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如何用黑曜石打造一把利刃 – 译学馆
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如何用黑曜石打造一把利刃

Turning Volcanic Rock into a Blade that's Sharper than Steel

今年我开始制造一系列各类武器
This year, I’m starting a series of making a variety of weapons,
粗略地跟进一下历史上武器的演变足迹
and roughly following their evolution through history.
从各种刀刃武器的冶炼到弓箭
Starting from basic metallurgy of various bladed weapons to bows and arrows,
最终我在制造火药甚至枪支的道路上一去不返
and eventually working my way up to gunpowder and even a gun.
哦 我们看看发生了什么
Oh, well, we’ll see what happens there.
一个关键因素也是最终让我止步不前的主要材料就是:金属
A key element of this will be finally mastering one material that’s been holding me back: metals.
但在我开始制作金属之前
But before I get started on metal making,
我想探索一下金属制造术发现之前的武器制作材料:石头
I want to explore the weapons materials are used before metalworking was discovered: stones.
这种石头是特别的 甚至比钢铁还要锋利
Using a specific one to be sharper than even steel.
一把黑曜石利刃
An obsidian blade.
如何从零开始制作一把黑曜石利刃
How to make an obsidian blade from scratch.
如何做个能工巧匠(系列)
How to make everything. (The series)
我去年夏天在美国犹他州的时候
While I was in Utah last summer,
有幸逗留在该州中部的“黑岩沙漠”里
I mean it stopped in the Black Rock Desert in west central Utah,
此地以火山运动著称
an area known for its volcanic activity.
上次火山爆发大约在720年以前
with his last eruption around 720 years ago.
该地因火山活动而有各种不同的地质构成
This area has a variety of geological formations caused by volcanic activity.
但我所要寻找的是火山玻璃
But the one I’m after is volcanic glass.
一个地质学家指明了可找到火山玻璃的地点
A local geologist pointed out one location to find some.
好像在一个不知名的地方
Located seemingly in the middle of nowhere,
而我的小汽车不是很适应这里的地形
and traveling on terrain not ideally suited for my compact car,
我发现这里遍布黑曜石岩层
I found the area filled with black obsidian rock.
富含硅土的火山岩浆喷发并迅速冷却后会形成黑曜石
Obsidian forms when lava high in silica cooled rapidly,
一种非晶体
preventing the formation of crystals,
而黑曜石是一种二氧化硅含量至少为70%的玻璃
a type of glass is composed of at least 70% silica.
由于杂质的缘故 黑曜石多为黑色
There’s often tinted dark black due to impurity.
根据所含杂质的多少它也可以形成其他颜色
It can also form other colors depending on what impurities are present.
很酷吧
Pretty cool.
我要收集一桶黑曜石
It’s gonna collect bucket of it,
用它来做锋利的物体
and use it for making sharp objects.
装好这些石头
After loading up with some stones,
我就带回家了
I brought them back home,
然后拜访了明尼苏达大学的托斯·史蒂文博士
and met with Dr. Toss Steven at the University of Minnesota.
在以前的视频里我和托斯博士合作过
I previously worked with Toss Steven in a past video,
他当时教我如何敲碎燧石制造基本的手持斧子
where he taught me how to knap flint to make a basic hand axe.
这次我想向他取经如何制造黑曜石利刃
This time, I want to learn how to apply this skill to forming a blade out of obsidian,
这些样本体积很大 里面有很多包含物
These samples are pretty big, but they have lots of inclusions in them.
我会向你演示如何切割棱角并给它们安上把手
But I can show you how to make some cutting edges that you could actually set them into a haft.
这样你就能学会切割棱角
Such you can make as long as cutting edges you want
切割的对象不必非得是石头
without having to make the actual stones in one piece.
黑曜石是一种非常锋利的石头
Obsidian is a very very sharp rock.
切割它用到的技术和你上次在这里学到的差不多
It is…The technology is pretty much the same as what you did last time you were here.
不过黑曜石确实比燧石更锋利
So, this is actually sharper than flint,
因为黑曜石是一种火山玻璃 边缘厚度仅有1个分子
because obsidian being a volcanic glass can get to be one molecule thick at the edge.
对 所以它才能如此锋锐
Oh, yeah, so that’s why it’s so powerfully sharpened.
人们经常用它来做眼部手术
And people will use it for eye surgery.
但是阿芝特克人的黑曜石用法很有名
But in terms of what the Aztecs did with their obsidian,
他们把相关技术发展到了极度精良的地步
they’re famous for taking the technology to its utmost refinedness.
他们不愧是黑曜石方面的专家
They really were experts at working obsidian.
他们有一种技术能打造所谓的“棱剑”
And they did it with a technique that made what are called prismatic blades.
这些剑的剑锋分成数段
Those swords, they had segments of these blades.
然后他们会在剑的双刃上安上黑曜石
And they put them in the edges on both sides of these long swords.
相比铁剑来说 安上黑曜石的剑更让我为之色变
I’m more afraid of the concept of an obsidian hafted sword than I am a steel sword.
那么把这种精良的技巧用在工具上他们一定用了很多年吧
So from that being tools like this is kind of a refined skill they have to learn over years then.
对 实现工艺专门化是得花费好多年
And this takes, you know, many many years of craft specialization they’ll pull it off.
那我是不是得做好多准备工作啊?
So, it’s probably not something I can just sit down and do right away?
对 很不幸 因为你要做的并不是一把厚刃工具
No, unfortunately, and if even the other ways of making blades
它和你上次做的斧子还不一样
are much trickier than, let’s say, the hand axe you made.
假如做错关涉到利刃核心的一小步
One unsuccessful blow on a blade core
可能意味着整个过程都毁了
often means that you’ve ruined the whole piece.
所以我想了多个方案来完成黑曜石利刃的打磨
So, what I thought to do, there’s several ways of going about it.
你可以用到之前制作斧子时的技巧
You could actually just apply that same technology that you already learned with making a hand axe.
你可以用一个薄片来当作镶嵌黑曜石的载体
You can actually take flakes,
就像阿芝特克人做的那样
and use those as inserts, much like the Aztecs did.
但阿芝特克人用的载体非常长
But they used long long blades to do that,
我们就用一小块薄片就好
we’ll just use small flakes.
–好的 这对我来说好像不难 –对 是的
-Okay, that’s probably the most achievable for me to do. -Yeah, yeah.
这个是24万年前的西伯利亚的一个石膏模型
So, this is actually a plaster cast of a piece from well 240,000 years ago in Siberia.
他们会把刀刃安在边缘里的凹槽里
And on the edges they made grooves, into which they set blazing.
这个大概能做一把较短的刀具之类的工具
But this is the general idea of making something shorter
做不成长剑
like a knife rather than the big… the big sword.
那么我要如何开始呢?
So, how do I get started?
首先我要教你如何剥落黑曜石
Okay, so give you just a refresher to make a flake.
你需要以小于90°的角度击打黑曜石的棱角交叉处
You need to hit one surface that intersects with another at an angle less than 90 degrees.
因为你需要留个位置作为黑曜石碎片的出口
And you need the direction of the blow to be away from the piece.
所以不能垂直击打
You don’t come into this thing directly.
所以我手持坚硬的锤子 就这样削下来
So with a hard hammer, I might come down like that:
一击之后就会脱落一个这样的薄片
strike, and it takes off the flake like that.
你的手要这样摆
And then your gesture would be like that.
要确保动作的流畅性 不要迟疑不决
And you make sure you have a follow-through, don’t pull back at the last minute.
和敲打燧石的准备动作相比 敲打黑曜石时不必太用力
And it doesn’t have to be very hard with obsidian prepared to the flint.
–就是这样 –好了
-There you go.-All right.
–就是那样 –嗯
-Look at that.-Yeah.
又一次
There you go.
好的 有点儿大
Okay, much bigger.
–但可以看出薄片的大小和你的击打角度有关 –对
-But, can see how hitting further back made a bigger flake.-Yeah.
总而言之 这些都会成为有用的切割工具
In and of themselves, these are very useful cutting tools.
好的
Okay.
这个边缘的相对连续 看起来很漂亮
That’s a nice relatively continuous edge.
现在我们要找的是较薄的薄片
Right now, we’re just looking for things that are slightly thinner.
手掌的视线阻隔会降低你击打的精确度
And thing is the palm is just getting your accuracy down a bit where you want to hit,
而我们要的是有用的切割刀刃
cause all these are very useful cutting edges.
–这些刀刃就能用 –哦
-You know this edge might work.-Yeah.
基本上可以进行垂直连接
This is already fairly loops vertical.
因为它们的厚度差不多
So, it would be relatively the same thickness as this one.
你可以像这样把它们背靠背
And you could put them back to back like that.
我同意
I suppose.
然后你就做出了一种切割刃
So, you’re getting sort of that much cutting edge.
还有 我觉得你应该准备更多原材料
And also, I think you have enough raw material here
这样你才能持续练习以达到手眼合作一致的地步
that you can just keep practicing and with more hand-eye coordination.
照此以往你就会熟能生巧
Think you’ll… You’ll get it.
当然也就能够恰如其分地把握切割量
Certainly getting the right kind of breakage.
好吧 祝你好运 我相信你的手工一定很酷
Well, good luck. I think it’ll be pretty cool.
谢谢你教我这些
Thanks for giving a little refresher, and…
没事 你要小心点
Yeah, yeah, just be careful with it.
–它非常锋利 –好的
-It’s very sharp.-Yeah.
多谢托斯·史蒂文博士的指导
Thanks to Dr. Toss Steven,
我现在知道了以我的能力水准如何制造刀锋
And I know both a plan for making the blade that’s achievable with my skill level,
还对如何打碎黑曜石有了初步的了解
and a rough understanding of how to knap obsidian.
为了准备利刃
To hold the blades,
我得用到我上次从零制造眼镜时砍掉的树干
I still have several leftover chunks from the tree I fell for my eyeglasses from scratch.
由于我接下来要制造的是一个石器时代的武器
Since I’m making a Stone Age weapon,
所以我想用石器时代的工具做一个木制利刃
I thought I’d try to limit myself to only Stone Age tools to make a wooden portion of the blade.
我的工具有之前做的手持燧石斧子
The flint hand axe I made before,
几个花岗岩石锤
a few granite hammer stones,
当然了 少不了我的黑曜石兄弟们
and, of course, my obsidian itself.
黑曜石的锯齿很适合用来切割木板的薄弱部分
The jagged edges of obsidian worked decently to saw the narrow portion of the board.
效果还不错
Not too bad.
尽管过程很漫长
Although, it was a pretty slow process.
好啦
Come on.
木板顶部还需要处理一下
Let’s get some dark tip.
咱们开始吧
There we go.
工具齐备
We’re done.
用黑曜石做剪刀 切去不整齐部分
And with some obsidian scissors, snip it off.
不过切那些稍厚的木板部分是有一定难度的
Cutting the thicker side was going to be a challenge, though.
所以我使用了前后夹击的战略
So, I switched up to the front and back side previously made,
因为木板的顽固程度丝毫不比黑曜石逊色
as it’s a bit more resistant to shattering than the obsidian.
而在经历了又慢又长的切割完成后
After a very long and slow process of sawing through it,
我终于不胜其烦了
I eventually got bored of that,
我决定把木板切成理想的宽度
and decided try splitting the board to the desired width.
就用一些敲碎的燧石块
Using some knapped chunks of flint,
我试着把燧石当楔子用 把它们钉进木板里
I tried to use them as a wedge, just put the board down the green.
获得了初步成功后 我开始进攻木板较厚的部分了
After moderate success with that, I went back to the thick end,
终于我切割得足够深了 所以木板就被轻易折断了
and finally got it cut enough so that I could break it.
然后又要处理木板的狭窄区和裂开区
Then, back to the narrowing and splitting of the wood.
而在用燧石和黑曜石制造锋利刀刃的过程是很容易毁工的
While sharp, the flint and obsidian was prone to breakage,
要解决这一点非常困难
and was very difficult to make work.
我不怀疑我的人生阻力重重
I suspected I might have been able to get enough force.
所以在尝试制造一个简单的名叫“扁斧”的石器时代的工具时
So, attempted to construct a simple Stone Age tool called an adze.
利用现有的这种工具显然是不够的
But while that kind of helped, it just still wasn’t enough.
在经历了一些挫折后我终于要敲碎黑曜石了
With some progress, but mostly frustration, I moved onto knapping the blades.
人们说木工活部分很简单
They’d figured the woodworking would be the easier part
但碎石头的部分很不容易
while the napping would be the challenge.
但有了托斯·史蒂文博士向我推荐的方法
But with a method Dr. Toss Steven recommended for me
碎石过程对我来说就轻而易举了
The knapping was actually pretty easy.
我只需把黑曜石弄成碎片安在刀刃上即可
I just need to break off pieces,
碎片要具备瘦窄长的特点
so we’re thin, narrow and long enough for the blade.
我用石器时代的工具 浪费了两天削木头
After wasting over 2 days trying to carve the wood using only Stone Age tools,
完全不管用 我爱科技啊
So they’re against it, you are not watching fear of technology.
我认输了
I decided to throw in the towel,
开始使用现代设备
and switch to some modern equipment.
效果对比是惊人的
The difference was amazing.
对 燧石和黑曜石锋利如剃刀
Well, the flint and obsidian were razor sharp,
足以透过手套切到我的手指
sharp enough to cut my finger through the gloves.
但它们的坚硬程度跟钢铁工具简直没法比
They just couldn’t compare to professionally made hardened steel tools.
利刃的木头部分终于完工了
With the wood portion on a blade finally done,
我现在需要往木头上加东西
I now just need to attach everything.
我现在要用之前做足球剩下的猪皮煮胶
For glue, I’ll just need to boil some leftover hide from the pigskin I used to make a football before.
熬了一夜的猪皮
After boiling overnight,
制造出了粘性很大的动物胶
it produces a very sticky animal hide glue.
嗯 很黏
Hmm…Gooey.
黑曜石碎片至少要填满刀刃的一侧
With enough pieces laid out to fill at least one side of the blade,
我需要在木头上雕刻一些凹槽
I just need to carve out all the slots in the wood,
然后插碎片 倒胶水
and then glue in each blade piece.
放置几天后
For letting it sit for a couple days,
胶水应该凝固了 准备好试刀刃了
the glue should hopefully be hard and ready to be used.
最后我的成品就是一种纯天然利刃
So in the end, I’ve made it kind of a crude blade.
和更先进的中美洲利刃相比这个差得多
Bit of a far cry from more advanced blades you would see in like Mesoamerica,
但我并没有花5年时间去学习锻造技巧
but without spending 5 years to learn that skill,
所以这把利刃还是相当不错的
it’s probably a pretty decent cutting edge.
而黑曜石一直是一种相当有趣的材料
Oh, obsidian’s been a rather interesting material to work with,
流行文化中将其定义为神秘
and pop culture has kind of a mystical view
不管是《权游》中的玻璃杯
whether it’s dragonglass in Game of Thrones,
还是神秘入口都有黑曜石的身影
or opening portals and Minecraft.
而它的本质
Beds core
只是一种玻璃
It’s just glass.
在过去的项目中我曾花时间制作玻璃
And I’ve spent a lot of time and past projects trying to both make glass
切割玻璃 并把玻璃塑成透镜
as well as cut it and shape it into things like lenses.
而敲石头的方式和切玻璃完全不同
And knapping is just a different way of working with the glass itself.
我从托斯·史蒂文博士那里学到的一件令我惊讶的事情就是
And one of the things I was surprised to learn from Dr. Toss Steven
在敲常规玻璃时你可以用到相同的技巧
is that you can actually use the same technique on just regular glass.
而用石器时代的非金属工具削木头
Trying to make the wood portion of this blade using just the Stone Age tools
真的是一个大挑战
really reveal the challenges of nonmetallic tools,
毕竟工具之间的区别是很大的
and just how big a difference they are.
那么咱们来验证一下这把利刃的工作效果吧
So, let me see a little skeptical of how well this will actually work at cutting.
它绝对像剃刀一样锋利
It’s definitely razor sharp,
但我不知道它的切割效果如何
but I don’t know how well it’s actually gonna cut.
所以我要拿几样东西来试试
So, I’m gonna try it out on a few different things,
从而对它的工作性能有一个了解
and get an idea how well it works.
首先 咱们来切一张纸
First step, see how well it cuts the paper.
好吧 我猜利刃在这方面不擅长
Alright, it’s not the sharpest I guess in that regard.
想象一下阿芝特克人的勇猛的剑
Suppose the Aztecs with their full swords,
足够锋利 能斩下马头
we’re able to be sharp enough to cut the head off of a horse.
所以接下来考验这把利刃的时候到了
so I think that would be the true test.
我用切猪肉来代替斩马头
I’m just use pork chop instead.
出师不利啊
Damn it.
会切透的
That’s some penetration.
绝对切得够深
Definitely cuts real deep.
如果你剥不开香蕉皮
Hate it when you can’t open bananas.
就试试这把黑曜石利刃吧
Try the ANU obsidian blade.
嗯 香蕉
Mmm… Banana.
看来利刃的性能受工作环境的影响啊
Works for circumcision as well.
鉴定完毕 利刃确实很锋利
Alright, so it actually worked pretty good.
不过要指出的是刚才尖端脱落了
First thing to point out is that the tip fell off,
这说明我的胶水…
so my glue…
不是很好 不过其他一切正常
not the greatest, the rest of them are actually pretty good.
在切纸实验中利刃表现不好
Didn’t do too great at the paper tests,
可能是因为刀锋是锯齿状的
that might be more because of its jagged nature.
但它在猪肉切割测试中一洗前耻
but it really obliterated that pork chop.
切得非常深
it would cut pretty deep,
而且这个锯齿对肉体很有杀伤力
and the nice jagged nature makes a really effective saw in flesh.
所以本次经历确实是难忘的
So, I’m actually pretty impressed.
成品出乎我意料
I did it a lot better than I thought it would.
这把利刃可能不能斩下马头
It’s probably not gonna cut the head off of a horse,
但绝对能制造一些严重的破坏
but it would definitely do some serious damage,
切个血管啥的没问题
maybe nick an artery or something.
简直让我不忍直视
I would not want to face this.
因为很多时候用黑曜石材料做出的成品
A lot of times when you see obsidian,
都是一些美丽的短剑
they make these really long beautiful daggers.
但我接触了黑曜石后发现它很脆弱
But, I worked with obsidian and realizing how fragile it is.
不是非常实用
I feel like they aren’t very practical,
是一次性的那种
like they kind of one-time use.
就像这把剑 其中的黑曜石碎片弄坏了
For something like this, like you could break one of these.
但你可以轻易地再换上一片
And you easily replace it,
然后换来换去的你就熟能生巧了
and you’re good to go and keep going.
所以总的来说在实用性上这把利刃还是相当好的
So, in terms of practicality, I think it’s pretty good.
顺便说一下 本系列的视频都是制造武器的
So as I continue this series of making weapons,
或许最后我会制作一些金属武器 比如铜武器 铁武器
and eventually get into making some metal ones, such as bronze and iron,
然后把它们和石器时代的工具一较高下
and then I’ll be able to see how the Stone Age compares to those metallic ones.
但先说眼前的 我的下一个视频和金属有关
But before that, my next video is actually gonna be on a different metal
该金属的获取途径有多种
that often served a different purpose.
它就是“黄金”
Gold.
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视频概述

本视频是从零开始制造兵器系列,教你如何用石头打造一把高效切肉的锯齿利刃。

听录译者

红花老七

翻译译者

ABC

审核员

审核员YX

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k3RZM9OOAIU

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