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丑陋的历史-1937海地大屠杀 – 译学馆
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丑陋的历史-1937海地大屠杀

Ugly history: The 1937 Haitian Massacre - Edward Paulino

“为了逝者与生者 我们必须作证”——埃利•威塞尔
当历史学家谈论起二十世纪的暴行时
When historians talk aboutthe atrocities of the 20th century,
我们常常想起的是那些发生在
we often think of those that took place
两次世界大战期间的事件
during and between the two World Wars.
与发生在今天土耳其的亚美尼亚大屠杀
Along with the Armenian genocidein modern-day Turkey,
中国的南京大屠杀
the Rape of Nanking in China,
德国的水晶之夜一样臭名昭著的
and Kristallnacht in Germany,
还有发生在大西洋与加勒比海之间一座岛屿上的
another horrific ethnic cleansing campaign
惨绝人寰的种族清洗事件
occurred on an island betweenthe Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea.
冲突可以回溯至1492年
The roots of this conflictgo back to 1492,
克里斯托弗•哥伦布偶然发现这个当时名为
when Christopher Columbus stumbledonto the Caribbean island
“伊斯帕尼奥拉”的加勒比海岛 并开始一轮欧洲殖民化(运动)
that would come to be named Hispaniola, launching a wave of European colonization.
该岛的土著泰诺人被暴力及疾病消灭
The island’s Taíno natives were decimatedby violence and disease
欧洲人引入了大量的非洲奴隶
and the Europeans imported large numbersof enslaved Africans
在可营利的糖料种植园辛苦劳作
to toil in profitable sugar plantations.
至1777年 该岛分化为
By 1777, the island had become divided
分别由西班牙人和法国人控制的东西两部
between a French-controlled Westand a Spanish-controlled East.
1804年 一场大规模的奴隶叛乱
A mass slave revolt won Haiti its independence
让海地脱离法国赢得了独立
from France in 1804
它成为世界上第一个黑人共和政体
and it became the world’sfirst black republic.
但是新国家的建立代价惨重
But the new nation paid dearly,
与世界经济隔绝 并承受前任殖民者的债务
shut out of the world economy and saddled with debt by its former masters. Meanwhile,
同时 多明尼加共和国也相继推翻
the Dominican Republicwould declare independence
海地对东伊斯帕尼奥拉的统治
by first overthrowing Haitian ruleof eastern Hispaniola
西班牙以及美国的殖民而宣告独立
and later Spanishand American colonialism.
尽管两国有悠久合作的共同历史
Despite the long and collaborative historyshared by these two countries,
许多多明尼加精英仍视海地为种族威胁
many Dominican elites saw Haitias a racial threat
认为它会危及与西方白人国家的政治商业关系
that imperiled political and commercialrelations with white western nations.
在一战后数年
In the years following World War I,
美国占据了该岛的东西两部
the United States occupied both parts of the island.
它通过消灭当地反对派
It did so to secure its powerin the Western hemisphere
建立亲美政府 以保持其在西半球的势力
by destroying local oppositionand installing US-friendly governments.
美国占领的残暴与种族主义属性
The brutal and racist natureof the US occupation,
尤其是对多明尼加与海地接壤边境的占领
particularly along the remoteDominican-Haitian border,
为其撤退后更大的暴行埋下隐患
laid the foundation for bigger atrocitiesafter its withdrawal.
1930年 自由派的多明尼加总统霍拉西奥•巴斯克斯
In 1930, liberal Dominican presidentHoracio Vásquez
被其陆军总司令拉斐尔•特鲁希略推翻
was overthrown by the chief of his army,Rafael Trujillo.
虽然特鲁希略自己有四分之一海地血统
Despite being a quarter Haitian himself,
但他视二元文化的海地与多明尼加边陲
Trujillo saw the presence of a biculturalHaitian and Dominican borderland
为其政权的双重威胁
as both a threat to his power
以及政治革命分子的逃跑路径
and an escape routefor political revolutionaries.
在1937年10月2日发表的威慑演说中
In a chilling speech on October 2, 1937,
他对该地区的意图昭然若揭
he left no doubt about his intentionsfor the region.
他声称要保护多明尼加农民免于盗窃及侵犯
Claiming to be protecting Dominicanfarmers from theft and incursion,
宣布在边境杀掉300个海地人
Trujillo announced the killingof 300 Haitians along the border
并承诺这项所谓的“补救”措施会持续进行
and promised that this so-called”remedy”would continue.
在接下来的数周 多明尼加军方
Over the next few weeks,the Dominican military,
遵照特鲁希略的命令
acting on Trujillo’s orders,
杀戮了数以千计的海地男女
murdered thousands of Haitian menand women,
甚至是他们在多明尼加出生的孩子
and even their Dominican-born children.
军方瞄准黑色海地人
The military targeted black Haitians,
虽然很多多明尼加人也是黑皮肤
even though many Dominicans themselveswere also dark-skinned.
有些说法是 为了区分
Some accounts say that to distinguishthe residents
两国的国民
of one country from the other,
杀人者会逼迫受害者说“parsley”的西班牙语
the killers forced their victims to say the Spanish word for parsley.
多明尼加人将其发音为“perejil” 有个西班牙语颤音“r”
Dominicans pronounce it perejil,with a trilled Spanish”r.”
而海地的主要语言是克里奥尔语
The primary Haitian language, however, is Kreyol,
没有颤音“r”
which doesn ’ t use a trilled r.
所以当有人要努力发出“perejil”时
So if people struggled to say perejil,
他们就会被判定为海地人被立即处决
they were judged to be Haitianand immediately killed.
但最近的研究表明 这类测验
Yet recent scholarship suggeststhat tests like this
并不是决定谁该被杀的唯一因素
weren’t the sole factor used to determinewho would be murdered,
尤其是当时许多边民都会说两种语言
especially because many of the borderresidents were bilingual.
多明尼加政府审查任何有关大屠杀的新闻
The Dominican government censoredany news of the massacre,
而尸体被弃于山沟里
while bodies were thrown in ravines,
河流里 或者焚尸灭迹
dumped in rivers, or burned to dispose of the evidence.
这就是为何无人知道
This is why no one knows
到底有多少人被杀害
exactly how many people were murdered,
尽管当时估计在4000到15000人
though contemporary estimatesrange from about 4,000 to 15,000.
然而大清洗的程度对许多观察者来说不言而喻
Yet the extent of the carnagewas clear to many observers.
当时驻多明尼加共和国的
As the US Ambassador to the Dominican Republic
美国大使说过:
at the time noted,
“达哈翁边界的整个西北地区
“The entire northwest of the frontieron the Dajabón side
都已将海地人赶尽杀绝
is absolutely devoid of Haitians.
那些幸存者要么穿过
Those not slain either fled
边境逃脱 要么还隐匿在灌木丛里”
across the frontier or are still hiding in the bush. ”
政府拒绝承担责任
The government triedto disclaim responsibility
并栽赃到维持治安的平民身上
and blame the killingson vigilante civilians,
但是特鲁希略备受国际上的谴责
but Trujillo was condemnedinternationally. Eventually,
最终 多明尼加政府被迫
the Dominican government was forced to
向海地支付了525000 美元的赔偿
pay only $ 525,000 in reparations to Haiti,
但因为腐败的官僚主义
but due to corrupt bureaucracy,
这些钱几乎没有一分发到幸存者或其家属手中
barely any of these funds reached survivors or their families.
特鲁希略及其政府中没有人
Neither Trujillo nor anyonein his government
因这桩反人类罪行受到惩罚
was ever punished for this crimeagainst humanity.
大屠杀的遗留问题仍然是
The legacy of the massacre remainsa source of tension
两国之间的冲突根源
between the two countries.
双方边境的活动家们
Activists on both sides
试图治愈过去留下的伤痛
of the border have tried to heal the wounds of the past.
但是多明尼加国基本没有
But the Dominican state has done little,if anything,
从官方角度纪念大屠杀或是受害者
to officially commemoratethe massacre or its victims. Meanwhile,
同时 海地大屠杀的回忆成为一个可怕的提醒
the memory of the Haitianmassacre remains a chilling reminder
那就是 渴求权力的领导人会怎样操控人民
of how power-hungry leaderscan manipulate people
去对抗他们相处了一辈子的街坊邻居
into turning againsttheir lifelong neighbors.

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视频概述

1937年,多明尼加共和国的拉斐尔·特鲁希略(Rafaeal Trujillo)上台,实施了高压的独裁政策。为了维持多明尼加的边界,在两个交界处进行了大规模的清扫,将海地人一律屠杀。

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收集自网络

翻译译者

霜霜

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x25k_-Katf4

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