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转运和量子传输

Transporters and Quantum Teleportation

我的好盆友快嘴科普格雷老师刚刚做了一个超棒的视频,是关于量子转运的可行性和其原理。
My good friend CGP Grey has made a great video about the practical and philosophical concerns with teleportation
In particular, the concern that when a transporter dismantles the atoms in your body
and reassembles an identical arrangement of atoms somewhere else,
被拆解的你实际上挂了,而重新组装出来的那个新的人
perhaps the disassembled you actually dies and the reassembled you is actually a new being that
实际上只是以为他是你罢了。而如果原来的那个你并没有被拆解,
just thinks it’s you. And if they simply hadn’t dismantled the original you, then
那么宇宙里就会有两个“你”,而哪一个才是真的你呢?
there’d now be two “you’s” in the universe, and which is really you? You, or
原来的那个还是转运了的那个?
the teleported you?
格雷的视频对这些问题讲解得灰常好,所以如果你希望了解更多背景只是,
Grey’s video covers these questions really well so if you want more background you should
去看看那个视频吧。但是我这个视频里增加了一条信息,我要指出
go watch that, but I do have one additional piece of information I’d like to point out,
星际迷航原作者绝壁没有想到的一点,
something the original creators of Star Trek were definitely unaware of because it was
因为这点直到九十年代才被发现(原版星际迷航是六十年代上映的)
discovered in the 90s.
这点就叫量子传输(非转运)。量子传输是唯一一种真正能实现的超距传输技术,
And that, is quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation is the only kind of real teleportation
我这里不会讲太多细节。
technology we currently have access to, and while I won’t go into the details here the
基本思想是,你可以把某种特定组合的粒子的信息,
point is you can take some particles in a particular arrangement, and transfer their
传输到任意远的另外一组粒子上。(其实作者是错的,量子传输并不能做到这点,作者其实想说的是量子纠缠)。你可能觉得
exact quantum condition onto other particles arbitrarily far away. You might think of it
这种传输是“假传输”,因为粒子其实没动,只是他们的量子态被传输了。
as “sad teleportation” because the particles don’t move, just their state – but isn’t
但是实际上星际迷航里的传输机就是这样的,虽然那是更大的尺度上(整个人)。
that essentially what a Star-Trek teleporter does, albeit on a larger scale? Sending enough
传送信息和能量到新的位置,来创造和原来完全相同的结构,
information and energy over to the new location to create the exact arrangement, or state,
比方说被称为“你”的那团粒子。
of particles that corresponds to “you”?
量子传输有一个关键的性质:不可能创建出
And quantum teleportation has one pivotal property: it is impossible to create an identical
一个和原来完全相同的量子态,除非把原来的态摧毁。实际上,必须摧毁原来的态,
copy of a quantum state without destroying the original – in fact, you HAVE to destroy
才能提取出所有必须的所有信息
the original arrangement in order to extract all the necessary information from it to construct
来创建新的量子态。量子力学里有关的定理被称为
the new, teleported, state. In fact, the relevant theorem in quantum mechanics is called the
“无克隆”定律。
“no cloning” theorem.
现在我们还不知道大脑究竟是怎么产生意识的,但是
Now, we don’t yet know exactly how brains work to create consciousness, but if the quantum
如果某些电子的量子态对于完美复制和转运“你”来说必要的话,
states of some electrons somewhere in the brain are critical to perfectly determining
那么一个量子转运机就必须遵循量子转运的机制,
(and thus copying) “you”, then a teleporter would necessarily have to obey the rules of
当传输信息-也就是组成“你”的结构信息-
quantum teleportation when sending the information about the arrangement of particles that are
到新的地方时,原来地方留下的东东,不管那是什么,
“you” to the new location, and whatever was left behind would definitively *not* be
都绝不是你了。(译者注:此票作者并不了解量子通信,他这里说的基本都是错的,其实他想说的是量子纠缠,而纠缠态其实并不能用来传输信息)
you.

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dAaHHGHuy1c

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