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一型糖尿病| Nucleus Health – 译学馆
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一型糖尿病| Nucleus Health

Type 1 Diabetes | Nucleus Health

《核心医媒》
1型糖尿病
Type 1 diabetes is a condition in which your pancreas
1型糖尿病是胰腺
does not produce insulin,
无法分泌胰岛素导致的疾病
a hormone your body needs to maintain proper blood sugar levels.
胰岛素是一种维持体内正常血糖水平所需的激素
After you eat foods that contain carbohydrates,
摄入含有碳水化合物的食物后
chemicals in your small intestine break them down
小肠中化学物质将其分解为
into single sugar molecules called glucose.
一种名为葡萄糖的单糖分子
Next, the cells lining your small intestine absorb glucose
接下来 小肠内壁细胞吸收葡萄糖
which passes into the bloodstream.
并将葡萄糖递送到血液中
When the blood reaches your pancreas,
当血液流到胰腺时
beta cells inside the pancreas detect the rising glucose levels.
胰岛β细胞检测到葡萄糖浓度升高
The beta cells release insulin into your bloodstream
这些胰岛β细胞继而向血液中释放胰岛素
to reduce glucose levels
来降低葡萄糖浓度
and to keep your blood glucose in a healthy range.
使血糖维持在正常范围
Most cells of the body have certain receptors on their surface-
人体内大多数细胞表面都存在
that bind to the circulating insulin.
能与血液中胰岛素结合的特异性受体
Insulin acts like a key in a lock-
胰岛素就像是开锁的钥匙
to open up the cell-
它能打开细胞通道
so that the circulating glucose can get inside the cell.
从而让血液中的葡萄糖进入细胞内
Now, your cell can use the glucose to produce the energy
这样 细胞就能用这些葡萄糖来产生
it needs to function properly.
机体正常运转所需的能量
If you have type 1 diabetes,
如果你患有1型糖尿病
your pancreatic beta cells lose their ability to produce insulin,
你的胰岛β细胞无法分泌胰岛素
resulting in high blood glucose levels and other complications.
导致血糖升高以及其他并发症
In type 1 diabetes,
1型糖尿病患者的
your immune system, specifically your white blood cells
免疫系统 确切地说是白细胞
mistake your pancreatic beta cells for foreign invaders.
会将胰岛β细胞误识为外来入侵者
In an autoimmune response,
在自身免疫反应过程中
your white blood cells secrete autoantibodies
白细胞会分泌
that destroy your own beta cells.
摧毁β细胞的自身抗体
As a result, your pancreas produces little or no insulin.
因此 胰腺只能产生少量或几乎无法产生胰岛素
Without insulin,
没有胰岛素
glucose cannot get into your cells,
葡萄糖就无法从血液进入细胞中
so they are starved for the calories they should be receiving from glucose.
因此细胞迫切需要通过葡萄糖获取所需的热量
In addition,
除此之外
the glucose level builds up in your bloodstream,
葡萄糖水平在血液里不断积累
resulting in a condition called hyperglycemia.
最终导致高血糖症
Common symptoms of hyperglycemia in type 1 diabetes include:
1型糖尿病高血糖症的常见症状有:
excessive hunger;
过饥
excessive thirst;
过渴
frequent urination;
尿频
unexplained weight loss;
体重无故减轻
fatigue;
疲惫
weakness;
乏力
irritability;
烦躁
and blurry vision.
以及视力模糊
If hyperglycemia is not treated,
如果不对高血糖加以治疗
you can become severely ill.
病情会变得非常严重
Because you don’t have enough insulin circulating in your blood,
因为血液中循环的胰岛素不足
your cells can’t use glucose for energy.
细胞无法使用葡萄糖来产生能量
As a result, your body breaks down your fat
由此 身体开始分解作为替代能源物质
and protein stores as an alternative source of energy.
在体内储存的脂肪和蛋白质
As fat breakdown continues,
随着脂肪被持续分解
certain byproducts, known as ketone bodies, accumulate in the blood,
一种名为酮体的的副产物在血液中不断累积
resulting in a condition called ketosis.
最终导致名为酮病的疾病
When ketones build up to dangerously high levels,
当酮在血液中累积达到高危量时
a life-threatening condition called diabetic ketoacidosis results.
会导致威胁生命的糖尿病酮症酸中毒
If your blood glucose remains high over time,
如果你的血糖长期处于高水平
long term health problems can occur,
会产生长期健康问题
such as:
例如:
atherosclerosis;
动脉粥样硬化
blindness;
失明
nerve damage;
神经损伤
and kidney disease.
和肾脏疾病
If you have type 1 diabetes,
如果你患有1型糖尿病
your goal is to keep your blood glucose within a normal range.
目标就是把血糖控制在正常范围内
This is done through a combination of proper insulin replacement,
这可以通过结合特定的胰岛素替代物
monitoring your blood glucose,
实时监测血糖水平来实现
and, just as importantly, eating a healthy diet and getting regular exercise.
除此之外 合理膳食和经常锻炼也很重要
Because your pancreas no longer produces insulin,
因为你的胰腺不再分泌胰岛素
you will need to take insulin to replace what your body should be making.
所以你需要通过注射来补充本应由机体分泌的胰岛素
A licensed healthcare professional
执业医护专家可以
can train you to inject the insulin just under the skin.
教你进行胰岛素皮下注射
You will need to give yourself injections several times each day,
你需要一日多次给自己注射
and rotate injection sites
并定期更换注射部位
to avoid tissue damage and absorption problems.
来避免组织损伤或是吸收问题
Another way to get insulin is through an insulin pump,
另一种补充胰岛素的方法是胰岛素泵
which is attached to your body,
胰岛素泵连接于身体上
and delivers insulin through a tube implanted just under your skin.
并通过埋在皮下的导管来输送胰岛素
You will need to check the level of glucose in your blood several times a day with a glucometer.
你需要每日多次使用血糖仪检测血糖
To do this, you will prick your finger with a small needle called a lancet,
为了检测血糖 需要用小针(采血针)刺破指尖
and place a drop of blood in the glucometer.
将一滴血液放入血糖仪中
Knowledge of your blood glucose level
通过了解你的血糖水平
allows you to adjust your insulin dose,
及时调整胰岛素注射剂量
calories you eat during meals,
食物热量的摄入
and physical activity.
以及运动量
You will need to eat a healthy diet-
你还需要通过健康饮食
and get regular exercise to manage your glucose level
以及经常运动来控制血糖水平
and reduce your risk of cardiovascular disease.
进而降低心血管疾病的患病风险

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视频概述

此3D动画说明了一型糖尿病的病因,症状和治疗方法。 1型糖尿病是一种胰腺不分泌胰岛素的疾病,胰岛素是人体维持正常血糖水平所需的一种激素。 没有胰岛素,葡萄糖就无法进入细胞内,进而导致细胞缺乏能量。此外,血糖会在血液中累积,诱发高血糖症。 如果你患有一型糖尿病,那你的目标应是将血糖保持在正常范围内,并通过适当的方式补充胰岛素,例如皮下注射胰岛素以及胰岛素泵。除此之外,合理膳食,经常运动也很重要。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

阿白

审核员

审核员BC

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jxbbBmbvu7I

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