幸运的是 森提奈人设法避免了被殖民
and haven’t really had much contact with the rest of the world at all.
实际上 他们与世界的其他地方也没多少接触
There have been a few instances though.
但还是有几个与外界联系的事例
The Sentinelese are believed to have been among
森提奈人被认为是
the first humans to leave Africa,
第一代离开非洲的人
settling on their island around 60,000 years ago.
约6万年前 他们定居在那座岛屿上
They’re known to the Onge,
森提奈人被昂格人所熟知
another group of indigenous people from the Andaman Islands.
昂格人是安达曼群岛上的另一群当地人
Based on what little is known of the Sentinelese,
基于对森提奈人仅有的一些了解
their culture also seems similar to the Onge.
他们的文化似乎也和昂格人的文化相似
However, when the British brought Onge members
但是 当英国人在19世纪带昂格人
to meet the Sentinal Island group in the nineteenth century,
与森提奈群岛部落的人会面时
they were unable to communicate as their languages were very different.
他们却不能交流 因为他们的语言不通
It was clear there had been a long period of separation
很显然 这两个部落已经
between the two groups.
分离了很长时间了
In 1771, British surveyor John Ritchie noticed lights on North Sentinel Island
1771年 英国勘测员约翰·里齐注意到北森奈岛有灯光亮起
while doing some work for the East India Company.
那时他正在东印度公司工作
You might remember their association with Christopher Columbus.
你可能会想起他们与克里斯托弗·哥伦布之间的关联
Unlike Columbus, Ritchie didn’t stop at North Sentinel Island,
与哥伦布不同 里齐没有在北森提奈岛停留
but noted the multitude of lights, and moved on.
只注意到那有很多灯光 然后继续前进
The island disappears from recorded history until 1867,
在1867年之前 这座岛屿都没有出现在历史记载中
when an Indian merchant ship called the Ninevah wrecked on its shores.
直到一艘名为尼尼微的印度商船在该岛的海岸沉船
A little more than a hundred passengers survived,
当时大约有一百多人生还
and after a few days on the shore,
在海岸上度过几天之后
they were attacked by the Sentinelese,
这些人就遭到了森提奈人的攻击
who didn’t seem to want any company.
他们似乎并不欢迎任何访客
The captain noted the Sentinelese carried iron-tipped arrows,
船长注意到那些森提奈人拿着铁尖箭头
shortly before he escaped in a small boat.
幸好此时他刚刚逃到一艘小船上
He was later picked up by a rescue party, along with everyone else
后来他被一个救援队救起
along with everyone else who managed to survive
与他一起获救的还有其他
by throwing sticks and stones at the Sentinelese.
通过向森提奈人投掷木棍和石子而成功逃生的人
For the next thirteen years,
在接下来的13年里
the British colonists of the Andamanese Islands took the hint
安达曼岛的英国殖民者明白了森提奈人的意愿
and left North Sentinel alone.
独自离开了北森提奈岛
But in 1880, the officer in charge of the colony,
但是在1880年 负责该殖民地的政府官员
Maurice Vidal Portman, led an expedition to the island.
莫里斯·维达尔·波特曼率领了一支远征队前往该岛
They took along some aboriginal people of the Andamanese islands
随行的有安达曼岛屿的土著人
who guided them into the island,
他们指引着队伍进入岛内
where they found pathways and recently abandoned villages.
在岛上 他们发现了很多道路和不久前才被遗弃的村庄
The Sentinelese seemed to have vanished into the forest.
森提奈人似乎消失在森林中
Portman might have been relieved they didn’t stick around
波特曼应该要庆幸他们没有在附近埋伏
and defend their home by throwing arrows,
并用箭矢来保护他们的家
but he decided to press his luck and keep looking.
但是波特曼决定试试运气 继续探索
After several days, he found six of the island’s people,
几天之后 他发现六个岛内的人
an elderly couple and four children.
一对老夫妻和四个孩子
Then he decided the best way to introduce himself and his society
然后他想出了最好的向他们介绍自己以及自己的社会的方式
would be to kidnap them.
即绑架他们
Yeah, (laughs) I know,
是的(发笑)我知道
the logic here isn’t very well thought out.
这个逻辑在这里讲不通
They were hauled onto his ship and taken to Port Blair.
他们被迫上船 并被带到布莱尔港口
Shortly after, the captives all became very sick,
不久之后 俘虏们都开始身患重病
likely due to the fact that their isolated community had not been exposed
可能是因为他们生活的地方在近6万年来从没有被
to the rest of the world’s germs in almost 60,000 years.
世界其他地区的细菌所感染
The elderly couple died,
那对老夫妻死了
and the children were quickly returned to the island with a bunch of presents.
孩子们很快也带着一些礼物回到岛屿
Portman apparently thought that
很明显 波特曼认为
gifts totally make up for kidnapping and wrongful death.
那些礼物完全可以作为绑架行为和异常死亡的补偿
Actually,he didn’t express any remorse about what happened,
事实上 他一点也不为发生的事情懊悔
and instead insulted the Sentinelese,
相反 他还侮辱了森提奈人
saying they had what he thought of
说他认为森提奈人的
as an idiotic expression of countenance and manner of behavior.
表情和行为方式都像白痴一样
Portman made several more visits to the island which he was lucky to survive,
波特曼又去了几次那个他幸运生还的岛屿
considering how he introduced himself plus the people’s lack of fondness for strangers.
想着要怎么向这些不喜欢外人的岛民介绍他自己
He may have had second thoughts about his actions though
然而 他可能又重新思考了他的行为
because in later years he noted that
因为几年后 他指出
the islanders’ interactions with outsiders had done them nothing but harm.
岛民与外界的联系对他们是有害无利的
After that, the island was mostly left alone,
之后 这座岛屿基本上保持与世隔绝
although an escaped convict from Port Blair made it onto the shore in 1896.
尽管1896年一名从布莱尔港逃脱的罪犯登上了海岸
Apparently the Sentinelese had decided they were through with outsiders,
显然 森提奈人已经决定与外界斩断一切联系
maybe because of that whole kidnapping incident and promptly killed him.
也许是因为那起绑架事件 他们很快杀掉了他
Before I talk about more recent episodes of contact with the island,
在我讲述更多这座岛屿的故事之前
you should subscribe if you’ve enjoyed this video.
如果你们喜欢这个视频 请订阅我们的频道
We upload amazing, fact-filled videos daily.
我们会每天更新有趣 内容真实的视频
Also,make sure to click that bell icon to stay updated,
另外 请确保点击铃铛图标以确保更新
or you’ll regret missing out on some amazing knowledge that could have filled your brain.
否则 你将遗憾错过能够充实你的大脑的有趣知识
Now lets get back to it.
让我们言归正传
It wasn’t until the 1960‘s that anthropologists decided
不管怎么说 19世纪60年代 人类学家决定
to study the island and its people, or try to, anyway.
要研究或尝试研究这座岛和岛上的居民
Indian anthropologist Triloknath Pandit
印度人类学家特里洛克纳特·潘迪特
was the first to land on the island in 1967,
是1967年第一个登岛的人
and like Portman, he initially found it deserted.
像波特曼一样 他最初也认为岛屿很荒芜
He and his crew poked around the empty huts,
他和他的同伴四处翻找空木屋
leaving gifts of candy, cloth, and buckets,
留下了糖果 布料 水桶这些赠品
and pilfering a few items for their own study.
也偷偷拿了一些有助于研究的东西
A few years later,
几年之后
a second group of anthropologists visited the island to shoot a documentary.
第二支人类学家队伍为了拍一个纪录片而登岛
They were accompanied by Indian police, apparently out of concern they’d be attacked.
他们身边跟着印度警察 显然 他们怕遭到攻击
Their fears were realized when a hail of arrows headed for their boat.
他们担心的事发生了 一阵箭矢射向他们的船
They moved away from the attackers and landed further down the shore,
他们逃离了那些攻击者 在较远的一处海岸登岛
but it wasn’t long before arrows were flying again,
但是不久后 箭群再次向他们飞来
even as they left gifts of coconuts, cookware, a doll, and a pig.
恰好在他们正留下椰子 厨具 一个玩偶和一头猪这些礼物时
The director was shot in the thigh,
导演被射中了大腿
and the tribe member who shot him had a good laugh
射中导演的部落成员大笑
while the others buried the pig and doll.
而其他人在将玩偶和猪埋起来
Guess he wasn’t quite ready for his closeup.
估计导演还没准备好拍摄特写
The crew were treated
拍摄组的全体人员被粗暴对待
and that was the end of documentary-making on North Sentinel Island.
森提奈岛上纪录片的拍摄也就不了了之了
Then in 1981, a ship called the Primrose ran aground just off the island.
1981年 一艘名为普林姆罗斯的船在岛屿附近触礁
The crew was at first relieved to see land,
一开始 船员看到陆地非常开心
then their relief quickly turned to horror
但他们的开心很快就变成了恐惧
when they saw the Sentinelese people running toward them with weapons.
因为他们看到森提奈人带着武器向他们跑来
After sending out a distress call,
发出求救信号后
they fought the natives off with axes and a flare gun.
他们用斧头和信号枪与当地人搏斗
Eventually they were rescued by the Indian Navy.
最终他们被印度海军援救
The wreck of the Primrose is that mysterious shape
你将在北森提奈海岸看见一个神秘的轮廓
you’ll see off the coast of North Sentinal here.
那就是普林姆罗斯号的残骸
But Despite the tribe’s unfriendliness,
但即使北森提奈人不友善
Pandit continued visiting the island intermittently for more than twenty years.
潘迪特20年来仍然时不时地参观这个岛屿
In 1991, he finally had a peaceful encounter with some Sentenelese men.
1991年 他最终和一些森提奈人开始和平相处
They even climbed into his boat and looked it over.
森提奈人甚至登上船查看
He distributed coconuts, which don’t grow on the island
潘迪特给岛民们分发了岛上没有的椰子
but the tribe members seem to like.
部落成员看起来也挺喜欢的
After that, the Indian government decided to stop studying the island,
之后 印度政府决定停止研究这座岛屿
fearing anthropologists or other visitors might bring modern germs to the Sentinelese.
担心人类学家或其他访客会把现代人的病菌带给他们
Yes, more than a hundred years after Portman sickened his kidnapping victims,
没错 在波特曼让他的俘虏们生病的一百多年之后
someone finally thought of that.
终于有人想到了这一点
The Indian government has said
印度政府称
they have no desire to interfere with the island’s residents or enforce law there.
他们不会再去干扰岛上的居民或者强制实行法律
Although North Sentinel is technically considered a protectorate of the Indian government,
即使北森提奈在法律意义上属于受印度政府保护的领地
for all practical purposes, it remains a sovereign entity.
但实际意义上 它仍然是一个主权实体
Yet, the Indian government did send a helicopter
然而 在2004年海啸发生的几天之后
to check on the island several days after the 2004 tsunami.
印度政府还是派了直升机视察这座岛屿
They feared the people had not survived,
他们担心那里的人不能在海啸中幸存
but they were wrong.
但是他们错了
Apparently the inhabitants had moved to higher ground before the tsunami hit.
显然 那里的居民在海啸来临之前就搬到更高的地方去了
Although the storm damaged their fishing grounds, they seem to have adapted.
尽管暴风雨破坏了他们的渔场 他们似乎已经适应了
Two years later, a couple of fisherman got drunk
两年之后 两个渔民喝醉
and fell asleep on their boat.
然后在船上睡着了
Unbeknownst to them, their homemade anchor of a rock on a rope failed,
他们不知道绳子连着的自制岩石锚脱钩了
and they drifted toward North Sentinel Island.
他们漂向了北森提奈岛
Other boaters tried to warn them, but they didn’t notice,
其他的船民尝试提醒他们 但是他们没有注意到
probably because they were under the influence of large amounts of alcohol.
可能因为他们仍然处在醉酒状态
Sadly, there’s a reason you shouldn’t drink and drive a boat.
可悲的是 你不应该酒后驾船是有原因的
They drifted into the shallows of the island,
二人漂到了岛屿的浅滩上
where the Sentinelese shot and killed them with arrows.
他们死于森提奈人的箭下
The Indian coast guard attempted to retrieve their bodies in a helicopter,
印度海岸警备队尝试用直升飞机找到两人的尸体
but they, too, were met with a hail of arrows.
但同样 他们遭到了群箭射击
Finally they gave up,
最终警备队放弃了
noting the bodies appeared to have been buried in shallow graves on the island.
表示尸体已经被埋葬在岛屿的浅墓穴里
Since the incident, the Indian government established
发生这次事件后 印度政府在岛屿
a three mile exclusion zone around the island,
周围划出三千米的禁区
to protect both its inhabitants,
以保护岛上居民
and anyone unlucky or inebriated enough to get too close.
也防止那些运气背或者醉酒的人靠近岛屿
Because they are so secluded and eschew visitors,
因为森提奈人很隐蔽 不喜欢访客
little is known about the Sentinelese.
所以能够得到的相关信息非常少
They’re hunter-gatherers
他们是擅长狩猎的部族
who migrated to the island prior to the development of agriculture.
在农业开始发展之前就迁移到岛上
Their huts are constructed of palm leaves,
他们的木屋是用棕榈叶搭建的
and they have larger communal dwellings with partitions.
并有更大的带有隔墙的公共住宅
Their weapons consist of javelins and flat bows.
他们以标枪和平弓为武器
Arrows collected from helicopters that buzzed the island suggest
从飞过该岛的直升机上收集到的箭表明
they use different arrow shapes for different tasks,
他们用不同形状的箭来完成各种各样的任务
like hunting, fishing, and defense.
比如狩猎 捕鱼和防卫
The island is surrounded by coral reefs, with no natural harbors.
这座岛被珊瑚礁包围着 没有天然海港
Much of it is covered in forest,
这座岛大部分被森林覆盖
and it’s impossible to know exactly how many people live there.
很难确切知道有多少人住在里面
Estimates range from 50 to 500.
据估计大概有50到500人口
Despite the three mile exclusion zone around the island,
尽管岛屿周围三千米是禁区
the Sentinelese still have modern day threats.
森提奈人仍然会受到现代社会的威胁
In the Andaman Islands, tourism businesses often promise
在安达曼岛屿 做旅游生意的人总许诺带游客
to show visitors the oldest tribes found in these islands.
参观在这些岛上发现的最原始的部落
Some have ruthlessly exploited the Jarawa, another native tribe of the Andaman islands.
有些人无情地开发加拉瓦 这是另一个安达曼岛的土著部落
Concerns arose when one resort began construction on new buildings,
当一个度假村开始在非常靠近加拉瓦保护区建造新建筑时
very close to the Jarawa reserve.
人们开始担忧了
On the Andaman Trunk Road, hundreds of vehicles travel through every day.
在安达曼干道 每天有许多车辆经过
Their guides treating the Jarawa like human safari attractions.
导游们把加拉瓦当成人类野外探险景点
This has led Activists trying to
这导致一些积极分子
protect the native people of the Andaman Islands
发起参加保护安达曼岛土著的活动
to express concerns about North Sentinel Island.
以此来表达他们对北森提奈岛的关心
Local operators have even started to organize the Ultimate Human Safari,
当地的私营企业甚至开始组织“人类终极野外探险”活动
carrying people to the shores of North Sentinel Island in armor protected boats.
用装甲保护船把人们运送到北森提奈岛
Survival International, a group dedicated to tribal people’s rights around the world,
致力于保护世界各地部落人民权力的国际生存组织
is working to end the human safaris in the Andaman Islands,
正努力阻止人类在安达曼岛的旅行活动
and protect both the Jarawa and Sentinelese people.
同时保护加拉瓦人和森提奈人
On the issue, a spokesperson for the organization, Miriam Ross has said,
在这个问题上 这个组织的发言人米粒拉姆·罗斯表示
we continue to emphasize
我们一直强调
that there should be no further attempts to contact the Sentinelese,
不要再试图打扰森提奈人
urging the administration of the Andaman Islands
并力劝安达曼岛的政府部门
to adhere to this by putting a stop to poaching around the island
要禁止在岛屿周围偷猎 以确保原住民不被打扰
which led to the deaths of two fishermen in 2006.
2006年已经有两个渔民因此死亡
She adds it is vital to let the Sentinelese live in peace,
她补充道 让森提奈人安宁生活非常重要
pointing out that further contact with outsiders could be disastrous for both parties.
还指出森提奈人和外界的进一步联系对双方都是灾难
While contact with the tribe is clearly unwise,
虽然与部落的接触显然是不明智的
people remain curious about the tribe.
但人们仍然对部落感到好奇
It’s possible we could learn more about human history
也许通过研究一个长期与世隔绝的部族
from studying such a long secluded group of people.
我们能了解到更多人类历史
Since visiting the island is out,
访问该岛已经不可能了
much of what is known
很多已知的信息
was gathered from the observations of helicopter pilots who flew over it.
都是从飞过该岛的直升机飞行员的观测中收集到的
This is disruptive to the native people, however,
然而 这会对岛民的生活造成干扰
and results in arrows being lobbed at the choppers.
直升飞机也会遭到箭矢的攻击
With the advent of modern technology,
随着现代技术的兴起
some experts have considered sending in small drones to study the Sentinelese.
一些专家考虑派遣无人机去研究森提奈人
This would avoid many of the problems of further human contact with the people,
这避免了他们进一步与其他人类接触的麻烦
but would still present ethical problems,
但道德问题仍然存在
as it might constitute a violation of the tribe’s privacy.
因为这种方式可能会侵犯部落人的隐私
Some people wonder if the Sentinelese could benefit
有些人琢磨森提奈人是否可以从
from modern advancements like medicine and agriculture.
现代先进的药和农业中受益
But anthropologist, Sita Venkateswar,
但是人类学家西塔·文卡特什瓦尔
says these kinds of seemingly benevolent contacts with primitive tribes
认为这种看似与原始部落的友好联系
often do more harm than good.
经常是弊大于利的
She notes the Jarawa, who first made contact with outsiders in 1997,
她特别提到1997年首次与外界联系的加拉瓦人
suffered many problems as a result.
最终遭受了许多麻烦
What it did was open up a world that they didn’t comprehend, she says.
她补充道 结果只是加拉瓦人打开了一个他们不能理解的世界
Adding the tribal members were not yet
再加上部落成员尚无法
in a position to control their own destiny,
控制自己的命运
some started using alcohol and tobacco products,
有一些部落成员开始喝酒 抽烟
and they ended up having a very stratified, uneven relationship
最终与现代世界的人们之间建立了
with people of the modern world.
明显断层和非常不平衡的关系
Despite the level of interest this uncontacted tribe holds,
尽管大家对这个不与外界接触的部落很感兴趣
it may be in everyone’s best interest to leave the Sentinelese people alone
但所有人来说最好的选择应该是让森提奈人独自待在
on the most dangerous island in the world.
世界最危险的岛屿上
Do you think we should be visiting them,
你认为我们应该访问他们
or should we just leave them in peace?
还是让他们过着安宁的生活?
Let me know in the comment section down below.
在下面的评论区留言 让我知道你们的想法
Also, if you enjoyed this video please leave it a like and subscribe,
另外 如果你们喜欢这期视频 请点赞并订阅我们的频道
Clicking that bell icon to never miss a new video.
记得点击铃铛图标 以免错过最新视频
Thanks for watching.
感谢收看
(peaceful music)
[音乐播放中]

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视频概述

视频讲述了世界上最危险的岛屿北森提奈岛和居住在岛上的原始部落的相关故事,即从被发现以来人类和森提奈岛之间发生的故事,北森提奈岛是可以研究更多人类历史的一个地方,我们要继续探索还是让北森提奈人安宁生活呢?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

你在这里当咸鱼呀

审核员

审核员SF

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WXY1Dp-eWzA

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