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了解脱欧:英国公投离开欧盟

Understanding Brexit: The UK votes to leave the EU

2016年6月23日
On the 23rd of June, 2016,
英国人民被要求
the British people were asked to make a choice
就英国是否留在欧盟做出选择
about the United Kingdom’s membership of the European Union.
选择很简单
The choice was simple,
是继续留在欧盟
Remain, and continue membership as normal;
还是退出欧盟
or Leave, and withdraw from the EU.
欧盟的前身 欧洲经济共同体
The European Economic Community, the EU’s predecessor,
创立于1957年
was created in 1957.
英国不是最初创建成员国
The UK was not one of the original members…
创建国是比利时 法国 意大利
which were: Belgium, France, Italy,
卢森堡 荷兰和西德
Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany.
1973年英国加入欧洲经济共同体
The UK joined the EEC in1973.
尽管英国第三次才幸运地加入欧盟
Although it was 3rd time lucky for the UK,
当时的法国总统是查尔斯戴高乐
as the French president at the time,
他前两次都投反对票
Charles de Gaulle, had vetoed their application twice before
因为他认为英国“与欧洲格格不入”
because he thought that Britain were“incompatible with Europe”.
他可能说到点上了 两年之后
He may have had a point, as just 2 years later,
英国就发起了一次退出欧共体的公投
there was a referendum to leave the EEC.
爱德华希斯领导保守派政府加入了欧共体
Joining was done under the Conservative government of Edward Heath,
但在政党换届之后
but after a change of leadership,
劳工党首相哈罗德·威尔逊
Labour Prime Minister, Harold Wilson,
不同意加入欧共体的决议
disagreed with the decision to join,
并把它交由英国公民投票决定
and put it to the British people to vote on the issue.
公投有67%的公民投票赞成
The referendum was decisively in favour of remaining,
留在欧共体
as 67% of the people voted to stay.
1992年 欧盟成立了
In 1992, the European Union was created,
该组织更侧重于政治联合
as the organisation shifted to become more of a political union,
而不单纯囿于经济合体
rather than simply an economic one.
英国在欧盟中一直享有某种特殊的地位
The United Kingdom has always enjoyed a somewhat special status within the EU.
欧盟创建不久之后 引入了欧元
Shortly after the EU’s creation, the euro was introduced,
一种可在欧洲不同国家流通的共享货币
a single shared currency to be used throughout Europe, across different nations.
大多数国家取消了本国货币 采用欧元
Most countries dropped their own local currency and adopted the euro.
采用欧元的这些国家都被称为欧元区
Countries which use the euro are part of what’s known as the Eurozone,
英国不在其中
from which the UK has an opt-out,
它一直坚持使用本国货币
and the country has always stuck to its own currency,
英镑
the Pound Sterling.
与此同时 申根地区签订了协议
Likewise, the Schengen Area,
废除了成员国间的边境控制
which abolished border controls between member states,
允许所有申根地区国家公民
is an agreement which allows freedom of travel
不需要办护照
between all other Schengen Area countries,
就能自由旅行
without the need to issue a passport.
同样 英国也没有签订该协议
The UK also has an opt-out for this, too.
那么最初为什么会发生这次公投呢?
So why exactly did this referendum actually happen in the first place?
过去几十年里 越来越多英国公民 持欧洲怀疑论
Well, euroscepticism has been a growing phenomenon in the UK over the last few decades,
即欧洲的批评主义和英国的欧盟成员国身份
that is, criticism of Europe and the UK’s membership within the EU.
最明显的迹象是“英国独立党”的崛起
The most telling sign of this was the rise of the “ UK Independence Party ”,
或简称为“UKIP” 和他们的宗教领袖奈杰尔·法拉奇
or “ UKIP ”, and their somewhat constrovesional leader, Nigel Farage.
2014年 欧洲议会选举
In the 2014 European Parliamentary election,
英国独立党独拔头筹 赢得最多席位
UKIP came out on top, winning the most seats.
令人震惊
This was a shock
因为保守党和劳工党已经统治英国政治
as the Conservative Party and the Labour Party
长达一个世纪了
had dominated British politics for a century.
这是自1906年以来第一次有其它政党在选举中
This was the first time since 1906 that an election had been won
超过保守党或者劳工党
by anyone other than the Conservatives or Labour.
当然 这是一次欧洲选举
Of course this was a European election,
不是大选 到了第二年
not a general election, which came the year after.
英国独立党获得了12.7%的选票
UKIP managed to obtain 12.7% of the popular vote..
尽管这只为他们赢得了威斯敏斯特650个席位中的1个
although this only won them 1 of the 650 seats at Westminster
因为英国的投票制度就是如此
because of how the British voting system works.
2015年大选也是这次公投的原因
The 2015 general election was also the reason this referendum came to be..
那时候的首相戴维·卡梅伦
current Prime Minister at the time, David Cameron,
在选举前承诺过
had promised in the lead-up to the election,
如果保守党获胜 他还是首相的话
that should the Conservatives win and he remains Prime Minister,
英国将就是否留在欧盟举行全民公投
the UK will hold a referendum on EU membership.
他这么做是因为他所在的党派 对欧洲的怀疑情绪日益高涨
The reason he did this, was because there was growing Euroscepticism within his own party.
公投是为了让他的成员们开心
The referendum was his way of keeping his party members happy,
事实上他自己也更倾向于留欧
even though he himself was actually in favour of remaining.
所以当保守党赢得大选
So because the Conservatives did win the general election,
卡梅伦遵守他的承诺 公投日期也已确定
Cameron kept his promise, and the referendum date was set.
那么在竞选过程中究竟讨论了哪些问题呢?
So what exactly were the some of the issues that were discussed during the campaign?
有很多政治问题
Well there were a large number of political issues,
但是目前为止最大的问题是:移民
but by far and away the biggest issue was: immigration.
在英国 移民一直是一个敏感话题
Immigration has always been a bit of touchy subject in the UK,
很多人认为 移民的标准太高
with many people believing that the level of immigration is far too high.
成为欧盟成员国
Being a member of the EU,
意味着其他非英居民可在英国自由生活和工作
means that citizens of other EU countries are free to live and work in UK.
历史上 非欧盟国家移民总是远超欧盟国家移民
Historically, non-EU immigration had always far surpassed EU immigration.
自从2003年 欧盟国家移民人数一直在增长
But EU immigration has been on the rise since 2003,
2015年 欧盟国家和非欧盟国家
and in 2015, it was split roughly 50/50
移民比例约为50%
between EU and non-EU immigration,
约有55万人移民英国
with about 550,000 immigrantscoming to the UK.
据估计
It has been estimated that
英国大约有13%居住人口为外来人口
around 13% of people living in the UK areforeign-born.
很显然脱欧肯定会减少英国的移民数量
Obviously leaving the EU would reduce the number of immigrants coming from the EU,
但有多大的影响
but just how big the impact is,
得取决于与英国和欧盟达成的协议
will be highly dependant on the deal to UK and the EU agree upon.
民众想脱欧的另一个原因是
One of the other reasons people wanted to leave,
会员费
was the cost of membership.
欧盟会员国不是净捐助国就是净受益国
EU members are either net contributors or net beneficiaries.
净捐助国付出的比回报的要多
Net contributors being countries that pay in more than they back,
而净受益国的回报比付出的要多
while net beneficiaries receive more than they give.
2015年
In 2015,
在欧盟预算上 英国是第二大捐献国 仅次于德国
the UK was the 2nd highest net contributor to the EU budget, behind Germany.
那么英国政府花了多少钱才成为欧盟会员呢?
So just how much does it cost the UK government to be a member of the EU?
脱欧派声称 英国成为欧盟会员国
The Vote Leave campaign stated that the UK government pays
每周要付三亿五千万英镑
about £350m per week to be a member of the EU.
“当然这笔钱用在国家健康服务上 岂不更好?”他们说
‘Surely that money would be better spent on the National Health Service?’ they said.
然而 这个数字受到广泛质疑
However, this figure has been widely criticised.
首先 这个数字没有考虑到
First of all, this number does not take into account
每周7500万英镑的英国退税
the UK’s rebate of £75m per week.
钱一开始就没离开过这个国家
Money which never leaves the country in the first place.
其次 一亿一千五百万英镑都花在了英国本国
Second, about £115m of that money get spent in the UK itself,
像是给农民的补贴啦
on things like subsidies for farmers
英国大学的研究经费啦
and research funding for British universities.
所以实缴更可能为每周一亿六千万英镑
So the actual figure is more like £160m per week.
或英国政府每周要交
Or just over 1% of the £14 billion
一亿四千万多英镑
the UK government spends every week.
留欧派说留在欧盟带来的经济效益
The Remain Campaign said the economic benefits of being a member of EU
要远超过其成本
far away the cost of membership.
至于为什么有些人想脱欧
Sovereignty and EU law was another issue
主权和欧盟法律是另外一个原因
as to why some people wanted to leave the EU.
为什么法律在布鲁塞尔制定而不是英国呢?
Why should laws be decided in Brussels and not here in Britain?
这是他们的论据
Was the argument made.
脱欧派说我们应该“夺回控制权”
We should “ take back control ” was the message from the Leave Campaign,
还说英国62%的法律是欧盟制定的
and claims were made that 62% of our laws come from the EU.
另一边 留欧派
On the opposite say the Remain Campaign
说这个数字不正确 只有13%
said this was inaccurate and that the figure was only 13%.
所以……哪个是正确的?
So… which of these is correct?
好吧 都不正确 真的
Well, neither, really.
双方都不诚实
Both sides were being disingenuous
都在推动他们的政治议程
and trying to push their political agenda.
13%确实太少了
The 13% figure is certainly too low,
这个数字只包括了法律 忽视了其它欧盟规章制度
this only includes laws, while neglecting other EU rules and regulations.
另一方面 62%又太多了
On the other hand, 62% is also too high.
它将每条欧盟法律 规章制度都算在内
This figure counts every EU law, rule, and regulation,
不管这些适不适用于英国
regardless of whether or not it’s even applicable to the UK.
现实中 是不可能得出准确数字的
And in reality, it’s impossible to arrive at accurate figure,
它肯定介于这两个数字之间
it’s definitely somewhere in between the two claims,
但欧盟法律对不同地方的影响程度不同
but EU laws have different levels of impact on different areas.
“支持英国脱欧人士”更多是担心
A further concern by so-called “ Brexiteers ”
欧盟正在持续扩张
was that the EU is expanding.
五个新国家正准备加入欧盟:
Five new countries are in the process of joining the EU.
阿尔巴尼亚 马其顿 黑山共和国 塞尔维亚和土耳其
Albania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Turkey.
当然 重点是土耳其和它的七千六百万人口
The focus of course being on Turkey and its 76 million people.
考虑到ISIS和移民危机带来的安全问题
With all the safety concerns about ISIS and the migrant crisis,
人们担心叙利亚的邻国土耳其
there were fears of letting Turkey,
加入欧盟
a country which borders Syria, join the EU.
从技术角度而言这是真的 土耳其处于加入欧盟进程中
While it is true that Turkey is technically in the process of joining EU.
过去的三十年里 它一直在申请加入欧盟
It has been for the last three decades.
1987年土耳其首次申请加入欧盟
Turkey first applied to join back in 1987,
1997年 它才进入有资格的候选人名单
it was declared an eligible candidate in 1997,
2005年开始谈判
and negotiations began in 2005.
一个国家要完成35章节谈判
Before a country can join the EU,
才能加入欧盟
a country must first complete 35 chapters of negotiations.
到了2016年 土耳其只完成了……一章
As 2016, Turkey has completed… just one.
剩下的三十四章里 开放了十四章谈判
the 34 remaining, 14 are open for negotiation,
其它的二十章还未开放
while the other 20 still remain closed.
土耳其加入欧盟面临的最大问题之一
One of the biggest issues facing Turkey ’s ascension to the EU
是塞浦路斯争端
is the Cyprus dispute,
塞浦路斯现为欧盟成员国
with Cyprus being a current EU member,
土耳其是唯一承认北塞浦路斯共和国主权的国家
and Turkey being the only country that recognises the Republic of Northern Cyprus,
而国际社会认为这片领土是被殖民侵占的
viewed by the international community as occupied territory.
总之 近期内土耳其不会加入欧盟
So in short… Turkey will not joining the EU any time soon.
可能得等几十年 或永远也进不了欧盟
It may take several decades, or never even happen at all.
因此在公投之前 双方的竞选活动
So campaigning on both sides went on for quite some time
已持续相当长一段时间了
before the referendum day.
留欧或脱欧不一定与党派有关
Leave or Remain is something that didn’t necessarily fall along party lines.
来自各个政治派别的人 都投票支持脱欧或留欧
People from all sides of the political spectrum were voting both leave and remain.
因此 六月二十三号 公投日当天
So on the 23rd of June, the referendum day arrived,
谁有资格去投票呢?
so who was eligible to vote?
居住在英国的英国人和联邦公民有资格去投票
All British and Commonwealth citizens living in the UK were eligible to vote,
居住在英国的欧盟国家公民没有投票权
while EU citizens residing in the UK, were not.
第二天一大早 新闻宣布英国以52比48的
Early the next morning it was announced that the UK had voted to leave the EU,
投票结果退出欧盟
with 52% to 48.
这对一些人来说是一个巨大的打击
This came as a massive shock to some people,
尽管民意调查
even though opinion polls
一直显示两党势均力敌
had consistently showed how close it could it be.
仔细看看结果就会发现明显的地理差异
Having a closer look at the results shows a clear geographical divide.
一般来说 苏格兰 北爱尔兰和伦敦投票留欧
Generally speaking, Scotland, Northern Ireland, and London voted to Remain,
但是剩下的英格兰和威尔士投票脱欧
but the rest of England as well as Wales, voted to leave.
投票率为72% 投票人数超过3300万
Voting turnout was 72% with over 33 million votes.
据人口统计
By demographics as well,
年龄和投票偏好也有明显的相关性
there is a clear correlation between age and voting preference,
年长的人通常更倾向于脱欧
with older people generally being more likely to vote to leave
年轻人更倾向于留欧
while young voters opted for staying.
结果发布当天
As the result was released,
奈杰尔·法拉奇自豪地说六月二十三号应为
Nigel Farage proudly stated that the 23rd of June should be celebrated
英国的“独立日”
as the UK’s “independence day”.
脱欧运动获胜后
Immediately following the victory for the leave campaign,
戴维·卡梅伦宣布辞去首相职位
David Cameron announced his resignation,
他说他相信这个国家需要“新领导”
stated that he believed the countryneeded “fresh leadership”.
之后特蕾沙·梅接替他的首相职位
Theresa May would later replace him as Prime Minister,
尽管她也支持留欧
even though she also had favoured staying part of the EU.
结果出来了 一夜之间
Overnight, as the results were still coming in,
英镑对美元的汇率暴跌10%
the value of the pound plummeted by 10%
至三十一年来的最低点
as it fell to a 31 year low against the US dollar.
所以现在怎么样了?
So what happens now?
即使投票结果为脱欧
Well, even though the result of the vote was to leave the EU,
但并没有立即生效
it’s not something that goes into immediately effect .
英国仍然是欧盟的一部分
The UK is still part of the EU.
事实上 脱欧的进程还没有开始
In fact, the process to leave hasn’t even begun yet.
为了开始脱欧进程
In order for the process to actually start,
首先 英国政府必须开启《里斯本条约》第五十条
the UK government must first invoke Article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty.
条约一旦启动 其余27个成员国之间
Once this happens, a two-year negotiating period
将开始为期两年的谈判
between the 27 remaining members will begin.
英国无法参与谈判
The UK will not be able to take part in the negotiations.
所以此时我们不知道
So at the moment we have no idea how long it will be
英国多久才能真正脱欧
before the UK actually leaves the EU.
我们不知道什么时候启动条约五十
We don’t know when Article 50 will be invoked,
我们也不知道谈判要持续多久
and we don’t know how long negotiations will last.
事实上 甚至不确定是否会发生
In fact, it’s not even certain it will even happen.
法律上讲 该决定仍可撤消
Legally, the decision could be still be reversed
或条约五十永远不会被启动
or Article 50 may never be invoked.
之前没有欧盟成员国离开过
No member of the EU has ever left before
因此英国此举是史无前例的
so this is completely unprecedented.
英国的未来将取决于
The future of the United Kingdom will hinge on the deal
英国和欧盟之间达成的协议
that is agreed between the UK and the EU.
当然 英国和欧盟会继续进行贸易
Of course the UK and the EU will continue to trade,
它们还是亲密同盟关系
so they well remain the close allies.
但另一方面 欧盟也不想给英国太多甜头
But on the other hand, the EU doesn’t want to give the UK too great of a deal,
这会诱使其它国家也脱欧
which may tempt other countries into leaving as well.
人们一直在讨论
There have been discussions about
英国是否仍是“单一市场”的一部分
whether or not the UK would remain part of the “ single market ”
或与欧盟的关系像
and perhaps have a similar relationship with the EU
欧盟与冰岛 挪威 瑞典或列支敦斯登的关系一样
as Iceland, Norway, Switzerland or Liechtenstein.
这四个国家不是欧盟成员国
These four countries are not members of the EU,
但是参与单一市场的“四项自由”
but participate in the single market’s “four freedoms ” ,
商品 资本 服务和人员的自由流动
the free movement of goods, capital, services, and people.
如果英国仍为单一市场的一部分
So if the UK does remain part of the single market,
对移民的影响
the impact on immigration,
这对很多脱欧派选民来说是最重要的问题
which was by far the most important issue for many leave voters,
可能就没那么大了
will likely be a minor one.
那么苏格兰呢?
So what about Scotland?
苏格兰的每一个地区都投票支持留欧
Every single region of Scotland voted to remain part of the EU
总共62%的选民投票留欧
with an overall 62% of voters in favour of staying..
2014年 苏格兰在独立公投中投了反对票
Back in 2014, Scotland voted No on its independence referendum,
他们选择仍为英国一部分
choosing to remain part of the United Kingdom.
这次投票曾被称作是此生唯一一次
This was said to be a once-in-lifetime vote,
但由于苏格兰对留欧有着压倒性的偏好
but with such overwhelming preference towards staying in the EU,
形势已经变了
the situation has changed.
由于这一原因 有很多人说苏格兰会再举行一次独立公投
For this reason, there are a lot of talks to Scotland having a second referendum on independence.
苏格兰政府目前正在探索所有可能的选择
The Scottish government is currently exploring all possible options.
在英国脱欧公投后的一周
In the week following the Brexit vote,
苏格兰的第一大臣 尼古拉·斯特金
Scottish first minister Nicola Sturgeon travelled to Brussels
前往布鲁塞尔讨论苏格兰的未来
to discuss Scotland’s future.
现还不清楚苏格兰是否能继续保持与欧盟目前的关系
It’s unclear if Scotland will be able to continue its current relationship with the EU,
尽管苏格兰在欧盟的地位
although it does seem unlikely that Scotland may
似乎与英国其它地区无差异
have a different status within the EU than the rest of the UK.
所以为了加入欧盟 苏格兰可能需要先独立
So Scotland may need to become independent first in order to join the EU.
然而 这会让苏格兰处境很尴尬
However, this puts Scotland in an awkward position.
欧盟是苏格兰的第二大贸易伙伴
The EU is Scotland’s 2nd largest trading partner,
但英国其他地区却是它的第一大贸易国
but the rest of the UK is its first.
所以如果有第二次独立公投
So if a second referendum on independence does happen,
苏格兰能不能独立 还不好下结论
it’s not a foregone conclusion that independence would be the result.
那么北爱尔兰呢?
And then what about Northern Ireland?
大约有56%的北爱尔兰投票留欧
Nearly 56% of Northern Irish voters favoured staying in the EU as well.
北爱尔兰最大的国家政党 新芬党
The largest Nationalist political party in Northern Ireland, Sinn Fién,
呼吁在英国脱欧公投中就爱尔兰统一举行公投
called for a referendum on Irish reunification in the event of a Brexit vote.
然而 这在短期内似乎不太可能发生
However, this does seem unlikely to happen any time soon.
北爱尔兰仍然是压倒性的统一主义者
Northern Ireland is still overwhelmingly Unionist.
最后 甚至有人呼吁首都城市伦敦
And finally, there have even been calls for the capital city, London,
以城邦身份留在欧盟 因为伦敦也投票留欧
to become its own city-state within the EU as the capital also voted to remain,
只有40%投票脱欧
with only 40% voting to leave.
目前 已有超过十八万人在网上请愿书上签名
An online petition currently has over 180,000 signatures.
英国的未来
The future of United Kingdom,
事实上 欧盟其它成员国的未来还是未知数
and indeed the rest of the EU, is unknown at the moment,
只有时间知道结局
only time will tell how things will play out.
有一件事情可以确定
One thing seems certain though,
那就是经过脱欧公投后
that after the Brexit vote,
英国似乎比以往任何时候都更加分裂了
the United Kingdom, seems more divided than ever.
感谢观看
Thanks for watching.

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译制信息
视频概述

了解脱欧:英国公投离开欧盟

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

李门牙😄

审核员

审核员_XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xsev9DP10f8

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