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每个人种都有其美丽之处 – 译学馆
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每个人种都有其美丽之处

Verna Myers: How to overcome our biases? Walk boldly toward them

这个夏天我进行了一次长途旅行
I was on a long road trip this summer,
听着伊莎贝尔·威克逊的优秀作品《他乡暖阳》的有声读物
and I was having a wonderful time listening
度过了一段非常美好的时光
to the amazing Isabel Wilkerson’s “The Warmth of Other Suns.”
这本书记录了在1915年到1970年间六百万黑人为了暂时逃离一切暴行
It documents six million black folks fleeing the South from 1915 to 1970
逃离了南方
looking for a respite from all the brutality
以期在北方获得更好的机会
and trying to get to a better opportunity up North,
这本书里满是展现非裔美国人的
and it was filled with stories of the resilience and the brilliance
适应能力和才智的故事
of African-Americans,
但是我不忍去听完那些让我们感到恐惧
and it was also really hard to hear all the stories of the horrors
羞辱的 以及所有关乎廉耻心的故事
and the humility, and all the humiliations.
当听到黑人遭受毒打、火刑被私刑处死的时候
It was especially hard to hear about the beatings and the burnings
我特别难受
and the lynchings of black men.
当时我说 “嗯 这有点沉重
And I said, “You know, this is a little deep.
我需要缓一缓 还是听收音机吧
I need a break. I’m going to turn on the radio.”
我打开了收音机 然后听到播报
I turned it on, and there it was:
在密苏里州的弗格森市
Ferguson, Missouri,
黑人男性
Michael Brown,
18岁的迈克尔·布朗
18-year-old black man,
没有带任何武器 但是被白人警察击中 倒地死亡
unarmed, shot by a white police officer, laid on the ground dead,
血!流了整整四个小时
blood running for four hours
他的祖母、孩子、还有他的邻居惊恐地看着这一幕
while his grandmother and little children and his neighbors watched in horror,
我当时想:
and I thought,
居然又是这种事!
here it is again.
这种针对黑人男性的暴行
This violence, this brutality against black men
已经持续了数个世纪
has been going on for centuries.
我的意思是 世界发生着同样的故事 只是主角的名字不一样了而已
I mean, it’s the same story. It’s just different names.
主角可以是阿马杜·迪亚洛
It could have been Amadou Diallo.
可以是西恩·贝儿
It could have been Sean Bell.
奥斯卡·格兰特
It could have been Oscar Grant.
也可以是特雷沃恩·马丁
It could have been Trayvon Martin.
这种暴力、暴行
This violence, this brutality,
是我们民族心理真实的一部分
is really something that’s part of our national psyche.
也是我们集体历史的一部分
It’s part of our collective history.
我们到底要怎么应对这种暴力、暴行?
What are we going to do about it?
知道吗?我们当中部分人看到黑人的时候
You know that part of us that still crosses the street,
依旧躲避
locks the doors,
关紧房门
clutches the purses,
拽紧钱包
when we see young black men?
那部分人
That part.
在我看来 虽然没有在街上直接把人击倒
I mean, I know we’re not shooting people down in the street,
但我认为他们持有同样的成见、同样的偏见
but I’m saying that the same stereotypes and prejudices
而这也助长了这种悲剧的发生
that fuel those kinds of tragic incidents
那一部分人就在我们中间
are in us.
我们和他们一起上学
We’ve been schooled in them as well.
我相信我们可以阻止这样的悲剧
I believe that we can stop these types of incidents,
让弗格森这样的事情不再发生
these Fergusons from happening,
只要我们内省 愿意改变我们自己
by looking within and being willing to change ourselves.
所以我呼吁大家行动起来
So I have a call to action for you.
今天我想让大家思考三点
There are three things that I want to offer us today to think about
这三点可以防止弗格森这样的事情再次发生
as ways to stop Ferguson from happening again;
我认为这三点将帮助我们
three things that I think will help us
改变对黑人男青年的印象
reform our images of young black men;
我希望这三点不仅可以保护他们
three things that I’m hoping will not only protect them
还可以为他们打开一个世界 这样就能得到发展
but will open the world so that they can thrive.
你们能想象得到吗?
Can you imagine that?
想象我们国家护佑着黑人男青年
Can you imagine our country embracing young black men,
把他们看作我们未来的一部分 毫无偏见 风度翩翩的看待他们
seeing them as part of our future, giving them that kind of openness,
就像我们对待所爱的人那样
that kind of grace we give to people we love?
这样我们的生活能在多大程度上有所改善?我们的国家能在多大程度上有所改善?
How much better would our lives be? How much better would our country be?
让我们从第一点开始:
Let me just start with number one.
我们必须不再否认
We gotta get out of denial.
不要再装好人
Stop trying to be good people.
我们需要真真正正的人
We need real people.
大家知道 我做过很多和多元化相关的工作
You know, I do a lot of diversity work,
研讨会开始的时候 人们会来跟我说
and people will come up to me at the beginning of the workshop.
多元化女士 非常高兴你能到来
They’re like, “Oh, Ms. Diversity Lady, we’re so glad you’re here” —
(笑声)
(Laughter) —
但是我们可没有偏见啊
“but we don’t have a biased bone in our body.”
然后我就会说 是吗?
And I’m like, “Really?
我每天都研究这个问题 所以我知道自己所有的偏见
Because I do this work every day, and I see all my biases.”
不久之前 在飞机上
I mean, not too long ago, I was on a plane
我从公共广播系统里听到一位女飞行员的声音
and I heard the voice of a woman pilot coming over the P.A. system,
我当时非常兴奋 非常激动
and I was just so excited, so thrilled.
我想太棒了女人 我们女人也可以开飞机了
I was like, “Yes, women, we are rocking it.
我们现在进入平流层了
We are now in the stratosphere.”
飞机开始很稳 后来有点颠簸忽上忽下
It was all good, and then it started getting turbulent and bumpy,
我就想
and I was like,
但愿她真的会开飞机
“I hope she can drive.”
(笑声)
(Laughter)
是的 我知道:
I know. Right.
当时我并未意识到那是一种偏见
But it’s not even like I knew that was a bias
然后回程时我坐了另一架飞机 全程都是一个男人在驾驶飞机
until I was coming back on the other leg and there’s always a guy driving
飞机也经常动荡、颠簸
and it’s often turbulent and bumpy,
但我从未怀疑过那位男性飞行员
and I’ve never questioned the confidence of the male driver.
那位飞行员非常出色
The pilot is good.
这就是问题所在了
Now, here’s the problem.
如果你要我明确回答 我会说那位女飞行员非常棒
If you ask me explicitly, I would say, “Female pilot: awesome.”
但是当事情变得可怕 有点麻烦 有点冒险的时候
But it appears that when things get funky and a little troublesome, a little risky,
我不知不觉就产生了偏见
I lean on a bias that I didn’t even know that I had.
大家都知道 对于在天空高速行驶的飞机来说
You know, fast-moving planes in the sky,
我还是想要男人来开飞机
I want a guy.
这就是我的偏见
That’s my default.
我更偏向男人
Men are my default.
你偏向谁?
Who is your default?
你相信谁?
Who do you trust?
你害怕谁?
Who are you afraid of?
你内心跟谁更亲近?
Who do you implicitly feel connected to?
你想要逃离谁?
Who do you run away from?
我现在要分享的是我们已经认识到的一些问题
I’m going to tell you what we have learned.
在内隐联想测试中 我们测试了存在于潜意识中的偏见
The implicit association test, which measures unconscious bias,
你可以上网测试一下
you can go online and take it.
已经有五百万人参加了测试
Five million people have taken it.
测试结果与现实相符我们更偏向白人 我们喜欢白人
Turns out, our default is white. We like white people.
我们更倾向于白人具体来说呢?
We prefer white. What do I mean by that?
当人们看见黑人男性和白人男性的图片时
When people are shown images of black men and white men,
我们能更快地
we are more quickly able to associate
把白人男性的图片和一个正面的词语联系起来
that picture with a positive word, that white person with a positive word,
而要花更多的时间尝试将黑人的脸
than we are when we are trying to associate
同正面的词语联系起来 反之亦然:
positive with a black face, and vice versa.
当我们看见黑人面孔时
When we see a black face,
我们更容易把黑人与负面词语联系起来
it is easier for us to connect black with negative
白人就不会那么轻易和负面词语联系起来
than it is white with negative.
参加测试的白人中百分之七十偏向白人
Seventy percent of white people taking that test prefer white.
参加测试的黑人中百分之五十更喜欢白人
Fifty percent of black people taking that test prefer white.
你们看 我们都受到偏见的影响
You see, we were all outside when the contamination came down.
那么我们要如何应对我们大脑自动产生的联系呢?
What do we do about the fact that our brain automatically associates?
你们可能正在思考
You know, one of the things that you probably are thinking about,
可能正在想:
and you’re probably like, you know what,
我以后决不会以肤色区分人
I’m just going to double down on my color blindness.
好的 那我将重新讨论一下这个问题
Yes, I’m going to recommit to that.
我要告诉你不要那么做
I’m going to suggest to you, no.
我们已经竭尽所能尝试做出改变
We’ve gone about as far as we can go trying to make a difference
不以肤色区分人
trying to not see color.
但是问题并不在于我们区分人的肤色 而是在于我们区分人的肤色后所采取的行动
The problem was never that we saw color. It was what we did when we saw the color.
不区分人的肤色 一个错误的想法
It’s a false ideal.
当我们忙于假装我们并不在乎肤色的时候
And while we’re busy pretending not to see,
我们没有意识到 种族差异是如何
we are not being aware of the ways in which racial difference
改变人内心潜在的想法 这妨碍了人们的发展
is changing people’s possibilities, that’s keeping them from thriving,
而且有时会造成他们过早死亡
and sometimes it’s causing them an early death.
事实上 科学家要告诉我们不要
So in fact, what the scientists are telling us is, no way.
忽视肤色的不同
Don’t even think about color blindness.
事实上 他们想说的是:
In fact, what they’re suggesting is,
看看那些了不起的黑人
stare at awesome black people.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
直面他们的脸记住他们
Look at them directly in their faces and memorize them,
当我们看着一些了不起的黑人的时候
because when we look at awesome folks who are black,
这可以帮助解除
it helps to dissociate
我们大脑自动产生的那些联系
the association that happens automatically in our brain.
你们知道为什么我要展示我身后这些美丽的黑人面孔吗?
Why do you think I’m showing you these beautiful black men behind me?
这样的黑人有很多 我只能挑选部分
There were so many, I had to cut them.
我想说的是
Okay, so here’s the thing:
我在尝试重新建立你们脑内关于黑人男性的自动联想
I’m trying to reset your automatic associations about who black men are.
我想提醒你们
I’m trying to remind you
黑人男青年可以成长为非常出色的人
that young black men grow up to be amazing human beings
他们改变了我们的生活 变得更加出色
who have changed our lives and made them better.
事实就是这样
So here’s the thing.
科学只能
The other possibility in science,
暂时改变我们自动生成的假设
and it’s only temporarily changing our automatic assumptions,
但是我们知道
but one thing we know
如果让你拿出一张照片 上面是一个你知道的、可恶的白人
is that if you take a white person who is odious that you know,
然后你把这张照片贴到一个有色人种旁边
and stick it up next to a person of color,
贴到一位出色的黑人旁边
a black person, who is fabulous,
有时候这样做 也可以帮助我们解除脑内自动生成的联系
then that sometimes actually causes us to disassociate too.
所以想想杰弗里·达默和科林·鲍威尔
So think Jeffrey Dahmer and Colin Powell.
看着他们好吗?(笑声)
Just stare at them, right? (Laughter)
但是事实就是这样 所以请看看你自己的偏见
But these are the things. So go looking for your bias.
请一定不要否认 去找找那些可以说服你的资料
Please, please, just get out of denial and go looking for disconfirming data
这将证明事实上 你过往的成见都是错误的
that will prove that in fact your old stereotypes are wrong.
好的以上就是第一点 那么第二点
Okay, so that’s number one: number two,
我要说的是靠近那些黑人男青年不要躲避
what I’m going to say is move toward young black men instead of away from them.
虽然这并不是最困难的事
It’s not the hardest thing to do,
但的确有难度
but it’s also one of these things
你必须意识清醒地、试图这么去做
where you have to be conscious and intentional about it.
几年前有段时间我曾在华尔街工作
You know, I was in a Wall Street area one time several years ago
我跟我的同事在一起 她是一个非常好的人
when I was with a colleague of mine, and she’s really wonderful
跟我在一起工作致力于多元化 她是有色人种 她是韩国人
and she does diversity work with me and she’s a woman of color, she’s Korean.
当时已经很晚了 我们在外面
And we were outside, it was late at night,
我们迷路了 正在想我们是走到了哪
and we were sort of wondering where we were going, we were lost.
然后我看见一个人穿过街道 我当时想太好了 黑人
And I saw this person across the street, and I was thinking, “Oh great, black guy.”
我想都没想地就向他走过去
I was going toward him without even thinking about it.
我的同事就说真有趣
And she was like, “Oh, that’s interesting.”
那个人穿过马路 是个黑人
The guy across the street, he was a black guy.
我认为黑人一般都知道他们要去哪
I think black guys generally know where they’re going.
我也不知道我会为什么会这样认为 但我就是这么想的
I don’t know why exactly I think that, but that’s what I think.
我同事当时讲到 你说的是 嘿 一个黑人
So she was saying, “Oh, you were going, ‘Yay, a black guy’?”
而我说的是 哦 有个黑人
She said, “I was going, ‘Ooh, a black guy.'”
她走向了另一个方向 我们都要问路但是面对同一个人他就穿着那身衣服
Other direction. Same need, same guy, same clothes,
在同一时间、同一街道 我们却有不同的反应
same time, same street, different reaction.
我感觉非常糟糕 我是一位多元性咨询顾问
And she said, “I feel so bad. I’m a diversity consultant.
我居然对黑人抱有偏见 我自己也是有色人种 我的天!
I did the black guy thing. I’m a woman of color. Oh my God!”
然后我说 看来我们的确需要放松一下了
And I said, “You know what? Please. We really need to relax about this.”
那么你们一定意识到 我跟黑人颇有渊源了
I mean, you’ve got to realize I go way back with black guys.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
我的父亲是一位黑人无疑的不对吗?
My dad is a black guy. You see what I’m saying?
我有个六尺五寸高的黑人儿子 我和黑人结婚
I’ve got a 6’5″ black guy son. I was married to a black guy.
我和黑人的渊源很深、很广
My black guy thing is so wide and so deep
我可以很轻易地知道一个黑人 是怎样的人
that I can pretty much sort and figure out who that black guy is,
那个我们迷路后遇到的黑人是我的朋友
and he was my black guy.
他说 是的女士 我知道你们要去的地方 我带你们去那
He said, “Yes, ladies, I know where you’re going. I’ll take you there.”
偏见是 我们在不了解一个人真实的一面时
You know, biases are the stories we make up about people
却杜撰了关于他子虚乌有的事
before we know who they actually are.
但我们既被教导要避开他们 害怕他们
But how are we going to know who they are
又如何了解他们 真实的为人?
when we’ve been told to avoid and be afraid of them?
所以我告诉你们 要直面那些让你不舒服的事情
So I’m going to tell you to walk toward your discomfort.
我不是要你们去疯狂地冒险
And I’m not asking you to take any crazy risks.
我只是想要你们想一想:
I’m saying, just do an inventory,
在扩大你的社交圈 职业圈后
expand your social and professional circles.
你的圈子里都有谁?
Who’s in your circle?
谁又不在其中?
Who’s missing?
你和黑人青年 不论男女
How many authentic relationships
到底建立了多少可靠的关系?
do you have with young black people, folks, men, women?
换言之他们与你在
Or any other major difference from who you are
生活方式上有多少不同之处?
and how you roll, so to speak?
看看你们的周围吧!
Because, you know what? Just look around your periphery.
在你工作的地方 在你所在的教室里
There may be somebody at work, in your classroom,
教堂里 不论何处你总能看见黑人青年
in your house of worship, somewhere, there’s some black young guy there.
如果你很友好 你会向他们问好
And you’re nice. You say hi.
我想说的是 让我们进一步 发掘更深层次 更亲密的关系
I’m saying go deeper, closer, further, and build the kinds of relationships,
这样的关系事实上 可以让你更深入了解他整个人
the kinds of friendships that actually cause you to see the holistic person
从而真正地与成见做斗争
and to really go against the stereotypes.
我知道你们当中部分人
I know some of you are out there,
尤其是我的一些白人朋友会说
I know because I have some white friends in particular that will say,
你不知道我有多笨拙
“You have no idea how awkward I am.
我不认为这种方法对我有用
Like, I don’t think this is going to work for me.
我肯定会搞砸
I’m sure I’m going to blow this.”
好吧 也许如此 但是我们不需要做到完美只要连接彼此
Okay, maybe, but this thing is not about perfection. It’s about connection.
只有经历过痛苦 你才可能摆脱痛苦
And you’re not going to get comfortable before you get uncomfortable.
你必须这么做
I mean, you just have to do it.
我的意思是 如果黑人男青年
And young black men, what I’m saying is
与你相遇 你要真心地、真诚地与他交谈
if someone comes your way, genuinely and authentically, take the invitation.
并不是所有人都会来找你
Not everyone is out to get you.
去找找那些可以看到你博爱之心的人
Go looking for those people who can see your humanity.
和与你不同的人交往 会让你
You know, it’s the empathy and the compassion
富有同情心 怜悯心
that comes out of having relationships with people who are different from you.
这样就会发生非常具有影响力、且非常美妙的事情
Something really powerful and beautiful happens:
你就会开始意识到他们就是你们
you start to realize that they are you,
他们是你们的一部分 是你们家庭的成员
that they are part of you, that they are you in your family,
这样我们就不再是旁观者
and then we cease to be bystanders
我们成为演员 倡导者
and we become actors, we become advocates,
我们成为同盟
and we become allies.
所以离开你的家 进入到一个更广阔、更光明的区域
So go away from your comfort into a bigger, brighter thing,
这样我们将防止佛格森这样的事情再次发生
because that is how we will stop another Ferguson from happening.
这样我们才能建立一个社区
That’s how we create a community
在这每个人尤其是黑人男青年 会得到发展
where everybody, especially young black men, can thrive.
我要阐明的最后一点可能有点难以做到
So this last thing is going to be harder,
但它也是我着重阐述的:
and I know it, but I’m just going to put it out there anyway.
当我们看见不对的事情的时候 我们要有勇气去表达我们的观点
When we see something, we have to have the courage to say something,
即使是面对我们喜欢的人
even to the people we love.
假期是我们围坐在桌边
You know, it’s holidays and it’s going to be a time
享受美好时光的时间
when we’re sitting around the table and having a good time.
诚然 我们很多人都要去度假
Many of us, anyways, will be in holidays,
你们肯定会围在桌边 听大家讲话
and you’ve got to listen to the conversations around the table.
你开始说祖母很顽固
You start to say things like, “Grandma’s a bigot.”
(笑声)
(Laughter)
乔叔叔是一个种族主义者
“Uncle Joe is racist.”
但你知道家人都爱祖母 爱乔叔叔 我们的确爱他们
And you know, we love Grandma and we love Uncle Joe. We do.
我们知道他们都是不错的人 但是说的话可不对
We know they’re good people, but what they’re saying is wrong.
我们应该说些什么 因为你知道还有谁在旁边听着?
And we need to be able to say something, because you know who else is at the table?
孩子们也坐在桌边
The children are at the table.
我一直想知道这些偏见为什么不能消失 而是一代一代传了下来?
And we wonder why these biases don’t die, and move from generation to generation?
因为我们没有出声纠正
Because we’re not saying anything.
我们需要主动说:外婆 我们可不再那样乱说了
We’ve got to be willing to say, “Grandma, we don’t call people that anymore.”
乔叔叔 这不是真的也不是他应得的
“Uncle Joe, it isn’t true that he deserved that.
没有人应该受到这样的惩罚
No one deserves that.”
我们要主动
And we’ve got to be willing
让孩子看到种族主义的丑陋之处
to not shelter our children from the ugliness of racism
而那些黑人父母无法享受这样的奢侈
when black parents don’t have the luxury to do so,
尤其是那些拥有年幼黑人儿子的父母
especially those who have young black sons.
我们一定要告诉可爱的孩子们 他们是我们的未来
We’ve got to take our lovely darlings, our future,
我们一定要告诉他们 我们的国家很伟大 拥有很了不起的理想
and we’ve got to tell them we have an amazing country with incredible ideals,
我们十分努力地工作 取得一些进展
we have worked incredibly hard, and we have made some progress,
但是我们尚未达成目标
but we are not done.
我们仍旧保留了一些落后的东西
We still have in us this old stuff
关于优越性偏见的劣习
about superiority and it is causing us
这些偏见深埋在我们的习俗制度之中
to embed those further into our institutions
在我们的社会中一代一代地传下来
and our society and generations,
让我们变得绝望
and it is making for despair
并造成差异 而大大地削弱了黑人青年的价值
and disparities and a devastating devaluing of young black men.
我们还在奋斗 你必须告诉他们
We still struggle, you have to tell them,
我们承认黑人青年在肤色
with seeing both the color
性格上与我们不同
and the character of young black men,
但是你们可以预见
but that you, and you expect them,
他们会成为改变社会的力量之一
to be part of the forces of change in this society
这个社会将与不公正做斗争 最重要的是
that will stand against injustice and is willing, above all other things,
它愿意让所有的人了解黑人男青年的真实面貌
to make a society where young black men can be seen for all of who they are.
我们有很多出色的黑人男性
So many amazing black men,
他们是历史上最出色的政治家
those who are the most amazing statesmen that have ever lived,
勇敢的士兵
brave soldiers,
也是了不起的、辛勤的工人
awesome, hardworking laborers.
他们是富有影响力的布道者
These are people who are powerful preachers.
伟大的科学家、艺术家和作家
They are incredible scientists and artists and writers.
更是富有活力的喜剧演员
They are dynamic comedians.
他们是和蔼的祖父
They are doting grandpas,
体贴的儿子
caring sons.
强大的父亲
They are strong fathers,
他们也是怀有自己梦想的青年
and they are young men with dreams of their own.
谢谢
Thank you.
(掌声)
(Applause)

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视频概述

弗格森事件是美国内政,警察无故枪杀黑人却无须面对刑事诉讼。尽管一直鼓吹多元文化主义,但种族歧视一直存在,为了改变偏见奥巴马一夜白发,美国开国元勋杰斐逊曾预言过:如果有一天美国黑奴获得了自由,那么将会爆发冲突,并且不可避免地演变为种族战争。在美国,关于种族的辩论也许很久都不会停歇,不过这已经不再是美国社会的头号问题。吸取正能量关注Ljimnn

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翻译译者

Ljimnn

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赖皮

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uYyvbgINZkQ

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