The process of making everything from scratch can be messy.
And as you have seen, I can make huge messes,
although occasionally I get rinsed off.
To really get clean sometimes requires a little help.
So, starting from some rocks,
some lake water,
and a variety of plants and animals.
Let’s take a closer look,
and make my own soap from scratch.
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Soap has a grandiose story of its origin.
Coming from the holy mountain near Rome of Mount Sapo,
where animals were frequently sacrificed
and burned as an offering to the gods.
The mixture of the animals fats,
ashes from the fires would intermix
and flow into the mountain streams.
Further down, people washing their clothes in the stream
noticed the strange combination was very effective at cleaning.
And the rest is history.
Except it’s not, and that’s a complete myth.
There’s not even a Mount Sapo.
It’s not where the word “soap” comes from.
In fact, the Latin word “sapo”
is borrowed from a German word for animal fat.
The actual history of soap is likely somewhat similar,
but first occurred at least 2,000 years
before Rome was even founded.
And a little further east in ancient Sumer,
their soap was similarly made
by combining animal fats and ashes.
Historically, however, soap’s primary purpose was most often for preparing wool for dyeing.
Its use for personal hygiene was relatively rare,
and usually restricted only to the wealthy, or by priest in religious ceremonies.
In fact, the Romans themselves often preferred a method of cleaning the body with oils,
abrasive sand and the device of the strigil.
In the end, it wasn’t until after the Industrial Revolution
when soap to be more cheaply mass-produced,
and everyday uses soap became commonplace.
Before I make my own soaps,
Chris decided to try out making a version
of that original ancient soap himself using woodfire ash,
while I was still busy stuck in the Stone Age
working on our next upcoming video.
Okay, so here’s the deal.
I have already made like four fires this week
just to get enough ash to
try to do the sake and ash experiment.
My neighbors are complaining about the smell.
I, you know, just smell like forest fire all the time.
Anyway, enjoy your footage of water boiling.
It’s so bask.
I’m going to use the last of a
Valentine’s Day gift that I gave to my girlfriend this year. A little bear.
Okay, it feels like soap.
Don’t know if it’ll lather or if it’ll just make you dirtier than clean?
And I’ll set that aside for a few days.
How does soap actually work?
You’ve heard the term that oil and water don’t mix.
Well, they do when soap is used.
That’s because one end of the soap molecule is hydrophilic, or water-loving,
and the other is hydrophobic, water-hating,
which makes it a perfect middleman between these two chemicals.
These molecules in the soap bind with the dirt and grease,
allowing the grime saturated molecules to wash off.
Soap does a great job of getting rid of grease.
That has to do with a fact that it is derived from fat itself.
Soap is made when the fatty acids from animal fat or plant-based oils
mixed with an alkaline solution,
forming a fatty acid salt.
In this process called saponification,
the alkaline reacts with the fatty acids and they neutralize each other.
The resulting chemicals are soap and glycerin.
Now, to make my own soap.
The first step will be making an alkaline solution to react with the fatty acids.
Fortunately, the same chemical compounds
I’ve spent a large amount of time and effort collecting in the past for glass making
can actually also be used in making soap.
I extracted potash before by burning hardwood and collecting the ashes.
Then I soaked them in water, strained and boil the solution down
to just the remaining potassium carbonate.
The alternative compound I also sourced for glass making,
sodium carbonate or soda ash,
I found in a mineral-rich lake in Wyoming.
I slept in Utah before going home.
I’ve got the help of Cody, of Cody’s Lab,
in removing the other contaminants in the lake water,
so I can have a mostly pure soda ash leftover.
Both of these compounds are alkaline,
but there exist even stronger bases it can made from them:
sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide,
also known as lye and caustic potash.
To produce that, I’ll need another compound.
I also collected previously for making glass.
First, with a quick warning: make sure you wear a proper skin protection.
I’m working with caustic compounds such as quick lime and lye.
Not wearing them can easily result in chemical burns,
which I got plenty of in the process of this video.
I have limestone I collected here before, my first attempt to making glass.
At least I think it’s limestone.
I just went to an area that supposedly has limestone,
and grabbed some rocks and ground them up.
The first thing I’m gonna do is actually test it
to make sure this is limestone.
Because if it isn’t,
it’s gonna explain why my first attempt at glass was so bad.
It’s a pretty basic process.
You just take an acid like hydrochloric acid.
And just drop a few drops onto the rock.
And if it fizzles, it’s caused some carbonate.
Couple of drops onto it.
We have limestone.
I don’t know the full concentration,
but after I kilned it,
它应该能溶于水 而杂质不能 我感觉是这样
it should become water-soluble, while the impurities should not, I think.
You can tell the color is kind of brown,
which probably means there’s a decent amount of impurity.
I’ll put in the kiln at about 1000 degrees Celsius,
and carbon dioxide will be driven from the calcium carbonate,
turned it into calcium oxide.
Our little kiln we got before and our attempt to making the ultramarine.
If it fits.
1 hour later
Oh, it broke it.
This should hopefully be the calcium oxide now
with the other impurities, which look like I’ve made it darker.
Add to water now.
Calcium oxide should dissolve into the water,
turn into calcium hydroxide.
So just let that sit for a little bit,
and then I’ll strain it.
It turned out pretty good.
That should be quicklime or slaked lime.
Now that I have quicklime,
converting the soda ash and potash.
It’s simply a matter of mixing them each with quicklime,
and removing the precipitate.
Then, just need a quick pH test to confirm
that I’ve made some new alkaline bases.
For all my previous attempts,
I now have five different bases
that I can potentially use for making soap.
碳酸钾 碳酸钠 石灰水 苛性钾和碱液
I have potash, soda ash, lime water, caustic potash and lye.
So now with these five different bases,
I should be able to make five different types of soap.
So tests that, I have store-bought olive oil.
Everything’s already pre-measured.
I’m just gonna mix them together,
blend them up,
just to compare how they’re all different.
So I’m gonna start first with the potash and soda ash.
These were kind of the first compounds we’ll used to make soap.
They’re the weakest bases.
And as soon as people figured out how to make these stronger lye-based ones,
they use those for soap making.
Start with the potash.
So there’s two methods of making soap:
the cold method and the hot method.
And the difference between them is one you do when it’s cold,
and the other you do when it’s hot.
And like all chemical processes, the hotter it gets,
the quicker the reaction is.
And that’s basically the whole difference.
So I’m gonna do these quicker,
so I’m gonna heat them up.
And then agitate them, and mix them up.
It’s gonna be like a lukewarm method.
I only got a hot plate big enough for one, still in my life.
Don’t breathe that.
Think about making soap, self-cleaning.
Throw in my crock-pot and let them sit for an hour.
So, finish baking and then pour them.
Sit for a couple days.
2 weeks later
Alright, so I have the samples here now, after a few weeks.
Pretty much only the lye one has actually gotten hard.
Even then, it’s still pretty soft.
The caustic potash is relatively soft.
These’re usually used for soft soaps, you can see why.
The outside is dried out.
So, a few more weeks it might actually be solid eventually.
This is the non-soluble one, which is all liquid.
Got soda ash. It’s actually has hardened up a little bit.
It might just be crystals of excess, though.
And then the potash, probably would make a decent liquid soap.
But I’m after a hard soap.
So, I think I’m going to use the lye for my other batches.
Now that I figured out what base I want to use.
Next, I’ll just need a fatty acid for it to react with.
Pretty much anything with fat and it can be used.
And so far, through all my other projects,
I actually have a wide variety of options.
Including some of the pig lard
I also got from the pig I used for my football from scratch.
You collect just the fat, just needs to be rendered and strained.
Other items I’ve previously sourced that contained fats
include both cow milk and goats milk,
beeswax plus a variety of different plant seeds that all can be pressed in an oil press to extract their oils.
So of all my different fats and oils here.
I have a dozen of them.
And each of them should make a different type of soap.
Each one contains a different combination of a variety of fatty acids,
and they each have their own characteristics,
and will yield a different result for each one.
I’m gonna just experiment with each individual fat,
and make my own bar soap and see which ones will work best.
Some might form rock-hard bars,
some might not lather, some might lather too well,
some might not do a good job cleaning.
It would be possible just to look it up and find
hundreds of different recipes of recommended balances.
But, I’m gonna do it the hard way,
just experiment and turn all my different fats into their own unique soap.
Make some soaps.
Now, it’s just a matter of mixing carefully measured quantities of a lye solution with each fat.
If I did my math correctly,
each one should have just enough lye to react with the fats.
Otherwise, the leftover lye could remain in the soap and cause skin irritation.
Since I’m doing the cold method for this,
it’s gonna take a lot of mixing.
Now for the milks,
there’s a risk that the exothermic reaction might cook the milk.
So oftentimes, just ice water bath, keep it chilled.
Yeah, the other ones did that.
Support us on patreon, so we can keep the stuff up.
So I got a little bit of extra soap each of my mixes.
I’m just gonna put it into one big beaker,
and combine them all,
and then I’ll have a little bit of a all-inclusive bar.
And see how that one turns out.
My twelve different soaps made them twelve different fats.
And as I expected, very wide variety of consistency between them.
It should be interesting to see how they turn out after a few weeks.
In the meantime, I have a huge mess to clean up.
Okay. Let’s get clear up in here a bit.
Now a few weeks later,
took my first batch of soaps out for a test wash.
To see how well they work and compare,
as far as I could tell,
they all seemed to work fairly well.
However, if you have quickly realized that
leftover lye in them can give me some cuts in chemical burns.
Oh, it stings, oh, oh.
So I tested them all for the pH,
eliminated a few bars when my chemistry didn’t quite work out right.
My combined soap of all of them combined was also too caustic.
So I remelted it, and added some more oil
to try and balance a reaction out.
Also the combined smell of twelve different fats
didn’t really turn out the greatest.
So I thought I’d try adding some lavender
from what I grew and dried this summer in my garden.
Lastly, I thought I’d try to make a little bit more of a creative mold for this time.
I made my own using some carved styrofoam and a silicon mold kit.
Now just to pour it out. Let it dry.
So at this point, I now have 20 different soaps we’ve made.
I have a 5 different tests I did with base.
Each of them form some kind of soap.
Then I have the 12 different oils are used,
and made 12 unique soaps.
Few of them I got the chemistry wrong,
and they’re a little bit caustic.
And if you have any cuts on your hands,
they’re going to burn.
And then I took the leftover soaps.
Kind of the Frankenstein of all of them.
That’s the first time I make my own mold,
and it kind of shifted,
and got weird on me.
So I’m not too confident about it.
But I’ll take it out in a second and see how it did.
And then I have lastly,
the soap that Chris made using the very primitive method
of just probably about how they did it way back
when it was first discovered.
Flip this guy over,
see if it comes out in one piece or not.
的确 没什么用 太失败了
Yeah, it didn’t work. That’s a fail.
It made a decent bar soap, though.
It just did not hold the shape.
Though smell somewhat lavender, it wasn’t very strong.
I tried testing all the soaps by washing
the dirtiest thing I could find:
leftover pig hide from my football.
This pig is gonna be so clean.
However, once again, I had a hard time assessing and comparing them.
So I enlisted a little help.
这玩意好可怕 噢 它已经搞得我满手都是了
This thing is terrifying. Oh, it’s already all over my hands.
I take back my gross noises. I would play with this.
It washes off very easily.
I just feel like I’m playing with the mud from a pond.
My hands feel relatively clean.
There’s still a faint smell of baking grease on my hands,
and I don’t like that.
Actually it does smell a little bit better.
Actually, I think it helped.
Water is quite gross.
I don’t know if that’s from the pig or the soap.
Probably the soap.
This thing looks like somebody took a poo in it.
It’s so slimy. We have a little suds on this one.
This one looks like it’s trying to sud,
but like it just ends up slimy instead.
You could probably sell it like a wash or something.
像这样 “噢 自制的黏液肥皂”
You’ll be like “Ohh, DIY-like slime soap.”
This one’s worse.
This one’s slimmy, too.
It’s just like way thicker than soap is supposed to be.
Castor oil? Ricin?
This one’s starting to bubble a little bit.
I feel like I just played with a slug.
But it’s not as sudsy as soap should be.
There’s absolutely no suds with this one.
This one’s good. It’s still kind of like slimy and oily.
But at least I got suds this time.
Look at those suds.
Didn’t know soybeans were so sudsy.
This one’s really starting to get bubbly,
and it doesn’t feel gross on my hands either.
Still kind of slimy.
We’re back to a slimy feeling in this soap.
I’ll nibble a little piece off.
Is this the chocolate one?
I feel like I’m eating soap.
This one feels not gross, but it’s not lathering.
I just feel like I was cleaning with like a rock or something.
This one is getting sudsy.
Also does it feel as gross, but it still doesn’t have that soap feel yet.
Pretty much no slime on it.
Doesn’t smell, just surprising.
Everybody said it was gonna smell bad.
But it’s actually pretty neutral.
Not a lot of suds.
Not a lot of residue coming off the soap.
The soap’s very hard.
Actually a lot better than I thought it would be.
I thought it’s gonna be a hunk of wax.
This is not Burt’s Bees.
HTME, very clearly. It says HTME.
HTME. Moulded great.
It smells kind of earthy. Feels weird though.
It’s got that gooey thing going on,
but it’s sudsing really good.
Foams’re unlike the other soaps.
Probably cuz it is all the other soaps mixed together.
We made 20 different types of soap here.
And most of them were pretty successful I’d say.
I think it’s the soybean has been the best so far,
the most convincing.
If I bought it at store, I wouldn’t return it.
我会这样想“嘿 这是肥皂 我可以用它洗手”
I’ll be like “Hey, this is soap, and it’s cleaning my hands.”
I’d say my favorite soap so far is still the peanut.
And Loki, I kind of like the big melin Frankenstein one
cuz it smells the best.
It wasn’t absolutely the best result,
but I have successfully made 20 soaps that are at least
Just beginning of a whole series, we’re doing on toiletries.
I’m gonna be doing a bunch of other cleaning products:
牙膏 牙刷 剃须泡沫 剃须刀
toothpaste, toothbrush, shaving cream, and a razor.
And a bunch of other things just so you can get clean.
After that pig, I do not feel that clean though.
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