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万向节是什么?

Understanding Universal Joint

Universal Joints are commonly used
万向节通常用于
to transfer mechanical power between two shafts
当两轴相交成一定角度时
when their axes are at an angle to each other.
传递两轴之间的机械动力
Their invention dates back many centuries.
它的发明时间要追溯到几世纪前
Even though the universal joints mechanism seems simple,
尽管它的结构看起来很简单
the physics behind this mechanism are rather complicated and interesting.
但背后的物理原理却是复杂而有趣的
The universal Joint has three basic parts,
万向节有三个基本元件:
two yolks and a cross.
两个万向节叉和一个十字轴
Now let’s consider different power transmitting scenarios.
我们来看一下几种不同的动力传递情况
In the first case,
第一种情况
the input and output shaft are connected in a straight line,
输入轴水平连接到输出轴
in this case motion is really simple.
这种情况下力的传递很简单
The input shaft will turn the cross,
输入轴会带动十字轴
and the cross will turn the output shaft.
而十字轴带动输出轴
It is clear that both the input and the output shafts
显然 输入轴和输出轴
will turn at a same speed.
将以同样的速度转动
Now let’s see what happens if the axes are at an angle.
现在 让我们看看两轴倾斜连接时的受力情况
Assume that the input shaft is moving at a constant speed.
假设输入轴以恒定速度旋转
Here the motion is quite different,
这里力的传递就有很大的不同
to understand why,
想了解原因
just note the behavior of the red and the green ends of cross.
只需注意十字轴的红色和绿色端的运动
You can see that the green ends
你可以看到
which are connected to the input shaft,
连接输入轴的绿色端
turn along a vertical plane.
沿着垂直面旋转
While the red ends which are connected to the output shaft,
同时连接着输出轴的红色端
have to move along a different plane.
则沿着另一个平面旋转
To make the red ends move along the inclined plane,
为了让红色端可以沿着斜面旋转
the cross has to spin along the axis connecting the green ends.
十字轴必须沿着连接绿色端的轴自转
If you observe the mark on the cross you can see this phenomenon.
如果观察十字轴上的记号 你会看到以下现象
To make the cross spin concept clearer,
为了让十字轴旋转的原理更加清楚
let’s have a look at this hypothetical animation,
让我们看看这个模拟动画
where the spin of the green axis is halted.
在里面绿色轴是固定不自转的
It is clear that without this spin,
显然 如果绿色轴不自转
the motion of the inclined hook joint is impossible.
倾斜的接头就不可能被带动
The spin of the cross makes a huge difference
十字轴的自转对输出轴的转速
in the speed of the output shaft.
有很大影响
It is clear that when the cross is spinning as well as rotating,
显然 当十字轴自转且同时带动输出轴时
the velocity of the output shaft will have an added effect.
对输出轴的转速会产生附加影响
For the first 90 degrees of the input shaft rotation,
当输入轴转动到第一个90度时
the green axis spins to its maximum angle.
绿色轴会自转到最大角度
The forward spin aids and changes the output shaft rotation as shown.
如图 十字轴向前自转 帮助和改变输出轴的转动
But for the next 90 degrees,
但旋转到下一个90度时
it should spin back to the initial zero position.
输入轴转回起始点
The reverse spin will have an opposite effect on the output shaft rotation.
十字轴的倒转对于输出轴转速会有反向影响
Just by taking a simple time differential of this displacement graph,
通过一张简易的位移时间图表
we can find out speed of the output shaft.
我们能看到输出轴的转速变化
It is clear that the output shaft is a fluctuating speed as shown.
如表所示 输出轴的转速以波动的形式变化
This means the universal joint is not a constant velocity joint,
这意味着此种万向节不是等速传递节
this jerky rotation makes the universal joint useless in its original form.
这种急变转速使万向节无法很好的发挥作用
But you can make it a constant velocity joint
如图所示 但你可以连接下一个万向节
by incorporating one more joint as shown.
来把它变成持续等速传动
If a constant velocity input gives fluctuating output,
假如一个持续等速的输入端产生波动的输出
a fluctuating input will give a constant velocity output.
而一个波动的输入端又会产生持续等速的输出
Thus the double universal joint acts as a constant velocity joint.
那么双万向节就会是持续的等速传递节
We hope you have now gained a good understanding
我们希望你现在
of the workings of universal joints. Thank you.
对万向节的传动有更好的理解 谢谢

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视频概述

万向节(万向接头)的工作原理,看似简单,实则很复杂也很有趣

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Mei Hsi (Emily)

审核员

审核员RYAN

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LCMZz6YhbOQ

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