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关于吸血鬼的一切

Vampires: Folklore, fantasy and fact - Michael Molina

Light up your world
【启点字幕组】吸血鬼:世界的噩梦
晚上好
Good evening!
怎么了
What’s the matter?
你害怕吸血鬼么
Are you afraid of vampires?
嘿嘿 不用担心
no need to worry,
我不会留下来吃晚餐
I’m not staying for dinner.
我是来带你了解吸血鬼简史的
I’m here to guide you through a brief history of vampires,
讲讲我们的形象是如何从【吸血鬼简史】
illustrating how our image has changed
一个行走的僵尸【吸血鬼简史】
from a shambling corpse
蜕变成现在你眼前衣冠楚楚的绅士
to the dapper gentleman you see before you.
吸血鬼的历史几乎和人类的一样长
Vampires are nearly as old as you humans.
关于我们和亡魂的故事记录
Stories about us, revenants,
可以追溯到史前文明
appear in cultures extending as far back as prehistoric times.
不过那时候我们不叫吸血鬼
But we weren’t called vampires back then
而且模样也和我们如今想象的吸血鬼有所不同
and most of us did not look the way we imagine vampires today.
哈 差得远呢
Ha, far from it!
例如 美索不达米亚的拉玛什图【拉玛什图是一位威胁产妇、虏掠婴儿的吸血女妖】
For example, the Mesopotamian Lamashtu
就是一个狮头驴身的怪物【拉玛什图是一位威胁产妇、虏掠婴儿的吸血女妖】
was a creature with the head of a lion and the body of the donkey,
以及古希腊的特利格斯【古罗马和古希腊文明中会变形的吸血凶鸟】
and the ancient Greek striges
被简单描述为嗜血的鸟【古罗马和古希腊文明中会变形的吸血凶鸟】
were simply described as bloodthirsty birds.
其他的更奇怪
Others were even stranger.
菲律宾马纳安加能使上半身分离
The Philippine manananggal would sever her upper torso
并有蝙蝠一样的巨型翅膀
and sprout huge, bat-like wings to fly.
马来西亚的潘那贾拉是一个会飞的
The Malaysian penanggalan was a flying female head
挂着内脏的女人头
with dangling entrails.
而澳大利亚的 呀啦妈呀呼
And the Australian Yara-ma-yha-who
是一个长着大脑袋的小红人
was a little red guy with a big head,
有一张大嘴
a large mouth,
手和脚上都长了吸血盘
and bloodsuckers on his hands and feet.
噢 不要忘了加勒比的色库亚【在加勒比传说中 色库亚白天伪装成隐居的老太太 晚上褪下人皮外出吸血】
Oh, and let’s not forget the Caribbean’s soucouyant,
西非的阿贝义福【阿贝义福是加纳阿散蒂人传说中能够寄生的巫师 据说它们的腋下和肛门在夜晚会发出荧光】
the West African obayifo,
还有墨西哥的特拉胡普奇【特拉胡普奇是带着诅咒降生在人类家庭的吸血鬼 会在夜晚吸食婴儿血液 变身时会发光】
and the Mexican Tlahuelpuchi.
非常迷人 不是吗
Charming, aren’t they?
虽然它们看起来大有不同
Though they may look vastly different,
但是它们都有一个共同特点
all of these beings have one common characteristic:
它们靠吸食其他活体生命的血生存
They sustain themselves by consuming the life force of a living creature.
这就是定义吸血鬼的共同特点
This shared trait is what defines a vampire —
其他的特征则随着潮流更迭发生改变
all the other attributes change with the tides.
话说回来 我们是怎么
So, how do we arrive
变成现在你眼前的这副模样
at the reanimated fellow you see before you?
我们的现代形象起源于18世纪的东欧
Our modern ideal emerges in 18th-century Eastern Europe.
随着吸血鬼迷信的快速增长
With the dramatic increase of vampire superstitions,
吸血事件 神秘生物
stories of bloodsucking, shadowy creatures
变成了夜晚的枕边惊闻
become nightly bedside terrors.
和流行的民间传说
And popular folklore,
像罗马尼人之间流传的魔罗伊【魔罗伊是东欧文化中的吸血鬼形象】
like the moroi among the Romani people
和阿尔巴尼亚的吕加【传说中 吕加生活在不见天日的地方 极端暴力 能乘风飞行 蛊惑人心】
and the lugat in Albania,
它们设定了今天吸血鬼形象的特性
provide the most common vampire traits known today,
例如吸血鬼是永生的
such as vampires being undead
是夜行生物 可以变形
and nocturnal and shape-shifting.
要知道 18世纪的东欧
You see, Eastern Europe in the 18th century
是个非常糟糕的地方
was a pretty grim place
未知疾病和瘟疫引发的死亡随处可见
with many deaths occurring from unknown diseases and plagues.
没有医学解释 人们开始寻找超自然的原因
Without medical explanations, people searched for supernatural causes
并且在死者的棺材中发现了一些“证据”
and found what looked like evidence in the corpses of the victims.
当村民们挖掘尸体
When villagers dug up bodies
以探究神秘死亡的原因时
to discern the cause of the mysterious deaths,
他们经常发现尸体的样子
they would often find the cadavers
看起来跟活人一样
looking very much alive —
头发和指甲都变得更长
longer hair and fingernails,
腹部臃肿
bloated bellies,
嘴角边还挂着血迹
and blood at the corners of mouths.
很显然 这些人并没有真的死亡
Clearly, these people were not really dead.
啊 他们是吸血鬼
Heh, they were vampires!
他们会离开自己的坟墓
And they had been leaving their graves
吸食活人
to feast on the living.
恐惧的村民们立刻颁布了一项法令
The terrified villagers would quickly enact
一种杀死永生者的方法
a ritual to kill the undead.
整个地区遍布着不同的实施方法
The practices varied across the region,
但基本都是砍头
but usually included beheadings,
焚烧 以及钉死在棺材之中
burnings, and staking the body to the coffin
来防止他们死而复生
to prevent it from getting up.
太灰暗了
Grizzly stuff!
但是村民们眼中的邪恶复活
But what the villagers interpreted as unholy reanimation
其实是死者的正常形态
were actually normal symptoms of death.
当尸体分解时 皮肤脱水
When a body decomposes, the skin dehydrates,
会使头发和指甲变长
causing the hair and fingernails to extend.
胃里的细菌产生气体
Bacteria in the stomach creates gases
使腹部鼓起
that fill the belly,
从而将血液以及其他东西从口中挤出
which force out blood and matter through the mouth.
不幸的是 那时还没人知道这些科学知识
Unfortunately, this science was not yet known,
所以村民继续挖
so the villagers kept digging.
事实上 太多尸体被挖出来
In fact, so many bodies were dug up
以至于奥地利皇后
that the Empress of Austria
要派遣她的医生去四处反驳吸血鬼传言
sent her physician around to disprove the vampire stories,
她甚至立法来禁止掘墓
and she even established a law prohibiting grave tampering.
但是 即使不再进行吸血鬼捕杀
Still, even after the vampire hunts had died down,
故事传说还是在当地迷信中留存了下来
the stories of legends survived in local superstition.
这就要说到文学作品了 比如波利多里的《吸血鬼》【波利多里 英国作家 心理学家】
This led to works of literature, such as Polidori’s “The Vampire,”
哥特小说《卡米拉》【《卡米拉》 约瑟夫•法卡努的作品】
the Gothic novel “Carmilla,”
还有最著名的布莱姆·斯托克的《德古拉》【布莱姆·斯托克 爱尔兰小说家 戏剧家】
and, most famously, Bram Stoker’s “Dracula.”
虽然斯托克运用了很多历史资料
Although Stoker incorporated historical material,
像女伯爵伊丽莎白的处女血浴【伊丽莎白 残忍的匈牙利女伯爵 残害了600多名少女】
like Elizabeth Báthory’s virgin blood baths
以及弗拉德二世的残忍死刑【龙之子瓦拉几亚大公 德古拉原型弗拉德三世的父亲】
and the brutal executions of Vlad Dracul,
这些都是当地的神话
it was these local myths
启发他写出了作品中的主要元素
that inspired the main elements of his story:
如特来西瓦尼亚的设定【德古拉出生地 吸血鬼之乡】
the Transylvanian setting,
用大蒜去抵御吸血鬼
using garlic to defend oneself,
用木棍插心脏
and the staking of the heart.
这些特征对我们来说都非常熟悉
While these attributes are certainly familiar to us,
他自己也创造发明了一些流传下来的元素
elements he invented himself have also lasted over the years:
如惧怕十字架
fear of crucifixes,
在阳光下会变弱
weakness in sunlight,
以及吸血鬼无法看到自己在镜中的影像
and the vampire’s inability to see their reflection.
通过创造新的特性
By inventing new traits,
斯托克完美的制定出由来已久的传统
Stoker perfectly enacted the age-old tradition
阐述并拓展了吸血鬼神话
of elaborating upon and expanding the myth of vampires.
正如我们所见 也许你见过我家亲戚
As we saw, maybe you met my relatives,
在德古拉之前的那一大批夜行生物
a huge of variety of creatures stalked the night before Dracula,
还有更多可怕的生物穿梭于我们的噩梦
and many more will continue to creep through our nightmares.
没错 直到现在 他们依然靠吸食活体生命的血液存活
Yet, so long as they subsist off a living being’s life force,
它们都是我部族的成员
they are part of my tribe.
即使是会发光的吸血鬼也不例外【暮光之城中的吸血鬼在阳光下闪闪发光】
Even sparkling vampires can be included.
毕竟 它延续和重塑了吸血鬼传奇
After all, it’s the continued storytelling and reimagining of the vampire legend
好让我们能够真正存活下去
that allows us to truly live
直到永远
forever.

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