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维京人入侵英格兰

Vikings: War for England - Danelaw DOCUMENTARY

878年 阿尔弗雷德大帝与维京人大战并惊奇取胜
In our previous video we covered king Alfred’s surprise victory
这一点我们在之前的视频中提到过
over the Vikings at Edington in 878
这场胜利使不列颠国土得以为继
this victory both ensured the survival of his kingdom
还为西撒克逊人赢得喘息的空间
and allowed the West Saxons the breathing room needed
使其能为下一次不可避免的入侵做准备
to prepare for the next inevitable invasion.
尽管古斯鲁姆战后退回东安格利亚
Though Guthrum retired to East Anglia after the battle
但韦塞克斯仍然面临来自其他地方的潜在攻击
Wessex still faced potential attack from elsewhere.
古斯鲁姆在异教徒大军初到后的十余年
Just as Guthrum had successfully carved himself out a kingdom
创立了自己的王国
well over a decade after the initial arrival of the Great Heathen Army
其他人也很容易到来并做同样的事情
another could just as easily come and do the same.
阿尔弗雷德在九世纪八十年代将王国的各种集镇转换成堡垒
Alfred spent the 880s converting the various market towns of his kingdom
用作加强版的安全港和当地民兵的集合点
into ‘burhs’ which would act as fortified safe-havens and meeting points for local militias.
阿尔弗雷德还和仍在盎格鲁撒克逊控制下的
Alfred also forged a lasting alliance
部分麦西亚地区进行持久结盟
with the portion of Mercia still under Anglo-Saxon control,
879年左右 西奥武甫国王死后
now under the rule of a warlord of unknown origins named Æthelred,
该领土落入不知来历的埃塞尔雷德军阀手中
after the death of King Ceolwulf in around 879.
880年代长女阿赛尔弗莱德和埃塞尔雷德的婚姻使结盟一锤定音
The alliance was sealed by the marriage of Alfred’s eldest daughter Æthelflæd to Æthelred
而他女儿开始作为韦塞克斯的诸侯行使管辖权
in the early 880s, who began to rule as a vassal of Wessex.
此时 阿尔弗雷德还和南威尔士王国缔结了同样的条约
Alfred also achieved a similar arrangement with the southern Welsh kingdoms during this time,
而南威尔士王国的领土被持扩张主义的自己人分割了——
whose rulers were hemmed in by the expansionist sons
格温内思郡和波厄斯郡的罗德里大帝
of Rhodri the Great in Gwynedd and Powys.
北威尔士国王中最有权势的皇帝
The most powerful of these northern Welsh kings,
阿纳拉德·阿帕·罗德里或许会在最终接受西撒克逊人的隶属之前
Anarawd ap Rhodri may have allied himself with the Vikings
和与韦塞克斯对立的约克郡维京人进行合作
of York against Wessex before eventually accepting West Saxon vassalage,
并由此牵制阿尔弗雷德的西部边境
thus securing Alfred’s western border.
最终古斯鲁姆到890年死时都和韦塞克斯和平相处
Ultimately Guthrum kept the peace with Wessex until his death in 890.
但是 仅两年后
However, just 2 years later
堡垒系统将面临首次真正的考验
the burh system would face its first real test
因为两支拥有300多艘帆船附载大艇的巨大舰队
when two massive fleets of raiders comprising of over 300 longboats
在海洋之王哈施泰因的领导下抵达肯特海岸
under a sea-king named Hastein arrived on the Kentish shore.
虽然过去十年风云变幻 韦塞克斯依然屹立不倒
Yet times had changed over the last decade, and Wessex held out.
896年哈施泰因的手下只有两个选择
By 896 Hastein’s men either left
要么完全离开不列颠 要么被驱逐到东盎格利亚
Britain entirely or dispersed into East Anglia.
毕竟不列颠的堡垒系统生效了
The burh system had worked.
899年阿尔弗雷德死时
Upon his death in 899 Alfred left his kingdom to
把王国留给了大儿子兼继承人爱德华
his eldest son and heir Edward.
然而继位之路并非一帆风顺
The succession was not smooth, as Alfred’s
因为阿尔弗雷德的侄子阿赛尔伍德有心阻碍
nephew Æthelwold also made his claim.
侄子北逃 逃入诺森比亚的丹麦控制地区
He fled north to the Northumbrian Danelaw,
然后被被当地统治者热情地接受了
where he was enthusiastically accepted by the local rulers,
因为这些统治者很明显非常乐意一劳永逸地
who were apparently happy to finally conquer the last
征服盎格鲁撒克逊的最后一个王朝
Anglo-Saxon kingdom once and for all.
阿赛尔伍德在诺森比亚聚集了军队
Æthelwold gathered an army in Northumbria,
于901-902年往南航行到艾塞克斯
and by 901 or 902 sailed south to Essex.
阿赛尔伍德获得了一个有价值的盟军
He gained a valuable ally
即东盎格利亚地区的维京国王艾瑞克
in the Viking king of East Anglia Eohric.
他们共同指挥了一场深入麦西亚的袭击
Together they conducted a raid deep into Mercia.
902年12月 爱德华也组织了一支军队
By December 902 Edward had also raised an army,
很可能由西撒克逊人
likely comprised of West Saxons,
麦西亚人 肯特人组成
Mercians and Kentishmen,
爱德华的武装力量
and his forces finally succeeded in catching
在霍姆河附近沼泽低地的一次剧烈战役中终于成功俘获了阿赛尔伍德
Æthelwold in a vicious battle in the marshy lowlands near the River Holme.
夕阳西下 丹麦人渐露胜势
By day’s end it was the Danes who emerged victorious,
虽然他们为成功付出了沉重的代价
yet they paid a heavy toll for their victory:
但东盎格利亚国王艾瑞克和阿赛尔伍德都被杀死
East Anglian king Eohric and Æthelwold were both killed.
扫除了阿赛尔伍德 爱德华终于能够
With Æthelwold out of the way Edward could now finally focus on consolidating
巩固自己国家的统治了
his rule at home.
在麦西亚西部的阿赛尔莱德
In the western portion of Mercia meanwhile Æthelred
和埃塞尔弗莱德也是一派繁忙
and Æthelflæd had been busy too,
比如阿尔弗雷德加强防御工事
following the example set by Alfred in fortifying the
丹麦律法区也尽己所能修建堡垒
frontier with the Danelaw by building burhs wherever they could.
作为埃赛雷德和埃塞尔弗雷德婚礼嫁妆的一部分
As part of Ethelred’s marriage arrangement with Æthelflæd,
阿尔弗烈德给了麦西亚人伦敦市的控制权
Alfred had given the Mercians control of the city of London,
这是一个肥沃的所得物
a hefty source of income.
两个统治者看管着这一方之地
Together the two rulers oversaw a revival
以待麦西亚权力的复兴
of Mercian power in a reduced area,
特别阿赛尔弗莱德在封地居民中变得极为受欢迎
and Æthelflæd in particularly became extremely popular amongst her adopted people.
但是不久之后
Yet soon enough the Mercians would
麦西亚人再次被迫进行自卫
be forced to go on the defensive once again.
902年 爱德华一直与他的堂兄弟斗争
Just as Edward had been fighting his cousin in 902,
大批维京人从爱尔兰离去
a mass exodus of Vikings
导致殖民被大量流放到麦西亚北部
from Ireland had led to the settlement of a large group of exiles in the lands
占据了切斯特城——
just to the north of the Mercian held town of Chester,
一座旧罗马时代的堡垒
an old Roman fortress.
麦西亚人希望这些爱尔兰维京人
The Mercians may have hoped that these Irish Vikings to act as a buffer against
能够作为缓冲对抗丹麦人的威胁
the ever-present threat of the Danelaw.
但是907年 维京人和丹麦人结成联盟
But by 907 these Vikings had aligned
包围了切斯特
themselves with the Danelaw to besiege Chester.
当麦西亚军队由阿赛尔弗莱德带领
When the Mercian army went north to deal
开到北部解决这个新威胁时
with this new threat, it was Æthelflæd
阿赛尔弗莱德却由于疾病丧失了行动能力
leading them, as Æthelred was incapacitated due to illness.
接下来发生了什么并不清楚
What happened next is unclear,
但是麦西亚人在切斯特被维京人打败了
but the Mercians defeated the Vikings at Chester, and
而阿赛尔弗莱德和埃塞尔雷德受到严密控制
now Æthelflæd, Æthelred who was firmly in control.
麦西亚人的攻势在无形酝酿
The Mercians were going on the offensive.
那时爱德华的儿子阿赛尔斯坦还在麦西亚
At that time Edward’s son Æthelstan was being fostered
由姑姑阿赛尔弗莱德收养
by his aunt Æthelflæd in Mercia.
909年 他发起了一次突袭
In 909 he led a raid deep
深入维京领土
into Viking territory to retrieve the relics
企图恢复著名诺森伯兰郡国王奥斯瓦德的领土
of the famed Northumbrian king Oswald.
他的军队还一不做二不休
His army also took the opportunity to
趁约克郡的维京人反应不及
pillage the lands of Lindsey for five weeks
在林德赛地区抢劫了7天
before the Vikings in York could react.
下面的故事中
We are going to talk about Æthelstan him
我们要更详细地谈论到阿赛尔斯坦
in much more detail in the next episode.
910年 诺森比亚人开始了报复
In 910, the Northumbrians retaliated, launching a massive raid deep
他们深入麦西亚 发起巨大袭击
into Mercia. They ravaged the
他们毁坏了农村
countryside and loaded up on plunder before
在返回北部时装满了战利品
beginning the journey back north.
就在那时 在一个叫泰特豪的地方
It was then, at a place named Tettenhall, that a
西撒克逊和麦西亚联军出其不意地俘获了维京人
combined West Saxon-Mercian army caught the Vikings by surprise.
在接下来的大屠杀中 维京武装力量的领导阶层被全部杀死
In the ensuing bloodbath the entire leadership of the Viking force was killed,
受损的约克郡几年才能振作起来
crippling York for years to come.
从许多方面来看 泰特豪是一个转折点
Tettenhall was a turning point in many ways.
终于埃塞尔雷德辞世了
It was around this time that Æthelred finally passed away,
但在这个军国主义男性统治的社会
and quite astonishingly, despite being a woman
作为女性 阿赛尔弗莱德身上发生了一件令人惊讶的事
in a militaristic male-dominated society,
她被选取作为继承人
Æthelflæd was chosen as his successor,
并以“麦西亚女王”的身份统治
ruling under the title ‘Lady of the Mercians’.
但是 很快她就被迫将伦敦的控制权让给韦塞克斯
However, soon she was also forced to relinquish control of London to Wessex.
虽然并没有继承人 但阿赛尔弗莱德也会长居王位
Æthelflæd would continue to rule, though as she had no male heir,
不过自此独立的麦西亚开始走向终结了
it was the beginning of the end for independent Mercia.
接下来的8年 阿赛尔弗莱德不遗余力地
For the next eight years she tirelessly dedicated her
倾尽身心修建堡垒
time to building burhs not only
其修建的堡垒从5个行政区到东部的边界
along the frontier with the Five Boroughs to
还和西部的威尔士王国遥遥相对
the east, but also against the Welsh kingdoms to the west.
这段时间东麦西亚的5个自治区之间
A state of perpetual warfare existed with the Five Boroughs
长期处于战争状态
of Eastern Mercia during this time,
历史记录显示莱斯特和贝德福德
with occasional raids recorded from the towns
会对西麦西亚发动时不时的袭击
of Leicester and Bedford into Western Mercia.
同时爱德华终于做好了准备
Edward meanwhile was finally ready to
准备攻打在自己领土边界上的维京人
go on the offensive against the Vikings on his own borders.
911和913年间 爱德华经由陆路 海路
Between 911 and 913 he moved his forces
把军队开往艾塞克斯
by land and by sea into Essex,
在莫尔登镇修建防御工事
fortifying the town of Maldon and attempting to bring the area
并试图将这个地区完全纳入西撒克逊人的统治
under full West Saxon control.
这是自从北方人的到来后第一次
For the first time since the coming of the Northmen,
韦塞克斯获得了新的土地
Wessex was gaining new lands
而莫尔登将变成爱德华进攻东盎格利亚的基地
and Maldon would become a base from which he could attack East Anglia.
但是914年
Yet in 914,
阿赛尔弗雷德和爱德华想要制造潜力攻击的计划
any potential attacks Æthelflæd or Edward might have wanted to make
突然中断
suddenly came crashing to a standstill.
因为在布列塔尼海峡处
Across the channel in Brittany a massive
一只巨大的维京人舰队征服了整个地区
Viking fleet had just conquered the entire region,
消灭了该地的统治家族
extinguishing its ruling family,
此刻 在两大军阀罗尔德和奥提尔的领导下
and now, under the leadership of two warlords named Rold and Otir
该舰队来到了不列颠
was coming to Britain.
他们行经布里斯托尔海峡 进入塞文河
Sailing up through the Bristol Channel they headed into the
试图出其不意地拿下麦西亚
River Severn in an attempt to take the Mercians by surprise.
但是再一次
Yet once again,
面对阿赛尔弗雷德的防备
Æthelflæd was ready for them,
他们被赶出麦西亚 赶到威尔士
pushing them out of Mercia and into Wales,
在战争中罗尔德被杀
and killing Rold in the process.
爱德华追击奥提尔及其残余势力
Edward pursued Otir and his remaining vessels all
一直追到加的夫附近的弗拉特岛
the way to the island of Flatholme near Cardiff.
最终奥提尔放弃了英格兰 跨海退守爱尔兰
Finally, Otir gave up on England and went across the sea to Ireland.
这就是战争的最终相持阶段
The stage was now set for the final confrontation of the war.
914年 爱德华也入侵了
By 914 Edward too was making
5个自治区
inroads into the Five Boroughs,
迫使贝德福德和北安普郡的部分维京人投降
forcing the submission of some of the Vikings of Bedford and Northampton.
917年 爱德华和阿赛尔莱德都做好了准备
By 917, both Edward and Æthelflæd were ready for
要发动对维京人的最终攻击
their final assaults upon the Vikings.
来自5个自治区的
A large force of Danes from the southern
一大股丹麦势力
portion of the Five Boroughs allied themselves
与东盎格鲁人结成联盟
with the East Anglians, who finally
最终决定开始行动
decided to make a move.
维京人试图搬照撒克逊人的胜利
They attempted to mirror the success of the Saxons by
在贝德福德郡建立自己的堡垒
building their own burh at Tempsford in Bedfordshire.
但几周后 爱德华的武装力量猛攻堡垒
Within weeks however Edward’s forces stormed the burh,
杀了东盎格鲁国王 一路扫荡
killed the East Anglian king, and swept onwards
拿下整个东盎格利亚和麦西亚东南部地区
to take the whole of East Anglia and South-eastern Mercia.
阿赛尔弗莱德也没闲着
Æthelflæd was also on the move.
917年年中 她齐集手下的精英军队
In mid-917 she marched her now elite army
横跨边境 直达德比
across the border and directly towards the borough
并在此地进行了围城
of Derby where they laid siege to the town.
一次猛战后 城池被攻陷
After a fierce battle, the town fell,
自此阿赛尔弗莱德收复了麦西亚的大片土地
and with it, large swathes of eastern Mercia.
918年 斯坦福德的3个自治区——
By 918, Leicester was the next to submit,
斯坦福德 诺丁汉 林肯投降了
followed by the other three boroughs of Stamford,
莱斯特接下来也屈服了
Nottingham and Lincoln.
在阿赛尔弗莱德的领导下
Under Æthelflæd, Mercia had
麦西亚最终完成了它的复国之路
finally completed its reconquest and now found itself
并将边境界限恢复到
with nearly the same borders
维京人到来之前的状态
as it had prior to the coming of the Vikings,
但阿赛尔弗莱德并没有止于此
yet she didn’t stop there.
918年夏季
In the summer of 918
约克郡的维京人同意向阿尔弗雷德投降
the Vikings of York agreed to submit to Alfred.
而最终协议没有变现 因为阿赛尔弗莱德于同年去世了
Ultimately, the deal never materialised, as Æthelflæd passed away that same year.
她最终留下的只有一个叫埃尔芙文的独生女
She was succeeded by her only child, a daughter named Ælfwynn.
918年 亨伯河南部的英格兰全境都受控于盎格鲁撒克逊人
By 918 all of England south of the Humber was under the Anglo-Saxon control.
爱德华挥师北上 到塔姆沃斯去逮捕埃尔芙文
Edward marched north to Tamworth to seize Ælfwynn.
埃尔芙文的余生都被迫在修道院里度过
She was placed in a monastery for life, and
而麦西亚最终融合进爱德华日益壮大的王国中
Mercia was finally incorporate into Edward’s growing kingdom.
然后 就像父亲阿尔弗雷德一样
Then, like Alfred before him,
爱德华也获得了5个威尔士王国的忠实投靠
Edward achieved the fealty of the five Welsh Kingdoms,
由此在历史上爱德华首次统一了
thus uniting most of the lands south of the Humber
亨伯河南部的大部分土地
for the first time in history.
而英格兰残余的维京人统治地区就是诺森比亚
All that remained in England under the Viking control was the kingdom of Northumbria,
它将变成爱德华的下一个目标
and it would have become the next target of Edward.
虽然爱德华吞并麦西亚
Though just as Edward was
把它纳入自己日益壮大的盎格鲁撒克逊领土
annexing Mercia into his ever-growing Anglo-Saxon realm, the Dublin Norse,
都柏林的挪威人很快震慑于爱尔兰的伊瓦尔王朝
members of the soon to be feared Uí Ímair dynasty
以一场闪电攻击吞并了约克郡
of Ireland, annexed York in a lightning attack.
这对英格兰的统一造成了新威胁
This created a new threat to the bourgeoning united England.
感谢你观看本系列的第三个视频——
Thank you for watching the third video in our series
维京入侵英国系列历史
on the Viking invasions of Britain.
别忘了订阅我们的频道
Don’t forget to subscribe,
如果你不想错过这个系列的新视频
if you don’t want to miss the new videos in this series,
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you can also click the bell icon
我们将在每周日的早上
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为你推送相关视频的新动态
as we always have something new for you on Sunday mornings.
在此感谢我们patron账户的赞助者
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因为你们的赞助才有这些视频
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视频概述

且看阿尔弗雷德大帝死后,其儿女对英格兰统一的捍卫。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

ABC

审核员

审核员YX

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GQMNQgFX9mw

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