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星外行星上的寻常日子 – 译学馆
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星外行星上的寻常日子

Unbelievably Strange Planets in Space

许多怪异之事 任你天马行空 也绝不会在地球上发生
Most of these eerie things are absolutely impossible on our planet even in the wildest imagination.
但实践证明 在地球上不可能的事在其它星球上仍然可能
But as practice shows, what is impossible with us is still possible on other planets.
我们以平常的雨水为例
Let’s look at ordinary rain as an example.
雨通常是阴冷沉闷的 并且非常非常潮湿
Rain is usually cold and gloomy, and very very wet.
一般情况下 地球上的雨是很烦人的
And in general, the Earth’s rain, well, it’s boring.
但是 CORT-7b行星上的石头雨 却是另一回事
The rain of stones on planet COROT-7b, however, is quite another matter.
在那儿 我们不会感到被打扰
We wouldn’t be bored there.
这个奇怪的太空物体 有一半非常非常热
It’s very very hot on one half of the strange space object.
表面温度达到4700℉
The surface temperature reaches 4700℉.
大约是2600℃
That’s about 2600℃.
超过了足以使岩石融化的温度
And that’s more than enough to make the rocks melt,
接着岩石就像地球上的水坑一样蒸发了
and then evaporate like puddles of water here on Earth.
同时 该星球上的另一半
At the same time, the other half of the planet,
相对较为凉爽 大约是3500℉
is relatively cool at about 3500℉.
相当于900℃
That’s about 900℃.
因此 在炎热的半球 地狱般的温度下 岩石
So the rocks evaporate, and then condense into huge stone clouds,
蒸发 形成巨大的石云
under the hellish tempreatures on the hot half the planet.
然后这些云化作岩浆雨 落回地面
And then these clouds fall as rains of magma, heading back to the surface.
在温度相对较低的半球
On the relatively cooler side of the planet,
岩浆雨落地之前 就已经凝固成了石头
the rain made of magma solidifies into stones before hitting the surface.
这是真正的石头雨 你能想象自己会亲眼看到吗
This is real stone rain. Can you imagine seeing this with your own eyes?
别急 下一个地方会更让你吃惊
But wait, this next place will astonish you even more.
HD189773-b 是一颗外星行星
HD 189773-b is an exoplanet
距离我们63光年
located 63 light years from us.
它比木星略大
It’s slightly larger than Jupiter in size,
如果我说它看起来很棒 你一定会同意的
and most likely you will agree with me if I say that it looks awesome.
你能想象隐藏在这美丽外表下的恐怖吗?
Can you possibly imagine what horror lies behind all this beauty?
这梦幻般的外表是由于
Its fantastic appearance is due to the fact that
这个星球的大气是由硅酸盐颗粒组成的 想想沙子或玻璃吧
the atmosphere of the planet consists mainly of silicate particles. Think sand or glass.
在1706℉(930℃)高温下 它也会下雨
It also rains at a temperature of 1706℉.
那是930℃(由水组成的雨100℃就会蒸发成水蒸气)
That’s 930℃.
风速往往达到5405英里每小时
And it has winds that often reach 5405 mph.
也就是8700公里每小时
That’s 8700 kmph.
比音速快七倍
which is seven times faster than the speed of sound.
这里的降雨比之前那个星球还要可怕
This is even more terrifying than the rains on the previous planet.
这里 有最干净的玻璃
Here, there’s cleanest glass.
想想这一幕
Just imagine the scene,
云从地平线上升起 雷声在其中轰鸣
clouds are coming from behind the horizon, echoes of the thunder crack through.
风速达到1.24英里每秒
The wind surges to speed of 1.24 mps.
最后雨倾泄而下
and finally the sky explodes with pouring rain.
大量玻璃撕裂大气 以疯狂的速度扑向你
Masses of glass are tearing through the atmosphere and into you at insane speeds.
如果这样的风暴以同样的速度在地球肆虐
If such a storm suddenly arose on Earth at the same wind speed,
它会用仅仅5小时33分钟绕赤道一圈
it would fly around our planet at the equator in just 5 hours and 33 mins.
当地居民能够强烈地感受到这股力量
Local residents would feel it quite powerfully.
但是说到风 这真的不算什么
But speaking of winds, really, this is nothing.
相对于HD189733-b星球上的风来说
This puny little storm is just a breeze compared to the wind that
这么弱的风暴只是微风罢了
blows on the planet HD 189733-b.
面对太阳的一面 大气温度
The temperature on the solar-facing side of the gas giant
往往达到难以置信的1770℉(966°C)
often reaches a mind-boggling 1770℉(966°C).
背对太阳的一面 温度通常不低于
And the temperature on the dark side is usually no lower than
1270℉或700℃
1270℉ or about 700℃.
两面温差较小是由于风速过快
The small temperature difference between the sides is due to the extremely fast winds.
达到了惊人的21747英里每小时
which here reach a fantastic 21747 mph,
也就是每秒6英里或10公里
which is six miles or ten kilometers per second.
几乎比音速快29倍 那只是一些风
Almost 29 times faster than the speed of sound. That’s some wind.
正如我在自己过去的视频中说过的
As I said in one of my past videos,
地球上有记录以来最快的风 是1999年俄克拉荷马州的台风
the fastest wind ever recorded on Earth was during a tornado in Oklahoma in 1999.
速度也不过300英里每小时
And its speed reach just 300 mph,
仅是HD189733-b行星上 一般风速的1/73
which is 73 times less than the usual average breeze on HD 189733-b.
如果你有翅膀或降落伞 甚至一把普通的伞
If you had wings, or a parachute or even just a normal umbrella,
就可以在大约一小时八分钟之内绕该行星一周
you could fly around the entire planet in about an hour and eight minutes,
打开伞就行
just by opening that umbrella.
但是我猜
But something tells me that
你的身体在整个过程中会遭受可怕的折磨
your body would probably suffer some terrible indignities long before that.
石头从高空落下 温度达到5400度
Stones falling from the sky, 5400-degree temperature,
玻璃雨比音速还快
glass rain faster than the speed of sound.
你要知道 我越了解它
You know, the more I learn about this,
我越相信地狱的存在
the less I have doubts about existence of hell.
我得趁早停止这个阴暗话题最后一章的叙述
I left off early the last episode on the topic of shadows.
所以 我们继续吧
So let’s continue.
想象下 有这么个地方
Let’s imagine that there’s a place
每天早上有两个太阳发出的光线唤醒你
where the rays from two suns wake you up in the morning.
你可以一个夜晚看两次
You could also watch two,
甚至三次日落
or even three sunsets at almost the same time in the evening.
以前 这似乎是个白日梦
Previously, it seemed like a fantasy.
这种景象只出现在《星球大战》中
And was possible only in Star Wars,
直到我们发现令人惊奇的开普勒-16b 外星行星
until we discovered the amazing Kepler-16b exoplanet,
它的轨道位于天鹅座的两颗恒星之间
which orbits in the system of two stars in the Cygnus constellation.
这个星球 有两颗太阳从地平线上升起 落下
Two suns rise and set on the horizon of this planet.
如果我地球上的影子生活在孤独之中
And if my shadow was suffering the despair of loneliness here on Earth,
在开普勒-16b上 它会有一个朋友
then on Kepler-16b, it would have a friend.
然而 即便可以传输到这个星球
Although, most likely if I could somehow teleport to this planet,
我也很可能在瞬间死于高温和缺氧
Then in a moment I would certainly die from a heat and lack of air.
但如果你允许我穿奢侈的太空服
But if you allow me the luxury of a superduper spacesuit,
我仍然能活下来
and I somehow stayed alive.
总体而言 两个太阳和两个影子很炫酷
In general, two suns and two shadows is certainly cool.
但没有三个太阳和三个影子酷
But not as cool as three suns and three shadows.
天文学家最近发现一颗更令人惊讶的天体
Astronomers have discovered an even more amazing object:
HD 131399Ab
HD 131399Ab relatively recently.
这颗行星打破了之前的所有记录
This new planet broke all previous records.
它同时绕三颗恒星公转
It revolves around three suns at once.
体积比木星大四倍
It also has a giant mass four times larger than Jupiter’s.
有一个不同寻常的长轨道
And an unusually long orbit.
它绕这三颗恒星公转一周
A one year revolution of the exoplanet around its three stars
要花550个地球年
takes 550 of our terrestrial years.
因其自转相当慢
And as the planet spins quite slowly,
以至于有一半时间能同时看到三颗太阳
the three suns only descend from the sky in about half of this time.
想象一下 275年间 你看不到单独的太阳落下
Imagine that you wouldn’t see a single sunset for 275 years.
这些景象发生在距我们340光年之外
This all happens 340 light years from our earth,
比我们下一颗要展示的行星远300光年
which is 300 light years further than our next exhibit.
这就是海洋GJ 1214b 行星
The planet ocean GJ 1214 b.
你们知道 地球表面70%是水
You all know that water occupies 70% of the surface of our planet.
但依此例
But in our case,
水仅占我们星球质量的0.005%
it’s only 0.005% of the total mass of our planet.
科学家认为 在这颗行星上
Scientists believe that on our distant neighbour,
水的质量占了整个质量的10%以上
water could be up to 10% of the total mass of the whole planet.
这意味着 GJ 1214b
This means that GJ 1214 b is completely covered
被一个数百公里深的海洋所覆盖
by a huge ocean reaching hundreds of kilometers in depth.
这个星球的半径比地球的大2.5倍
The planet is 2.5 times the Earth’s radius,
质量约是地球的6.5倍
and approximately six and a half times larger by mass.
如果你看过生活在地球海洋里的生物
If you look at all those creations that live in our Earth’s oceans,
地球海洋深度还不到6.8公里
which is less than 6.8 miles in depth.
就连想象有什么怪物隐藏在它的海洋里都是可怕的
It’s scary even to imagine what monsters could hide in this terrible place.
但更可能的是 大多数怪物仅存在于我的想象里
But most likely these monsters exist there only in my imagination.
事实上 大洋底部存在巨大的水压
In fact, the bottom of this huge ocean is under such incredible pressures
理论上来说 不可能有生命存在
that life there is in principle impossible.
我们仅知道该星球大洋底部的水
It’s known only that the water at the bottom of this mega ocean
很可能是以冰VII的形式存在
could likely be an exotic form of ice, known as ice 7.
然而 我关于这个陌生物质的所有研究都不成功
However all my searches for information regarding this strange substance were unsuccessful.
我仍然不知道这冰到底是什么
I still don’t understand what the reality of this ice really is.
此外 它也不像普通冰
In addition to the fact that it doesn’t look like ice in the usual,
比如地球上的冰
normal, earthly sands.
显然它并不是很冷 但仍是固体形态
As it is apparently not cold at all, but it’s still solid in form.
如果关于这个问题 你有更广博的见识
If you have it broader knowledge regarding this topic,
请在评论里告诉我
please tell me about it in the comments.
就当甜点吧 最后一颗行星 简直就是地狱 我的朋友
And for dessert, the last planet, a real hell here my friends.
许多恒星 甚至都不可能达到
Many stars, can’t even boast of the same high temperature
像行星KELT-9b 那样燃烧的高温
of which the planet KELT-9b is burning.
大约每1.5天
Approximately every one and a half days this planet,
这颗木星大小的行星绕它的恒星公转一周
the size of our Jupiter, makes a complete revolution around its star.
这颗恒星在科学家们发现的恒星中
This star at the moment is one of the biggest stars near
是最大的一个
which scientists have managed to find planets.
A级蓝巨星KELT-9
The A class blue giant star KELT-9
年龄大约30亿年
whose age is estimated at about 300 million years
大约比太阳大两倍 也热两倍
is approximately twice as large and twice as hot as our sun.
由于它巨大的体积
Because of its giant size, the planet KELT-9b
围绕这个超热恒星旋转的行星KELT-9b
which rotates in the immediate vicinity of this super hot reactor of a star,
被加热到难以置信的7800℉
is heated to an incredible temperature of 7800℉.
大约4300℃ 实在是太热了
About 4300℃. This is fantastically hot.
它在我们太阳的表面温度范围内旋转
As it’s within spinning distance of the temperature of the surface of our own sun,
在9900℉
at 9900℉.
F G K M 这几种光谱型的多数恒星
Most stars of the spectral classes: F, G, K and M,
都达不到1300℉
do not exceed 1300℉.
只有B和O光谱型超过18000℉
And only representatives of classes B and O get above 18000℉(18032°F, 10000°C).
因此 由斯科特•加迪用一对KELT望远镜发现的
Thus, the exoplanet discovered by Scott Gaudi.
外星行星
With the help of pair of KELT telescopes,
实际上比许多恒星还热
turns out to be hotter than many stars.
不知你怎么想
I don’t know about you,
反正这么迷人的事实在我脑中挥之不去
but I just can’t get this amazing fact out of my head.
这还没完呢
But this is not the end.
他们穿着带翼的古怪衣服 爬到很高的地方
They dress up in eccentric suits with wings, climb to some very high point.
比如一些山的山巅
The tip of steep rock on some mountain top is just about right.
然后跳下去
And they jump.
我不知道这些不要命的怎么想的
I don’t know what these kamikazes are thinking.
在离岩石和树仅有几米的上面以惊人的速度飞行
Flying at insane speeds just a few meters from the protruding rocks and trees.
看起来很简单 普通的惊吓 然后打开降落伞
But it looks simply, just plain terrifying. Then the parachute opens.
肾上腺素升到顶峰
The adrenaline surge peaks.
在永生难忘的心情下着陆
And with unforgettable emotions, his feet finally find firm ground underneath.
可是 最难以置信的感觉
And yet, the most incredible feeling of all,
就是赢了死神本身
was when he defeated the old man with the scythe, death himself.
他们说 只有在死前几分钟 才真正开始体味人生
They say you really begin to appreciate life, only moments from death.
这就是地球上的翼装飞行
This is called BASE Jumping here on Earth.
最极端 最危险的运动之一
One of the most extreme and dangerous sports.
我不知道你怎么想 但在我看来
I don’t know about you, but in my eyes,
这些着翼装的蛮勇之士看起来就像超级英雄
these crazy daredevils with wings look like superheroes.
你知道更有趣的是什么
But you know what’s even more fun?
有个地方 让这些疯狂之举看起来像闲庭信步
there’s a place where all these devilry would look like no more than an innocuous walk in the park.
这些地方就在离地球71光分钟的太阳系
This place is right here in our solar system 71 light minutes from Earth,
离我们地球93亿英里
9.3 billion miles from our blue green ball.
如果有几个不怕死的在土卫六上跳来跳去
If some daredevil wanted to repeat such a jump on Titan,
就能使其(土卫六)变成环绕土星的美丽月亮
he could make it all the way around this picturesque moon of Saturn.
稠密的大气和低重力 使这些地方
A dense atmosphere combine with low gravity makes this place a superb candidate
成为未来人类理想的移居地
for the resettlement of homo sapiens in the future.
想象一下什么样的头脑能创造出这么完美的条件
Just imagine what mind blowing entertainment could be invented under such fantastic conditions.
我将实现自己最珍贵的梦想
I would finally be able to realize my most cherished dream.
像一只鸟那样飞翔 翱游天际
To ascend into the air like a bird and soar.
你知道并非只有鸟才可以飞
As you already know, it’s not only birds that can fly.
我们只需要知道怎样去土卫六就行
We just have to figure how to get to Titan.
并在那儿建个小巢
And also how to make a cozy little nest there.
相信我 这不容易
And this, believe me, will not be easy.
事实是 除这些未来居住地之外
The fact is that in addition to all these bonuses awaiting future colonists,
土卫六还为我们准备了一些麻烦
Titan has prepared for us a good little bundle of troubles.
但是这个地方很有吸引力 因为这儿有大气
But this place is quite impressive. There is an atmosphere here.
此外 其浓度比我们地球大1.5倍
Moreover, it’s one and a half times denser than our terrestrial one.
而且差不多和它形成时一样
And this is about as good as it gets.
重力是地球的七分之一
The force of gravity is one seventh that of the Earth.
土卫六比月亮还小
Yes, Titan is even smaller than our moon.
这意味着 我们不仅可以在其表面行走
This means that a person could potentially just walk around on the surface of Titan,
只要携带些呼吸装置 这还不算太坏
in nothing more than some simple scuba gear, which is also very very not bad.
但痛苦来了 首先是寒冷
But now comes the pain. First, it’s terribly chilly.
土卫六大气温度是-290℉
The temperature of the Titan atmosphere is -290℉(-170°C~-180°C).
此外
This is in addition to the fact that
平均风速达到20英里每秒钟
the average winds speed reaches as much as 20 mps.
这意味着在表面上行走只存在可能性
This means that walking on the surface can really only be possible
除非穿上加热设备
in the vicinity of a powerful heating installation.
由核能或核反应堆供能
Probably with a nuclear or thermal nuclear reactor.
当然 这个超级浓密的大气层不包含氧气
Also this super dense atmosphere does not contain precious oxygen.
仅仅包含氰和三聚氰酸之类的物质
But contain such very cheerful substances as cyanogen and cyanic acid.
就是说 大气不仅不适合呼吸
This means that the atmosphere is not just unfit for breathing.
而且是有毒的 稍不留神就会要你的命
But it’s poisonous and at the first opportunity will try to kill you.
因此 土卫六上的住所应该完全密封
Consequently, all shelters on Titan should be completely hermetically sealed,
出入口必须有气闸
and at the entrances and exits must have airlocks
以彻底更换空气
that do a complete and thorough replacement of the air.
这是一个充满碳水化合物
Since this is a world full of hydrocarbons
但却缺少氧气的世界 需要燃烧碳水化合物才行
but with an oxygen deficit, which would be needed to burn the hydrocarbons,
能源和运输与地球上完全不同
energy and transport on Titan will be arranged quite differently from that here on Earth.
有一种物质 电石气 分解时会释放
The substance, acetylene, which decomposes
热量 其储存于土卫六的湖泊底部
with the release of heat is at the bottom of Titan’s lakes.
可以被用作燃料替代煤或汽油
It could be used as fuel as an analog for coal and gasoline.
太阳能和水能也比不上这个选择
Neither solar nor hydro energy will be much of an option.
土卫六的水流速很慢 所以能效不高
Hydro power won’t be so effective as the rivers on Titan move very slowly.
风能或许是个不错的选择
Wind power might be a good option,
除此之外 核反应堆 加热装置及移居者都需要铀
but beyond that, uranium will be needed for nuclear reactors for heating for settlers.
不幸的是 土卫六
And unfortunately, it’s lacking on both Titan and
及整个土星系统上都没有
and the Saturnian system as a whole.
它们几乎没有重元素或金属
They are practically no heavy elements and metals.
最可能的就是从小行星上运输了
So most likely they will have to be delivered from asteroids.
如果考虑到浓密大气和低重力的话
The best transport solutions is airplanes, helicopters and airships.
最好的运输工具是飞机 直升机和飞艇
Considering the dense atmosphere and very low gravity.
顺便说一下 宜居的基础 充满一个标准大气压的氧气
By the way, an inhabitited base filled with oxygen at a pressure of one atmosphere
可能比土卫六的空气轻
may well be lighter than Titanian air.
这样它就和飞艇很相似
So that it could become similar to an airship.
想象一下 居住在一座会飞的城市有多酷
Imgine how cool it will be to live in such a flying city.
由于没有全球性的海洋 河流 湖泊会季节性的干涸
Since there is no global ocean, rivers and lakes periodically dry out.
水路运输就只能放到次要位置了
So water transport is immediately thrown into the background.
但是有特殊需求 也会不时的用用
Although with special need, it could be used from time to time.
要是用电石气作燃料 轮式车辆也是可能的
If you use acetylene as a fuel, wheeled vehicles are also possible.
但这样也会有一堆问题
But there will be a variety of problems with this,
包括潮湿的沙子 恶劣的地形还有风
including wet sand, rough terrain and of course, the wind.
因此 使用铁路在磁悬浮轨道
Therefore it will be more expedient to use railways
进行货物运输更便捷
with trains on magnetic cushions for cargo transportation.
我的太空广播今天就结束了
My space broadcast comes to an end for today.
谢谢观看 谢谢你的喜欢
Thank you for watching, thank you that you put likes.
感谢订阅我们的频道
And thank you that you subscribe to our channel.
之后会有更多有趣的新闻
New even more exciting releases will be coming very soon.
朋友们 再见
See you soon, my dear friends.

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视频概述

人类已观测到七百多颗星外行星,特征各异,本视频稍作举例,看你会不会被吓到!

听录译者

赖皮

翻译译者

CandyV

审核员

审核团V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=18rARy8g4Hc

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