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结核:发展、潜伏、活跃、传染 – 译学馆
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结核:发展、潜伏、活跃、传染

Tuberculosis (TB): Progression of the Disease, Latent and Active Infections.

结核病英文缩写TB
Tuberculosis, or TB,
是最古老最常见的感染性疾病之一
is one of the oldest and most common infectious diseases.
大概全世界三分之一的人口都感染了结核病
About one third of the world population is believed to be infected with TB. Fortunately,
但只有5%的感染者会发展到发病期
only about 5% of these infectionsprogress to active disease.
剩下的95% 的感染者则处于潜伏性感染状态
The other 95 % of infected people are said to have a dormant or latent infection;
他们不会发病 也不是传染源
they do not develop any symptoms, and do not transmit the disease.
结核病是由一种棒状的细菌引起的 这种杆菌
Tuberculosis is caused by a rod-shaped bacterium, or a bacillus,
叫做结核分枝杆菌
called Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
结核病的感染是从吸入
An infection is initiated following inhalation
由活动性感染状态下的人喷到空气中的
of mycobacteria present in aerosol droplets
含有结核分枝杆菌的飞沫开始的
discharged into the atmosphere by a personwith an active infection.
这种传染机制非常高效
The transmission process is very efficient
飞沫可以在空气中保持数小时的
as these droplets can persist in the atmosphere
传染性 而感染所需的病毒计量很少
for several hours and the infectious dose is very low –
不到十只细菌 就可以引发感染
less than 10 bacilli are needed to start the infection.
一旦细菌进入肺部
Once in the lung,
它们会遇到人体第一道防线—— 肺泡巨噬细胞
the bacteria meet with the body ’ s first-line defense – the alveolar macrophages.
细菌会被巨噬细胞吞噬
The bacteria are ingested by the macrophages
但它们会在其内部生存下来
but manage to survive inside.
内化于巨噬细胞的细菌会导致发炎
Internalization of the bacilli triggers an inflammatory response
炎症反应会将其它防卫细胞调来此处
that brings other defensive cells to the area.
这些细胞在一起就形成了一块
Together, these cells form a mass of tissue
叫做肉芽瘤的组织 这是结核病的一个特征组织
called a granuloma, characteristic of the disease.
在肉芽瘤初期它的核心是
In its early stage, the granuloma has a core of
被结核杆菌感染的巨噬细胞
infected macrophages enclosed by other
它们被其它免疫细胞所包围
cells of the immune system.
随着细胞免疫过程的发展 被感染的巨噬细胞会被杀死
As cellular immunity develops, macrophagesloaded with bacteria are killed, resulting
这导致肉芽瘤形成了一个干酪式的中心
in the formation of the caseous center of the granuloma.
细菌至此进入潜伏状态 但可存活数十年
The bacteria become dormant but may remain alive for decades.
这种被封闭起来的感染就是
This enclosed infection is referred to
潜伏性结核 患者可能
as latent tuberculosis and may persist throughout
在感染状态下终生不发病
a person’s life without causing any symptoms.
人体免疫反应的强弱
The strength of the body ’
决定了这种感染会停留在潜伏状态
s immune response determines whether an infection is arrested
还是发展到下一阶段
here or progresses to the next stage.
对于健康人来说 感染会永远停留在这一阶段
In healthy people, the infection may be stopped permanently at this point.
而肉芽瘤最终会痊愈 留下小的钙化灶
The granulomas subsequently heal, leavingsmall calcified lesions.
但如果
On the other hand,
免疫系统受到免疫抑制剂的干扰 或是由于艾滋病
if the immune system is compromised by immunosuppressive drugs, HIV infections,
营养不良 身体老化以及其它因素的拖累 结核杆菌就可能重获活力开始繁衍
malnutrition, aging, or other factors, the bacteria can be re-activated, replicate,
并从肉芽瘤中扩散到肺的其他地方
escape from the granuloma and spread to other parts
进而导致活动性结核病
of the lungs causing active pulmonary tuberculosis.
这种再活化距离最初的感染可能已经过了数月甚至数年
This reactivation may occur months or even years after the initial infection.
在某些情况下 结核杆菌还会经由淋巴系统
In some cases, the bacteria may also spread to other
或血液循环扩散到其他器官
organs of the body via the lymphatic system or the bloodstream.
感染者最多的结核病
This widespread form of TB disease,
被称为播散性结核或栗粒性结核
called disseminated TB or miliary TB, occurs most
这种结核病常见于婴幼儿 老人与艾滋病感染者身上
commonly in the very young, the very old and those with HIV infections.
一般来说结核病是可由抗生素医治的
Tuberculosis is generally treatable with antibiotics.
需要持续数月服用多种抗生素
Several antibiotics are usually prescribed
这是由于结核杆菌生长缓慢
for many months due to the slow growth rate of the bacteria.
最重要的一点是 病患应完成整个疗程
It ’ s very important that the patients complete the course of the treatment
以免体内的结核杆菌产生抗药性 从而导致病情复发
to prevent development of drug-resistant bacteria and re-occurrence of the disease.

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结核病的科普视频

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Aimik

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审核员 D

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=202hkf43HXQ

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