Vsauce 我是杰克 在这之外还有伙伴真是太好了 我已经孤身一人有段时间了
Vsauce, I’m Jake and it is good to have some company out here…I’ve been alone for quite some time.
We’re currently headed 10,000ly away from Earth.
You actually just missed Alpha Centauri, the closest star system to our own solar system
at 4.37 light years away or about 25.7 trillion miles.
现在看来 用更老的技术这会花很长的时间 但是在将来
Now, this would have taken a long time with older technology, but here in the future we
can travel at 99.99% the speed of light.
That is much faster than what you’re probably used to.
在你们的时代 最快的载人航空器是阿波罗10号 它的速度能达到每小时24,790英里
The fastest speed a manned spacecraft achieved in your time was Apollo 10 at 24,790 mph.
That would have taken over 100,000 years to get to Alpha Centauri.
So scientists tried to create ships that were even faster.
Project Orion is the most well known.
It used nuclear pulse propulsion, atomic bombs being detonated at intervals behind the ship,
to propel itself forward.
Orion, even though it was incredibly forward thinking and would have pushed us closer than
交互星球旅行 但是从来没有接近实现 因为
ever to inter planetary travel, never came to fruition in part because of the Nuclear
Test Ban Treaty in 1963.
Theoretically, a fusion-powered Orion could achieve velocities up to 10% (.1 c) the speed
of light, meaning it would only take 44 years to make the journey to Alpha Centauri.
Of course all this assumes you don’t want to slow down at the other end.
Carrying enough fuel to slow down doubles the travel time.
One of the difficult aspects of long distance space travel is acceleration.
It isn’t instant, it can’t be for manned missions.
当我们开始讨论10% 25% 50%光速时
When we start talking about 10%, 25%, 50% the speed of light, accelerating there is
a slow process.
Getting to just 1% would take 36 days.
If you hit the thrusters and immediately accelerated to that speed, you’d be instantaneously
由于巨大的重力作用 你将会瞬间死亡 然后你残留的身体会使
killed due to the immense G-Force, and then what remained of your body would make the
cockpit look like abstract art.
There are a lot of things to factor when it comes to interstellar travel: for one space
There are dust clouds, space debris.
When you are going at these immense speeds; at say half the speed of light, just hitting
a piece of debris the size of a quarter would be equivalent to being hit by a 15 kiloton
Energy is another.
The amount of energy needed to accelerate a metric ton spacecraft like this one at even
half the speed of light would require 2 months worth of the entirety of Earth’s energy
And another 2 months worth to slow down.
Quick side note: our craft is incredibly light.
A NASA space shuttle weighs about 2000 times more and would require 2000 times the amount
以当前我们正在行驶的速度计算 如果它达到99.99%光速 它将会需要地球总计
At the speed we are currently travelling, 99.99%, it requires, in total, 20 years worth
of Earth’s energy output.
But the one that I find to be the most debilitating, the one that I am currently experiencing,
Space feels limitless, but there are limits.
Communications can only travel as fast as the speed of light.
There is no way currently known for that to be any different.
So you find yourself…alone.
In movies they always showed home base communicating immediately with the ship.
但实际上 你向外飞得越远 你们交流所花费的时间便越长
But the fact of the matter is, the further out you go, the longer it takes, so by the
time you receive that message, the people that send it are most likely not going to
be around to hear your response.
在一次星际穿越任务中 关键不是你和一个人能聊多少 而在于你能和多少人聊
On an interstellar mission it isn’t so much who you talk to, but how many.
Speaking of messages, if you were wondering why I’m travelling 10,000ly away it’s
because we received a message from an alien civilization at that distance.
So good, luckily we can hop in our 99.99% speed of light ship and get there in 14 years,
However time isn’t a straight line.
Time is relative and doesn’t move at a constant rate.
你穿过太空越快 穿过时间就越慢 和任何
The faster you move through space, the slower you move through time, relative to anything
not going that speed.
举个例子 在我们现在的速度 对我来说28年的往返旅行任务
For example, at our current speed, what is a 28 year round trip mission for me, is 20,000
years for everyone on planet Earth.
This all leads us to a specific limitation, a specific boundary of what is possible, a
limit to what we can do.
Here…I actually got an audio message from another interstellar traveller named Matt
O’Dowd from the ship PBS Space Time.
Where is it…ah yes, the Light Cone.
We start with space-time…well a representation of it – a space-time diagram.
We have two dimensions of space instead of 3 .because we replace the vertical axis with
At the bottom of this chart is the beginning of the universe and time ticks forward moving
A planet forms 10,000ly away from us
它随着时间移动 成熟 进化
it moves through time aging and evolving
at some point an alien civilisation
on the planet
start sending radio
waves moving at light speed
through the universe
earth also forms and during one of this signal’s ten thousand-year journey we become a technological civilisation
and intercept the now
ancient transmission.because of this
we sent a starship
on a mission to find our distant neighbors.
And this is where our past light cone comes in.
These cone finds all that we can see of the past universe, limited by the speed
The point which that transmission was sent was long ago, but that moment is within our past light
the planet continues to move through time this civilization has now gone outside the light cone.
But there’s hope; we also have a future ……[transmission breaks up]
That was all of Matt’s message that I received.
But what he was going on to say was that there is the past light cone and the future light
As I fly along the diagonal of our future light cone the hope is to intercept this planet
that sent us a message.
But here’s the rub.
So much time has passed since that message was sent that by the time I reach this planet,
who knows if the race that sent it is still there.
Or for that matter the planet.
不管怎样 我之后必须掉头回家 但地球仍如过去那样在时间中运作着
Either way, I have to head back home after, but Earth continues to move through time as
And as it does I’ll move back towards it, hopefully to intercept.
The future light cone represents the parts of the universe that we could ever hope to
travel to or communicate with.
The boundary of the cone is the boundary for communication or travel at the speed of light.
We can never interact with anything outside that cone.
It’s important to remember that points both inside and outside the cone are events, not
They’re moments in both time and space.
You can get to any point in space if you travel for long enough (ignoring the expanding universe),
but there are MOMENTS in space that are unreachable, no matter how fast you travel.
So by the time I reach my destination, who knows what will be there.
Who knows if the civilization that sent that message will remain since it took 10,000 years
for their signal to reach us and an additional 10,000 years for me to reach them.
I went out searching for what we thought was known, when we should always be searching
for the unknown.
And after I fulfill my mission, I fly back home…home…a place that I will not have
known for 28 years from my perspective.
On Earth, 20,000 years have passed.
想象一下20000年前的生活是怎样的 再对比一下现在 想想
Think about what life was like 20,000 years ago as compared to the present, think about
what life must be like now.
所有的事件 人们 片段都在瞬间中流逝
All the events, people, moments that have gone by in an instant.
We think of the present and dream of the future.
Not really considering that what we do today could impact the next generations.
When you look into this vastness, you think of all the possibilities.
You wish that maybe 20 years earlier someone else would have done this journey so we’d
be even just the slightest bit further.
We would have pushed just a tiny bit more to understand the incomprehensible.
很好笑 不管在哪儿 我总是在想早先的那些开拓者 那些先驱
It’s funny, up here, out here, I think a lot about early explorers, early pioneers.
If you had told someone in the 19th century that they’d be able to get from one side
of the United States to the other in 5 hours instead of 6 months they’d think you were
crazy, that no person could travel that quickly.
That it couldn’t be done.
人们登上飞船 航行数月 从一个星球到另一个星球
People would get on ships and sail for months to get from one point on the planet to another.
Not knowing if they’d make it.
Not knowing what would be waiting for them on the other side.
Not knowing what would happen to those they left behind.
We thought ships were our speed limit, until we pushed through that supposed limit and
created something better.
Huh, limits, limits…just like we have a speed limit in space to how fast a message
can travel so did they.
他们留下了一些东西 并不知道是否成功完成 直到数月之后一封信
The ones they left not knowing if they had made it until months later when a letter,
on a very similar journey, would hopefully make its way back.
I travelled to the unknown only to return to another unknown.
Like the explorers who pushed across the seas and cut through the wilderness on Earth, discovering
what to them were new lands, we too must make the sacrifice to explore the universe.
Not knowing what will be on the other side of this ocean of stars but with the hope that
our journey will further our curiosity, further our humanity.
也许我们仍被光锥所限制 也许它是个极限 但我不会停下脚步
We might be confined by the light cone, it might be a limit, but it won’t stop me from
最后 一如既往 感谢收看
And, as always, thanks
Vsauce 我是杰克 在这之外还有伙伴真是太好了 我已经孤身一人有段时间了