未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)

《尤里乌斯·凯撒》--莎士比亚

Video SparkNotes: Shakespeare's Julius Caesar summary

尤利乌斯·恺撒是罗马历史上一位重要的人物
Julius Caesar was an important figure in the history of Rome,
因为他结束了罗马共和国末期的混乱局面
because he helped to bring about the end of the Roman Republic.
整整450年 并非只有一个人统治罗马
For 450 years, Roman had not been ruled by a single person
而是由执政官
but instead had elected officials,
元老院 部族会议 三权分立
a Senate, a system of checks and balances,
建立了一个政治系统
and a political system that
避免出现专政独裁
kept one person from having all the power.
尤里乌斯·凯撒是个成功的将军
Julius Caesar was a successful general
他征服了罗马以外的众多领土
who conquered territories outside of Rome
让罗马成为了一个庞大的帝国
and helped to turn Rome into a large empire.
凯撒强大后
He became such a powerful figure that
打败了众多政治对手
after defeating his political rivals,
成为了罗马共和国的独裁者
he took on a role of dictator,
所以他亲自挑选元老院的议员
so that he picked all the candidates for the Senate
并且自己决定哪部法律应该被通过
and decided personally which laws would be passed.
但是他不享有类似于国王或者帝王的头衔
He didn’t have a title such as King or Emperor,
罗马实际上还算是一个共和国
and Rome was technically still a Republic,
但是它整个运行却跟从前大不相同
but wasn’t working like one any more.
凯撒成了终身独裁者
It had become a permanent dictatorship.
公元前44年 尤里乌斯·凯撒被暗杀
Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 B.C..
凯撒来元老院的路上
He was stabbed by a group of senators
被一群议员刺杀
as he was on his way to the Senate.
行刺者宣称 杀了凯撒 是为了让罗马重新变成共和国
The assassin said they were killing him to bring back the Republic.
莎士比亚的戏剧《尤里乌斯·凯撒》
Shakespeare’s play “Julius Caesar”
并不是讲述这个人物
isn’t about Julius Caesar the character,
而是将更多的笔墨侧重在这场暗杀
so much it is about the assassination,
以及暗杀之后的事情
and what happened afterward.
这场暗杀有两个人的作用不容忽视
The two people responsible
卡西乌斯以及布鲁特斯
for the assassination are Cassius and Brutus.
卡西乌斯的杀人动机很简单
Cassius’s motive was pretty simple.
因为凯撒不喜欢他 所以他恨凯撒
He hates Caesar, because Caesar doesn’t like him.
他憎恶凯撒的独裁
He resents Caesar’s power,
所以他的行动完全是出于个人原因
so his motive is personal.
但是他知道 刺杀凯撒后 唯一可以逃脱的办法就是
But he knows he can only get away with killing Caesar
有足够多的人可以相信
if he can get enough people to believe that
这场暗杀是为了罗马的利益
the assassination is for the good of Rome.
为了实现这点
In order for that to happen,
他需要他的姐夫布鲁特斯的帮助
he needs his brother-in-law Brutus.
布鲁特斯在这场戏剧中扮演着重要的角色
Brutus is an essential figure in the play.
他出身于一个古老的贵族世家
He is from an old and famous family,
因为品行高尚 而享有名望
and he has a reputation for being noble.
事实上 400多年前 他的一位祖先
In fact, one of his ancestors, 400 hundred eariler,
推翻了罗马最后的一位皇帝
was responsible for overthrowing the last King of Rome,
并率先建立了罗马共和国
and founding the Roman Republic in the first place.
因此有部分原因是布鲁特斯这个家族姓氏很重要
So it’s partly Brutus’s family name that is important.
由于布里特斯的帮助
With Brutus’s help, it’s easier for the conspirators
其同谋者就更容易宣扬这场暗杀是为了共和国的未来
to say the assassination was for the good of the Republic.
卡西乌斯需要布里特斯帮忙的另一个原因是
Another reason Cassius needs Brutus
凯撒喜爱布里特斯
is that Caesar loves Brutus.
他们是朋友
Brutus and Caesar are friends,
虽然卡西乌斯明显得不到凯撒的欢心
while Cassius is obviously not Caesar’s friend.
因此 如果布里特斯是这场谋杀的主谋
So if Brutus’s the leader,
这看起来就不是出于私人动机的谋杀
it won’t look like he’s doing it for personal motives.
在这场剧目开始时
At the beginning of the play,
一群人在街上庆祝
crowds of people are in the streets celebrating,
凯撒刚在内战中打败了他的对手庞培 凯旋归来
because Caesar has returned from beating his rival Pompey in a civil war.
两个民选官 弗拉非乌斯和马尔拉斯
Two of the elected officials Flavius and Marellas
上前将这些人驱散
go around driving these people off the streets
并把装饰物从雕像上拿下来
and removing decorations from the statues.
他们对群众说:“看吧 凯撒回来了 可他并不是征服了一个外族入侵的敌人
What they say to people was “Look, Caesar didn’t come back for conquering a foreign enemy,
他只是打败了庞培 另一个罗马领导者
he just beat Pompey, another Roman leader,
所以他将会成为一个独裁者
so he can be the dictator.
那我们还在这庆祝什么呢?”
What is to celebrate about that?”
之后我们看到 由于这件事 凯撒将他们赶出了元老院
Later we find out that Caesar has them removed from office for doing this.
接下来的一幕是 凯撒和他的追随者
Next we see Caesar and his followers
走在庆祝和观看赛跑的仪式上
on their way to a celebration and a footrace.
无论什么时候看见凯撒 他显得都是那样傲慢
Whenever we see Caesar, he seems very arrogant.
他命令着周围的人
He gives orders to those around him,
好像在说 自己是无人能战胜的
and speaks about himself as if he’s invincible.
凯撒的妻子 卡尔普尼亚 陪在他的身旁
Calpurnia, Caesar’s wife, is with him here.
马克·安东尼 凯撒最忠实的支持者 也在身旁
So is Mark Antony, Caesar’s most loyal supporter.
马克·安东尼喜欢竞赛 运动 聚会和喝酒
Mark Antony loves games, sports, parties and drinking.
凯撒信任他
Caesar trusts Mark Antony,
因为他觉得 知道享受生活的人
because he thinks someone like that who enjoys life is
是不太可能威胁他地位的
less likely to threaten him than someone
而不像卡西乌斯 整天就在那沉思 不知道在想什么
who is always brooding and thinking, like Cassius.
卡西乌斯把布鲁特斯从人群里拉出来
Cassius makes Brutus hang back from this crowd,
方便他尝试劝说布鲁特斯
so he can try and convince Brutus that
卡西乌斯跟他说 在罗马很多人认为布鲁特斯跟凯撒一样伟大
a lot of people in Rome think Brutus is just as good as Caesar,
并且希望他站出来挑战凯撒的专制
and wish he would stand up and challenge Caesar’s power.
其实他在撒谎
This is a lie.
卡西乌斯只是想利用这点来操控布鲁特斯
Cassius is just trying to manipulate Brutus.
之后 卡西乌斯甚至把带有纸条的石头
Later Cassius even throws rocks
扔进布鲁特斯的窗户里
with notes attached through Brutus’s window,
或是把消息放在元老院他的椅子上
and leaves notes on his chair in the Senate.
布鲁特斯以为是人民试着让他站出来反对凯撒
So Brutus will think multiple people are trying to get him to stand up to Caesar.
因此布鲁特斯同意加入这场反对凯撒的阴谋
Brutus agrees to be part of a conspiracy against Caesar and
一个深夜 所有同谋者聚到他家
the rest of the conspirators gather in his house late at night.
在这里 我们可以明白关于布鲁特斯的两件事
We can tell two things about Brutus already.
第一 他是个空想主义者 第二 他是个傻瓜
One, he’s idealistic, and two, he’s a fool.
一系列戏剧性的事件促使了这场暗杀
A series of dramatic events occurs leading up to the assassination.
一个算命的 警告过凯撒
A soothsayer, a fortune teller, warned Caesar
“谨防3月15日” 那天他一定会死
to “beware the Ides of March” the day he actually does die.
就是3月15日
That’s March fifteen.
一场大暴雨席卷了罗马
A massive thunderstorm moves over Rome,
那天电闪雷鸣 天气闷热
with so much lightening it seems to be raining fire.
人们看见一只狮子趴在国会大楼上
People see a lion in the Capital building,
其他人看见了那只狮子正在产仔
and another see the lion giving birth.
布鲁特斯的妻子波西亚试图说服他
Brutus’s wife, Portia tries to convince him to
告诉她 他正在做什么 毕竟她是他的妻子
tell her what he’s up to since she’s his wife.
他几乎都要说了 最后一刻又被叫走了
He almost does but gets distracted at the last minute.
凯撒的妻子梦见丈夫浑身是伤 伤口还在喷血
Calpurnia has a dream in which Caesar is spouting blood from many wounds.
她试着说服他不要
She tries to convince him not to
那天去元老院 他同意了
go to the Senate that day, and he agrees.
但是其中一个阴谋者德西斯用花言巧语说服了凯撒
but one of the conspirators Decius convinces him
如果他不去 会显得软弱
he’ll look weak if he doesn’t go.
一个叫奥特蒙·奥都诺丝的人给凯撒塞了一张纸条上面揭露了这个阴谋
A man named Arterm Odorous gives Caesar a paper telling him about the plot,
可是凯撒并没有打开纸条
but he can’t get Caesar to read it.
对这些事情有两个完全不同版本的解释
All of these events suggest two different interpretations.
第一 即使所有这些事情
The first is that even though all of these things
都阻止了这场暗杀
might have stopped the assassination,
那也会有更强大的力量
it’s as if there are higher powers
来推动谋杀凯撒这件事发生 就是命运
that are moving events towards Caesar’s murder, meaning its fate.
第二个阐释是
The second interpretation is
凯撒本可以避免被杀
that Caesar could have avoided being killed,
他的命运也没有事先被决定
his fate wasn’t predetermined,
但是他的傲慢致使他忽略了所有的警告
but his arrogance caused him to ignore all these warning signs,
他的死完全归咎于个人
so his death was his own fault.
暗杀发生在
The way the assassination occurs is
凯撒去元老院的路上
that Caesar is on his way to the Senate,
他身旁跟着一大群人
together with a crowd of the people
里面就混杂着同去元老院的暗杀者
including the conspirators who are going to the Senate too
因为他们是元老
because they’re Senators.
在他们达到之前 一个叫蒙特斯的暗杀者跪下
Before they get there, a conspirator named Metellus gets down on his knees
请求凯撒可以准许他流放的兄弟回国
and asks Caesar to bring back his brother whom Caesar banished.
凯撒拒绝了 布鲁特斯和其他人
Caesar refuses it, and Brutus and the others
将凯撒团团包围 跪下求他
crowd around Caesar and kneel,
凯撒拒绝后 他们一个接一个的拿刀刺向了他
then they all stab Caesar one after the other,
第一个行刺的人是卡斯卡 最后一个是布里特斯
starting with the senator named Casca, and ending with Brutus.
凯撒大喊:“At tu Brute”
Caesar says “At tu Brute”,
意思是:“布里特斯 居然你也” 然后就死了
meaning “you too Brutus”, and then dies.
人们奔走相告 消息很快就传开了
The populace goes wild as the news spreads.
马克·安东尼 第一个就逃跑了
Mark Antony first runs away,
但是他派一个仆人去打听
but then sends a servant to ask
是否他可以安全回来 然后让他问问暗杀的起因是什么
if he can safely come and ask them the reasons for the assassination.
卡西乌斯和其他同谋者
Cassius and the other conspirators
都想杀了马克·安东尼
all want to kill Mark Antony too,
但是布里特斯说:“不行
but Brutus says “no,
那样太暴力了
that will seem too violent,
既然凯撒已经死了
now that Caesar is dead,
马克·安东尼便不会再忠诚于他”
Mark Antony won’t stay loyal to him.”
他犯了一个天大的错误
This is a big mistake.
马克·安东尼请求可以在凯撒的葬礼上发言
Mark Antony asks for permission to speak at Caesar’s funeral,
卡西乌斯和其他人都说:“不可能”
again Cassius and the others say “no way”.
但是布里特斯同意了
But Brutus says to let him,
只要他不散播一些关于他们不好的言论
as long as he doesn’t say anything bad about them,
如果我们许可他这样做了 也不会发生什么事的
and if he’s doing it with their permission nothing can happen.
这又是一个大错
This is another big mistake.
布里特斯发表声明解释
Brutus gives a speech explaining that
他爱凯撒 但是凯撒野心勃勃
he loved Caesar, but Caesar was ambitious,
他想要自立为帝
meaning he wanted to be a King.
所以布里特斯杀了他 因为他更爱罗马
And so Brutus killed him because he loved Rome more,
平民赞成这个解释
The populace like the speech.
之后安东尼发言
Then Antony speaks.
他说 他并不打算抨击任何阴谋者
He says he’s not going to criticize the conspirators,
但是他提醒民众 凯撒为他们做了多少贡献
but he reminds them how much Caesar did for them,
他是如何想要给凯撒加冕 但被拒绝的
and how he offered Caesar a crown and Caesar refused.
之后 他向人民看了凯撒的外袍
Then he shows them Caesar’s cloak
上面都是被刺的洞
and all of the holes stabbed through it,
安东尼说了凯撒有多爱布里特斯
pointing out how Caesar loved Brutus
有多信任背叛他的人
and trusted the others who turned on him.
他也对民众宣读了凯撒的遗嘱
He also read them the Caesar’s will,
凯撒将他的巨大财富都留给了他的罗马子民
in which Caesar left a huge amount of property to the people of Rome.
人群骚动了
The crowd goes wild,
他们决定烧了同谋者的房子
and decides to burn the houses of the conspirators.
暴民相继而起
Mob rule ensues and
布里特斯与卡西乌斯为了活命纷纷逃跑了
Brutus and Cassius flee for their lives.
有三个人接管了罗马
Three people take over in Rome,
安东尼 尤里乌斯·凯撒的侄子奥古斯都和雷比达
Antony, Julius Caesar’s nephew Octavius and Lepidus.
他们集结军队 和卡西乌斯与布里特斯作战
They raise armies to fight Cassius and Brutus,
列下被杀的人名单
and make lists of people to be killed,
因为他们都支持布里特斯
because they support Brutus.
卡西乌斯和布里特斯每人率领一只部队
Cassius and Brutus each lead an army
他们开始了与安东尼 奥古斯都还有雷比达的内战
as they fight a civil war against Antony, Octavius and Lepidus.
卡西乌斯和布里特斯再次出现
The next time we see them,
是他们两军相遇之时
they are meeting together with their armies,
在营帐附近 他们大吵了一架
and they get in a big fight in their tent.
布里特斯严厉责备卡西乌斯贪赃
Brutus criticizes Cassius harshly for taking bribes,
然后谴责卡西乌斯
and then he criticizes him for
没有给自己钱来招募士兵
not sending Brutus money to pay his own soldiers,
布里特斯本人太单纯了 他不会贪污钱财
because Brutus is too pure to take bribes himself.
最后他们冰释前嫌 又成为了好朋友
They eventually make up and become friends again.
但是一旦他们再看见彼此
But once again we can see that
布里特斯的理想主义 判断力差 都是致命弱点
Brutus’s idealism and poor judgement are big weaknesses.
他绝对需要卡西乌斯来帮助他 赢得这场战争
He absolutely needs Cassius to win this war,
所以他太蠢了
so it’s foolish for him to
就因为卡西乌斯所做的而批评他
criticize Cassius for what he does.
布里特斯其实也虚伪 他需要钱
And he’s hypocritical, he needs money too
但他不会用这种方法满足他的需求
but he won’t do what he needs to do to raise it.
布里特斯需要士兵组建军队
Brutus wants them to take the armies
在腓利比抵抗安东尼和奥古斯都的部队
to fight Antony and Octavius at Philippi.
卡西乌斯指出他计划当中的一些缺陷
Cassius points out some flaws in this plan,
但布里特斯坚持这样实行
but Brutus insists.
那个晚上布里特斯好像看见了凯撒的鬼魂
Caesar’s ghost appears to Brutus that night,
鬼魂说会在腓利比跟他见面
telling Brutus he’ll see him at Philippi.
双方相遇交战
The armies meet and have a battle.
安东尼的部队打败了卡西乌斯
Antony’s army defeats Cassius’s army,
可布里特斯打败了奥古斯都的军队
but Brutus’s army defeats Octavius’s.
卡西乌斯派他的朋友泰汀尼斯去打探
Cassius sends his friend Tetinniest to investigate,
他以为他朋友被捕了
and he thinks he sees Tetinniest being captured,
实际上他朋友遇到的士兵很友好
even though Tetinniest actually meet friendly soldiers,
但是卡西乌斯自杀了
but Cassius commits suicide
就因为他以为他最好的朋友被捕了
because he thinks he sent his best friend to be captured.
双方再次开火
The armies fight again,
这次布里特斯败了
and this time Brutus loses.
被捕之前
Before he can be captured,
尽管随行的一个士兵斯塔图抓住了佩剑
he kills himself by running on to his sword
可布里特斯还是自杀了
while one of the soldiers Strado holds it.
安东尼到的时候 布里特斯已经死了
When Antony discovers Brutus’s body,
安东尼说 布里特斯是罗马最高尚的一个人
he says that he was the noblest Roman of all.
想要了解更多关于尤里乌斯·凯撒的信息
For more information about Julius Caesar,
请登录www.sparknotes.com搜索Julius Caesar SparkNote
check out the Julius Caesar SparkNote on www.sparknotes.com.
想要找到现代英语版全译本
For a translation of the entire play into modern English,
请登录nfs.sparknotes.com搜索No Fear Shakespeare
go to No Fear Shakespeare at nfs.sparknotes.com.

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

凯撒的死由很多因素造成,而他的死也引发了一些列战争

听录译者

小多荷

翻译译者

喋喋

审核员

C

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kgyAPrv30eg

相关推荐