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美国宪法的由来 – 译学馆
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美国宪法的由来

United States Constitution for Children, Parts and Purposes of the Constitution for Kids: FreeSchool

You’re watching FreeSchool!
你正在收看《基础校园》!
The United States Constitution is a special document written in 1787 that
《美国宪法》是一份于1787年编写的特殊文件
created the framework of the federal government.
它创建了联邦政府的框架
It is called the highest law in the land,
它是美国的最高法律
because all other laws in the United States must follow the rules laid out in the Constitution.
因为美国的其它法律都必须遵守《宪法》的规定
The story of the Constitution began in 1776
宪法的故事开始于1776年
when the Second Continental Congress appointed a committee to write the Declaration of Independence.
第二届大陆会议任命了一个委员会撰写《独立宣言》
They realized that as soon as they were independent of Great Britain,
然而 他们意识到他们即将从英国中独立
they would need their own government,
他们需要有自己的政府
and so they appointed another committee
因此他们委任另一个委员会
to write a document that would lay out the rules governing their new country.
撰写一份文件用于说明他们新国家的管理条例
These rules, called the Articles of Confederation,
这些条例就是《联邦条例》
were completed in the fall of 1777.
于1777年的秋天制定完成
In order to become law,
为了成为法律
the Articles of Confederation needed to be ratified,
《联邦条例》需要得到批准
or for mally agreed to, by all thirteen states,
或者十三个州的正式认可
a process that took more than 3 years.
这整个过程花了三年多的时间
In 1781, the Articles of Confederation were officially adopted,
《联邦条例》于1781年被正式采用
and the United States of America finally had its own government.
美国终于拥有了自己的政府
It soon became obvious, however, that this new government had problems.
然而 新政府很快就暴露出了不少问题
Under the Articles of Confederation
在《联邦条例》的实行下
the states operated like small, independent countries,
各州如同独立的小国家一般运作
the central government wasn’t strong enough to perform its duties.
而中央政府却没有足够的能力去履行它的职责
In 1787 a Constitutional Convention met in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,
1787年 宪法大会在宾夕法尼亚洲的费城召开
to discuss improvements to the Articles of Confederation,
会议原本讨论《联邦条例》的改进
but it was soon decided that a brand new Constitution was needed instead.
不过会议很快就决定了重新起草一部《宪法》
With George Washington in charge,
随着乔治•华盛顿上台
these delegates, known as the framers of the Constitution,
这些以宪法的制定者而闻名的代表
set about creating a government that would meet the needs of their country.
开始着手建立一个满足他们国家需要的政府
They needed a government that was strong enough to do its job,
他们需要政府强大到足以履行它的职责
but not so strong that it could oppress the states.
但又不至于强大到可以压迫各州
They needed to have the powers that belonged to the federal government
他们需要拥有属于联邦政府的权力
and the powers that belonged to the states clearly established.
以及属于各州明确确立的权力
They needed to protect the individual liberties of American citizens.
他们需要保护美国公民的个人自由
Finally, they needed a way for future Americans
最后 他们还需要为未来的美国人提供一个
to make changes to the Constitution without the need for a revolution.
在不需要革命的情况下修改宪法的方式
After months of debate and compromise,
经过几个月的辩论和妥协
the Constitution was signed on September 17, 1787,
《宪法》于1787年9月17日被签署
and by the following year enough states had ratified it that
到第二年 在获得足够多的州的批准后
it went into effect.
它才正式生效
At the time of its signing,
签署时
the Constitution was made up of a Preamble and seven Articles.
《宪法》由一篇前言和七篇文章组成
The Preamble was an introduction that
前言是一篇介绍
told everyone what the Constitution was supposed to do
它告诉每一个人《宪法》的意义
“ We the People of the United States,
“我们合众国人民
in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice,
为了建立更完美的联邦 树立正义
insure domestic Tranquility,
保障国内安宁
provide for the common defence,
提供共同防务
promote the general Welfare,
促进公共福利
and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity,
并使我们自己和后代得享自由的幸福
do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.”
特为美利坚合众国制定本宪法”
The first three Articles of the Constitution created the branches of our government:
《宪法》的前三章确立了政府部门:
the Legislative, Executive, and Judicial branches.
立法部门 行政部门和司法部门
Each branch would have different powers
每个部门将拥有不同的权力
and have the ability to stop the other branches
并有能力去阻止其他部门
from growing too powerful in a system of checks and balances.
在制衡系统中变得过于强大
The remaining Articles spelled out
剩下的章节阐述了
relationships between the states and the federal government,
各个州和联邦政府的关系
how to make changes to the Constitution,
如何修改《宪法 》
how the Constitution could become law,
《宪法》如何成为法律
and established it as the supreme, or highest, law in the land.
以及将其成为美国最高法律
Changes to the Constitution are called Amendments,
修改《宪法》被称为宪法修正案
and the first Amendments were made very soon after the Constitution was ratified.
第一修正案是在《宪法》被批准后不久后举行的
Some people were worried that
有部分人担心
the Constitution did not provide strong enough protections for individual rights.
《宪法》并不能给个人权利提供足够的保护
To fix this, the first ten Amendments,
为了解决这个问题 前十项修正案
known as the Bill of Rights,
即《权利法案》
were added to the Constitution in 1791.
于1791年被加入到《宪法》中
The Bill of Rights spells out rights that individuals have in the United States,
《权利法案》阐述了公民在美国所享有的权利
such as freedom of speech and religion,
例如言论自由以及宗教自由
as well as rights that people have when they are accused of a crime.
还有人民在受到犯罪指控时所拥有的权利
Finally, the Bill of Rights says that
最后 《权利法案》规定
people can have other rights that are not spelled out in the Constitution,
人民可以享有宪法中没有规定的其他权利
and that any power not given to the Federal government belongs to the states.
以及宪法未赋予联邦政府的权力属于各州
Since then the Constitution has been amended seventeen more times
从那时起 宪法又修正了17次
for a total of 27 amendments.
总共修正了27次
Some famous amendments include the 13th Amendment,
一些著名的修正案包括第13修正案
which outlawed slavery,
它废除了奴隶制
the 15th Amendment,
第15修正案
which allowed people to vote regardless of their race or skin color,
公民的选举权不再受种族或肤色的限制
the 19th Amendment,
第19修正案
which gave women the right to vote,
赋予女性选举权
and the 26th Amendment,
第26修正案
which lowered the voting age to 18.
将法定投票年龄下调到18岁
The Constitution of the United States
美国《宪法》
is the oldest single document in history
是美国史上最古老的文件
that is still being used to run a country,
其至今仍然被用于国家的运作中
and has inspired other governments all around the world.
还影响了世界上的其他政府
Because it was designed to protect the rights of the people,
因为它的创立是为了保护人民的权利
prevent individual parts of the government from becoming too powerful,
防止政府的部分部门变得过于强大
and change over time to meet the needs of the country,
并能为满足国家需要而随着时间的推移做出改变
it has not needed to be replaced for well over 200 years
它已经有200多年未做更改了
and may easily continue to guide the country far into the future.
并且仍将继续引领国家在未来走得更远
I hope you enjoyed learning about the Constitution of the United States of America today.
希望你能享受今天关于美国宪法的学习内容
Goodbye till next time!
下次再见!

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