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在看不见的公路上翻滚

Tumbling Down Invisible Highways

Thanks to CuriosityStream for supporting this episode.
感谢CuriosityStream对本期节目的支持
Go to CuriosityStream.com/microcosmos to start streaming thousands of documentaries
前往CuriosityStream.com/microcosmos畅享数千部纪录片
and for a special offer that helps support our show.
还可以获得我们节目给出的特别优惠
《微观旅途》
Our world is made up of invisible highways.
我们的世界里有许多看不见的“高速路”
They intersect and divert and congest,
它们纵横交错 时而还会“堵车”
taking organisms on short trips and long voyages alike,
各种生物穿行其中 旅程长短不一
and in a flurry of activity.
行色匆匆
Now, we may not be able to see all of those highways laid out,
我们或许无法像人类通勤者那样
the way commuters might see long stretches of concrete stacked on each other.
直接看到混凝土公路绵延交错的布局
But we can start to see their outlines
但我们能通过生物的活动轨迹
in the lives that are traced upon those roads.
看到这些“隐形公路”的大致轮廓
The microcosmos is no exception.
微观世界里也是如此
In fact, it is where all those journeys begin.
事实上 它是所有旅程的起点
When Antonie van Leeuwenhoek made his first observations of microbes,
当安东尼·范·列文虎克第一次观测到微生物时
he was captivated by those primitive paths,
他被这些原始路径深深吸引住
even though he didn’t know what he was observing.
虽然他并不知道自己观察的是什么
He didn’t even know what creatures he was observing.
甚至不知道他观察的是什么生物
He wrote, “…the motion of most of these animalcules in the water was so swift,
他写道:这些微生物在水中的运动大都非常迅捷
and so various upwards, downwards and round about that ’twas wonderful to see.”
它们上下穿行 还会转圈 看起来非常美妙
Leeuwenhoek hired a draughtsman to help draw what he observed.
列文虎克雇了一位绘图员来帮他画下观察到的东西
And sharing his employer’s delight, the draughtsman reportedly exclaimed,
据说绘图员和他的雇主一样兴奋 他大喊:
“Oh, that one could ever depict so wonderful a motion!”
啊!从没人有机会描绘如此美妙的运动!
He probably did it in Dutch but you get the idea.
他可能是用荷兰语喊的 但你能体会他的心情
The turn of the 18th century was not a particularly great time for video.
18世纪 视频技术还不成熟
But fortunately, times have changed,
但幸运的是 时代在发展
and now we have ways to depict so wonderful a motion.
现在我们有办法记录下如此美妙的运动了
And that means we can share things like this, a band of bacteria
这意味着我们可以分享细菌条带这样的东西了
—or really more like a cylinder of thousands of bacteria—
它其实更像是一个由数千细菌组成的圆柱体
that have gathered for some unseeable reason
它们因为一些未知的原因聚集在一起
that must be important to them.
这些原因一定对它们很重要
We think—though we can’t quite be sure—that the culprit is oxygen.
尽管不是很确定 但我们认为这个原因是氧气
James, our master of microscopes,
我们的显微镜大师詹姆斯
kept the slides in a humidity chamber that was low in oxygen
把玻片放在一个低氧的潮湿容器里
—an environment that was well-suited for these bacteria.
这个环境非常适合这些细菌生存
But when he took the slide out to check it under the microscope,
但当他把玻片拿出来在显微镜下观察时
oxygen began to seep in from the sides.
氧气开始从四周渗入玻片
And while many organisms love oxygen, these bacteria do not.
虽然许多生物喜欢氧气 但这些细菌并不喜欢
And with their habitat being slowly encroached upon by the gas,
随着氧气慢慢侵入它们的栖息地
the bacteria gathered in the middle of the slide where the oxygen is lower.
细菌聚集到了氧气浓度较低的玻片中部
If you take a quick glance, the band of bacteria seems pretty orderly.
乍一看 细菌条带仿佛很有秩序
But it just takes a few more seconds to see that it is made up of chaos,
但是过几秒钟你就会发现 它们非常混乱
bacteria that are swimming and wiggling around in what seems like a completely undirected fashion.
细菌以一种似乎完全无序的方式游动和扭动
Except, of course, it is directed.
但其实 他们的运动是有规律的
They’re navigating inside an invisible road shaped by oxygen.
它们在一条未被氧气侵占的无形道路中航行
In 1882, the scientist Theodor Wilhelm Engelmann
1882年 科学家西奥多·威廉·恩格尔曼
used a microscope designed by Carl Zeiss himself
使用卡尔·蔡司设计的显微镜
to watch algae as they photosynthesized.
来观测藻类的光合作用
But it wasn’t just the algae he was interested in.
但恩格尔曼不仅只对藻类感兴趣
Engelmann also watched as oxygen-loving bacteria
他还观察到
congregated to the areas where algae lay,
好氧细菌往往聚集在藻类生长的区域
seeking out the oxygen by product of their neighbor’s photosynthetic activity.
寻找藻类在光合作用中产生的氧气
Engelmann’s work provided descriptions of bacteria
恩格尔曼的观察描述了
changing their behavior around invisible chemicals.
细菌会因周围的化学物质而改变它们的行为
But it would take a contemporary of his, and then several decades of waiting,
但他的同辈人又等待了几十年之后
for scientists to figure out the mechanisms underlying those changes.
科学家们才找出这些行为改变背后的机制
His contemporary was named Wilhelm Pfeffer,
他的同辈有一个叫威廉·普费弗的人
and he designed an experiment
他设计了一个实验
using a thin capillary tube filled with chemical solutions
用装满了化学溶液的细毛细管
to study how bacteria gathered first to the tube, and then inside it.
研究细菌是如何聚集到管上 然后进到管里
After Pfeffer the field becomes quieter
在普费弗之后这个领域基本再没有进展
until the middle of the 20th century,
直到20世纪中叶
when a scientist named Julius Adler
有一位科学家叫朱利叶斯·阿德勒
began searching for his next research project,
他在本科阶段研究了蝴蝶
the one he would pursue after studying butterflies in college
在硕士阶段研究了鼠肝线粒体
and rat liver mitochondria in grad school.
接着他开始寻找下一个研究项目
It was 1957,
那是在1957年
and he just happened to be going through a library filled with old scientific journals,
他在逛一个堆满旧科学期刊的图书馆时
where he found Pfeffer’s publications.
碰巧找到了普费弗的书
What he read would end up inspiring decades of his work,
他读到的内容启发了他之后数十年的工作
as well as the work of his students and colleagues
以及他的学生和同事的工作
to decipher the chemical and biological language
他们要破译细菌在探索身边的世界时
that bacteria were using to navigate the world around them.
用来导向的化学和生物语言
For instance, he established that
例如 他检测到
bacteria are able to detect molecules around them
细菌能够使用自身表面受体
without actually consuming those molecules,
对周围分子进行处理和响应
using receptors at their surface to process and respond.
但并不消耗这些分子
One student, Mel DePamphilis, used an electron microscope
一个名叫梅尔·德帕梅利斯的学生用电子显微镜
to capture images of the bacteria’s motor, called the flagella.
拍摄到了细菌的运动器官 也就是鞭毛
Later, he would say, “I was so excited I could not take photos but kept thinking, ‘
后来他说:我激动到无法拍照 一直在想
My God, I’m the first person to see this.’”
我的天呐 我是第一个看到这个的人
Tiny peek behind the curtain, there is a note on the script here
说句题外话 我们的脚本上有一个画外音
and James, our Master of Microscopes has made a comment,
是显微镜大师詹姆斯的评论
and he says, “Aha! This happens to me all the time!”
他说: 哈哈!我经常遇到这种情况!
What a joyous feeling that must be,
这种感觉一定很棒
but also look, all of us together
现在我们可以一起看到
are seeing that thing that Mel DePamphilis first saw all those decades ago
梅尔·德帕梅利斯几十年前首次看见的事情
and it is no less remarkable for having been seen by others.
能被别人看到也是很有意义的
Anyway, over time, what became apparent
无论如何 随时间推移 有一点愈发明显
is that the flagella doesn’t just move bacteria,
那就是细菌的鞭毛不只是让细菌移动
because swimming in the microcosmos is kind of difficult when you’re small.
因为微生物在微观世界里游动是有点难的
The water is thick, like honey.
水对它们来说像蜂蜜一样浓稠
But what the bacteria’s combination of flagella and receptors do
但细菌的鞭毛和受体的组合作用是
is let the organism move randomly…but also purposefully.
让细菌随机移动 但其实这是刻意为之的
The systems can vary among different bacteria—
这种机制可能因细菌种类不同而有差别
they do, after all, have different needs from their environments
毕竟他们确实对环境有不同的需求
but so much of what we know comes from studies of E. coli.
但目前我们主要通过大肠杆菌来研究
And in E. coli,
在大肠杆菌中
the movement of the flagella dictates
鞭毛的运动决定了
whether the organism will tumble around or propel forward.
它是翻滚还是向前行进
Now, why would an organism want to tumble?
那为什么一个生物需要翻滚呢?
What does randomly turning about do?
随机翻滚有什么用呢?
Well, for you and I,
其实对我们人类来说
tumbling is probably, at best, not useful, at worst, disorienting,
翻滚往好了说 没什么用 往坏了说 迷失方向
but for bacteria, it’s a way to get reoriented,
但对细菌来说 这是一种重新定向的方式
allowing them to point in different directions
让它们能转到不同的方向
until they find the right way forward.
直到找到正确的前进路线
And to determine what the right way is, they measure gradients,
为了找到正确的路 细菌会感知化学物浓度梯度
looking for changes in the amount of those chemicals
感受那些他们想要靠近
they either want to get closer to or further away from.
或远离的化学物质的浓度变化
When those changes point to something good,
当这些变化有益时
the bacteria propels onward.
他们就会继续前进
And when they point to something bad, it tumbles.
当这些变化有害时 他们就会翻转
They can do this incredibly fast,
它们能以极快的速度做这些
capable of speeds that are several hundred body lengths per second.
速度可达每秒几百个身长
It’s like sprinting home in the dark,
这就像你在黑暗中狂奔回家
guided only by the familiar changes in the streets around you
只能靠周围街道上你熟知的变化来指引方向
but it is enough to have helped bacteria survive this world
但这足以帮助细菌面对大量的挑战
and its many, many challenges for billions of years.
在这个世界生存数十亿年
Of course, it also means that other organisms have inherited those mechanisms too,
当然 这也意味着其他生物也继承了这些机制
like these ciliates drawn as they are to their bacterial prey
就像这些纤毛虫通过一种无形的联系
through an invisible connection,
靠近它们要捕食的猎物
whether or not they knew that’s what drew them there in the first place.
不管知道与否 这就是最初吸引它们的原因
Because even when the roads are unseen,
因为即使看不见前路
and even when we may not know where we’re going,
即使可能不知道要去往何处
we can surely figure out what to do when we get there.
但等到达那里时 我们理所当然地知道该做什么
Thank you for coming on this journey with us
感谢与我们共度这段旅程
as we explore the unseen world that surrounds us.
一起探索我们周围的未知世界
This episode was brought to you by CuriosityStream,
本节目由CuriosityStream为您带来
it’s a subscription streaming service
这是一个流媒体订阅平台
that offers thousands of documentaries and non­fiction TV shows
提供数千部最优秀的电影制作者拍摄的
from some of the world’s best filmmakers,
纪录片和非小说类电视节目
including award winning exclusives & originals.
包括屡获奖项的独家和原创作品
They cover topics like history, nature, science, food, technology, travel, and more!
涵盖历史 自然 科学 食品 技术 旅行等主题!
There, you can watch the documentaries like “Never Home Alone”
您可以在那里看到《Never home alone》这样的纪录片
where they explore the unseen wildlife
这是一部探索家中所有犄角旮旯里的
that lives in all of the nooks and crannies of your home
自然生物的纪录片
and take a microscopic journey through your food, cabinets, and showerheads.
在食物 橱柜和淋浴喷头里进行一次微观旅行
You can stream CuriosityStream’s library,
您可以随时随地在任何设备上
including their collections of curated programs handpicked by their experts,
浏览Curiosity Stream的视频
to any device for viewing anytime, anywhere,
包括专家亲手精选的视频合集
and if you go to curiositystream.com/microcosmos and use the code “Microcosmos” to sign up,
如果你去curiositystream.com/microcosmos网站使用代码Microcosmos注册
it will only cost you $14.99 for an entire year!
一整年只需14.99美元!
All of the people on the screen right now,
现在屏幕上列出的所有人
they are folks that moved through the wondrous gradients of knowledge and algorithmic suggestions
他们因为不同的知识梯度和算法推荐
to find our content and then love it enough that they wanted to support it
找到了我们的内容 他们喜欢我们并且愿意提供支持
so that we can keep making it and keep making it better.
这样我们可以继续制作更好的视频
They’re our patrons on patreon.
他们是我们在Patreon上的赞助人
You can become one of them by going to patreon.com/journeytomicro.
您可以通过访问 patreon.com/journeytomicro成为他们中的一员
If you would like to see more from our Master of Microscopes James Weiss,
如果您想从我们的显微镜大师詹姆斯·韦斯那里了解更多信息
you can check out Jam and Germs on Instagram,
可以去 Instagram上查找Jam and Germs
or you can see him in Emily Graslie’s new video
或者你也能在艾米丽·格拉斯利的新视频中看到他
where the two of them discuss microscopy
这个视频里他们讨论了显微镜学
and Emily even painted a painting
艾米丽甚至画了幅画
inspired by some of the tardigrades you have seen on this very channel.
灵感就来自这个频道里的一些水熊虫
And you can go check that out at our link in the description.
你可以点击下方的链接进行查看
And if you want to see more from us, hey, there’s always a subscribe button somewhere nearby.
如果你想看到我们更多的内容 下方有个订阅按钮哦

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视频概述

看不见的公路有多奇妙,打开这个视频,带你了解微观世界的奥秘

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

一颗大橙子

审核员

审核员RYAN

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IOl6q9P3xAg

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