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最牛福利政策:无条件给你发钱 – 译学馆
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最牛福利政策:无条件给你发钱

Universal Basic Income Explained – Free Money for Everybody? UBI

如果国家负责你的日常花费
What if the state covered your cost of living,
你还会去工作吗?
would you still go to work?
你会回学校读书呢
Go back to school?
还是根本不工作?你会怎么做呢?
Not work at all? What would you do?
有个概念称为 无条件基本收入(UBI)
This concept is called a universal basic income or UBI
它完全是
And it’s nothing less than
当代最有前景的社会政策
the most ambitious social policy of our times.
2017年 “无条件基本收入”这个理念在全世界掀起波澜
In 2017, basic income is gaining momentum around the world.
第一波相关试验相继展开
First trials are ongoing or on their way
越来越多的国家
and a growing number of countries
计划将UBI纳入福利政策范畴
are considering UBI as an alternative to welfare.
UBI是如何运行的?
How would it work and
它的可行性和阻碍又是什么呢?
what are the key arguments for and against?
目前人们还不能就UBI的概念及内容
Right now people can’t really agree
真正达成一致
what universal basic income is or should be.
一些人想要用它来取代福利 消除官僚主义
Some want to use it to eliminate welfare and Cupp bureaucracy.
还有人想要它成为附加福利项目
Others want it as a free extra for existing programs,
他们甚至想将UBI提高到一定程度
or even want it to be so high
这样就不用工作了
that work itself becomes optional.
本视频中我们先谈谈 最低基本收入
For this video we’ll talk mostly about the minimum basic income
它的数目肯定高于贫困线
enough money to be above the poverty line.
美国的最低基本收入为
In the US this means
每个月1000美元 即一年12000美元
about $ 1,000 a month or $ 12,000 a year.
这笔钱不需要交税
The money would not be taxed
你可以自由支配
and you could do whatever you wanted with it.
这种情况下
In this scenario UBI is a way
UBI在保障市场自由的同时
of transferring the wealth of a society
不失为转换社会财富的一种方式
while still keeping the free market intact.
但如果真的发放了这笔“免费”资金
But if we hand out free money
人们是否会纵酒狂欢 停止工作呢?
will people just spend it on booze and stop working?
2013年世界银行的一项研究特别调查了
A 2013 study by the World Bank
穷人收到现金形式的救济金时
specifically examined if poor people waste their handouts on tobacco and alcohol
是否会把它花在烟酒开销上
if they receive it in the form of cash.
答案是 他们没有
The clear answer, no they don’t.
情况恰恰相反
The opposite is true.
其他研究证明 人越富裕
Other studies have shown that the richer you are,
他的烟酒开销越多
the more drugs and alcohol you consume.
又懒又醉的穷人只是刻板印象
The lazy and drunk poor person
而非事实
is a stereotype rather than reality.
那懒惰现象呢?
What about laziness?
无条件基本收入的试验
Universal basic income test runs done
于20世纪70年代在加拿大开展
in Canada in the 1970s showed that around
试验表明1%的被资助者停止工作
1 % of the recipients stopped working,
大多数人选择回家养孩子
mostly to take care of their kids.
人均工作时间减少了不到10%
On average people reduced their working hours by less than 10%.
人们将额外的时间用于完成其它任务
The extra time was used to achieve goals
比如重返校园或者寻找更好的工作
like going back to school or looking for better jobs.
如果说懒惰和享乐不是大问题
But if laziness and drugs are not a huge deal,
那为什么现在的福利国家还存在贫困问题?
why doesn’t our current welfare state solve poverty?
因为福利项目或者失业补助项目
Welfare or unemployment programs often come with
经常伴有许多附加条件
a lot of strings attached.
比如参加课程
Like taking part in courses,
在一个月内申请一定数量的工作
applying to a certain number of jobs a month
或者接受各种形式的工作机会
or accepting any kind of job offer
不管工作合适与否 薪资待遇如何
no matter if it’s a good fit, or what it pays.
除了失去个人自由
Besides the loss of personal freedom
这些要求通常很浪费时间
these conditions are often a huge waste of time
这些项目的唯一好处是让失业统计
and only served to make the unemployment statistics
看起来不那么凄惨
seem less bad.
通常来说你的时间
Often your time would be much better
更应该花在寻找合适的工作
spent looking for the right job
继续深造或创业上
continuing education or starting a business.
福利项目另一个副作用是
Another unwanted side effect of many welfare programs is
它使穷人陷入贫穷 并提倡这种被动接受的行为
that they trap people in poverty and promote passive behavior.
假如你每月有1000美元的薪水
Imagine a benefit of $1,000 each month
但在大多数救济项目中
in a lot of programs
哪怕多赚一美元 你就一分救济金也拿不到了
if you earn a single dollar extra the whole thing is taken away.
如果你有份工作
If you take a job,
月薪1200美元 那你失去的不仅是救助金
that’s paying $ 1200 you might not only lose your benefits,
因为你还要交税 还要付交通费
but because of your taxes and another costs like transportation.
你最终拿到的薪水甚至比救济金还少
You might end up having less money than before.
所以如果你真心想要改善现状
So if you actively try to better your situation,
那你的总收入不但没有增加 甚至还会缩水
and your total income is not improving or even a shrinking
因此福利救助是困住穷人上升的天花板
welfare can create a ceiling that traps people in poverty
是对被动接受救济行为的鼓励
and rewards passive behavior.
而UBI会永远无条件发钱给你
A basic income can never be cut and therefore getting
因此就业和额外收入会使你的经济状况更好
a job and additional income would always make your financial situation better.
这种情况下工作永远有收获
Work is always rewarded
无条件基本收入不是天花板
instead of a ceiling it creates a floor
它是激励人们跃升的地板
from which people can lift themselves up.
但是尽管UBI是个较好的福利模型
But even if UBI is the better model,
它在经济上可行吗?
is it economically feasible?
造成通货膨胀怎么办?
What about inflation?
物价上涨后无条件基本收入还有用吗?
Won’t prices just rise making everything just like it was before?
因为无条件基本收入所用的金钱
Since the money is not being created
并非魔术变的 也不是印钞机直接印的
by magic or printers
它是从某些地方转换而来
it needs to be transferred from somewhere.
更像是资金流动
It’s more of a shift
而非资金再生
of funds than the creation of new ones.
因此 不会造成通货膨胀
Hence; no inflation.
好吧 那我们要付出什么代价呢?
Ok, but how do we pay for it?
这个问题没有正确答案 因为世界是多样化的
There’s no right answer here because the world is too diverse.
要结合国家的富裕程度和局部值来具体分析
How well-off the country is, what the local values are.
那么提高税收或削减国防预算之类的举措
Are things like high taxes or cutting the defence budget
在政治上能被接受吗?
politically acceptable or not?
目前有多少福利国家的福利事业步入正轨且举措有效?
How much welfare state is already in place and is it effective?
每个国家在UBI上都有自己的规划
Each country has its own individual path to a UBI.
最简单的方式是
The easiest way to pay
终止所有社会福利
for a UBI is to end all welfare
用空置的资金来承担无条件基本收入
and use the free funds to finance it.
这不仅会使一定数量的政府机构消失
Not only would this make a number of government
——这本身就能省下不少钱——
agencies disappear, which in itself saves money,
同时还能消除许多官僚主义作风
it would also eliminate a lot of bureaucracy.
此外 中断福利救济
On the other hand cutting them
可能会让很多人过得比从前更糟
could leave many people worse off than before.
因为如果目标是让每个人都拥有一笔资金
If the goal is to have a foundation
就需要作出某些计划
for everybody there still need to be programs
而国情不尽相同
of some sort because just like countries,
人也各不相同
people are not the same.
另一个方式是
The second way –
对那些大富翁实行较高的税收政策
higher taxes especially for the very wealthy.
以美国为例
In the US for example there’s been a
美国的经济增长很快
lot of economic growth but most of the benefits
但最大的受益者反而是为数不多的富人
from it have gone to the richest few percent.
贫富差距越来越大
The wealth gap is rapidly widening
很多人认为是时候均匀地分配社会财富
and many argue that it might be time
来维持社会安定了
to distribute the spoils more evenly to preserve the social peace.
可以考虑在金融交易 资金
There could be taxes on financial transactions, capital,
地价 碳 机器人上加税
land value, carbon, or even robots.
但UBI未必耗资巨大
But UBI is not necessarily expensive.
最近的研究显示
According to a recent study
美国一个月1000美元的UBI
a UBI of $1,000 per month in the US
其实可以在8年内提高12%的国民生产总值
could actually grow the GDP by 12% over eight years
因为它可以使穷人花更多的钱
because it would enable poor people
从而增加整体需求
to spend more and increase overall demand.
那做粗重活的人呢?
What about the people who do the dirty work?
谁还会在田里工作
Who will work in the fields,
清理下水道或者抬钢琴呢?
crawl through sewers, or lift pianos?
如果不需要为了生计而奔波
If you don’t need to for survival,
那么还会有人做那些繁重 无聊 没有成就感的工作吗?
will people still do hard boring and unfulfilling labor?
无条件基本收入也许能给人们足够的支撑
UBI might give them enough leverage
让他们追求更好的酬劳和工作条件
to demand better pay and working conditions.
一项研究表明薪资族每挣一美元
A study calculated that every extra dollar going
就会为国民经济增加1.21美元的效益
to wage earners would add about $ 1.21 to the national economy.
而美国高收入人群每挣一美元
While every extra dollar going to
其创造的效益只有39美分
high-income Americans would add only 39 cents.
世界上还是会有极富和极穷的人
There would still be very rich and poor people
而无条件基本收入会
but we could eliminate fear,
有效消除人的恐惧 痛苦 以及对存在的恐慌
suffering, and existential panic for a significant part of the population.
让穷人变富裕就是一个聪明的经济策略
Making poor citizens better off could be a smart economic tactic.
但对一些人来说 这远远不够
For some this isn’t enough.
他们希望无条件基本收入足以让他们过上中产阶级的生活
They want a UBI large enough to live a middle-class existence.
如果UBI的实行不存在财政上的障碍
If we set the financial obstacle aside,
那这个政策就从根本上挑战了社会的结构
this idea fundamentally challenges, how our society is constructed.
通过积累财富 你就能提高自己的社会地位
By earning money, you earn the possibility to take part
还会有更多选择
in society this determines your status and options.
但这也强迫许多人把大量的时间花在
But it also forces many people into spending huge chunks
他们并不关心的事情上
of their time on things they don’t care about.
2006年 美国工人中只有33%真正在工作
In 2016 only 33% of US employees were engaged at work
16%的工人感到痛苦不堪
16 % were actively miserable and
剩下的51%根本心不在焉
the remaining 51 % were only physically present.
如果可以的话 这67%的人会放弃工作吗?
Would 67% of people stop working if they could?
把工作描述成难以忍受是很不公平的
It would be unfair to portray work as just a chore
因为工作让我们有事可做
work gives us something to do. It challenges us
它挑战我们 促使我们进步 强迫我们参与
it motivates us to improve, it forces us to engage.
很多人在工作时找到朋友或者是合作伙伴
Many find friends or partners at work,
我们为了社会地位 财富 甚至是世界地位而工作
we work for social status wealth and our place in the world.
我们在寻找活着的意义
We’re looking for something to do with our lives and
对很多人来说 工作给他们带来意义
for many people work gives them meaning.
UBI还会带来其它的忧虑
There are other concerns with UBI.
如果所有福利项目都一次性兑现
If all welfare programs were exchanged for one single payment,
这将给政府带来非常大的压力
this gives the government a lot of leverage.
一个项目比多个项目更容易被攻击或夭折
Individual programs are easier to attack or cut than a multitude
民粹派也不会闲着
or populist smite promise drastic changes
他们会大肆贬低一番UBI的前景
to the UBI to get into power.
而且说到平等
And a universal basic income
无条件基本收入在这方面基本没有解决任何问题
doesn’t tackle all problems when it comes to equality.
以租金为例
Rents for example
1000美元在乡下能租个好房子
while $ 1,000 might be great in the countryside,
但在昂贵的市区就远远不够了
it’s not a lot for expensive metropolitan areas
这会导致穷人越搬越远
which could lead to poor people
并且穷人和富人之间的差距
moving outwards and the difference between rich and poor
会越来越大
becoming even more extreme.
当然 对一些人来说
And of course, for some people,
“工作不是生计所必须”其本身就很不可思议
the concept of work itself not being essential for survival is appalling.
总结一下
Conclusion.
无条件基本收入是个好主意吗?
So is the universal basic income a good idea?
实话实说 我们也不知道
The honest answer is that we don’t know yet.
这会需要更多的研究
There needs to be a lot
更多 更大规模的测试
more research more and bigger test runs.
我们需要考虑我们想要什么形式的UBI
We need to think about what kind
我们要准备好为之付出一定的代价
of UBI we want and what we’re prepared to give up to pay for it.
UBI潜力无限
The potential is huge.
UBI可能是最有希望的消除贫困的方式
It might be the most promising model to sustainably eliminate poverty.
它能在一定程度上减轻世界人民的绝望
It might seriously reduce the amount of desperation
让大家都活得轻松点
in the world and make us all much less stressed out.
是全世界观众们给予的赞助
This video was made possible by a
使本视频的播出成为可能
universal basic income provided by you, our viewers.
世界上每个月都有一万人
Ten thousand people
在patreon.com/Kurzgesagt上
around the world gift us a monthly income on
打赏支持我们
patreon.com/Kurzgesagt.
你们让我们能够支付薪水 购买新设备
You enable us to pay salaries and buy
让我们能做出更多的视频
new hardware you enable us to make more videos.
你们的关注使我们花费更多时间来做好视频
And you enable us to spend more time on them.
如果没有你们的帮助
Kurzgesagt would truly not be what
就不会有Kurzgesagt的今天
it is today without your help.
你们的帮助使我们保持独立
You help us stay independent,
让我们注重视频的质量而非数量
and you give us the freedom to put quality before quantity.
非常感谢你们
Thank you so much.

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视频概述

本视频介绍一个新概念:无条件基本收入(UBI),就是政府无条件给你发钱。那么UBI会如何影响我们的生活呢?它的前景以及阻碍是什么呢?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

ABC

审核员

审核员 EM

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kl39KHS07Xc

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