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改变世界的发明——晶体管

Transistors - The Invention That Changed The World

如果我问你
If I were to ask you
人类有史以来最重要的发现是什么
what the most important advancement humankind has ever made,
你会怎么回答?
What would you say?
许多人觉得是火
Many would make the case for fire,
因为火的发现
our species was in an evolutionary rut
加快了人类的进化步伐
until we harnessed it’s power.
它给予我们温暖以度过严冬
It gave us the warmth to survive harsh winters,
火光延长了白昼
its light extended our day,
人类把火的破坏力当武器 以对付捕食者
it’s destructive powers gave us a weapon against predators
而火也让我们烹煮食物 让大脑得以发展
and it allowed us to cook our food which allowed our brains to grow.
火的发现
Our discovery of fire
不仅改变了技术 还改变了我们的文化和生活方式
transformed not only our technologies, but our culture and way of life.
但我认为 我们这个时代
But I would argue that we are currently living
正在进行的变化更大
in a time of equal or even greater change.
我们处在一个高速发展的时代
We are living in an time of incredible growth,
一个早已开始改变
one that has already started to transform
我们生活方式的时代——
the way we live our lives.
信息时代
The age of information.
目前 全球有40%的人在使用因特网
With 40% of our world’s population currently connected to the internet,
让人与人之间的关系变得比以往更紧密了
the human race is more intertwined than ever before.
不过 如此惊人的工具是怎么得来的呢?
But what led to this amazing tool?
是哪一项发明造就了我们手中的智能手机?
What single invention gave rise to our smartphone equipped generation?
是晶体管
The transistor.
晶体管就是信息本身
The transistor is information itself,
这段视频也只是一系列1和0的组合
even this video is just a series of ones and zeros
跨越地球传输到你电脑中 并由处理器解码
beaming across the planet to be interpreted by the processors in your computers.
没有晶体管
Without the transistor,
我就无法在网上搜集丰富的信息进行研究
I wouldn’t have access to the wealth of information online to do my research,
无法用动画软件来制作这些视频
I wouldn’t be able to use my animation software to make these videos,
更无法把它上传到这里跟大家分享
and I most certainly wouldn’t have been able to share it here for the world to see.
晶体管虽然简单
The transistor is so simple,
但它是所有现代计算机的基础
but it is the foundation for all our modern computers.
为了理解它产生的影响
To understand its impact we need to
我们需要先了解它背后的历史和科学
understand the history and science behind it.
在晶体管发明之前 我们用的是真空管
Before the transistor existed, we used vacuum tubes,
就是这些笨重的真空玻璃灯泡
which were these bulky evacuated glass bulbs.
真空三极管由三个部件组成:
The triode vacuum tube consisted of three parts,
阴极 栅极和阳极
the cathode, grid and anode.
电流通过阴极开始加热
A current is passed through the cathode and it begins to heat up,
致使它释放电子
causing it to release electrons,
由于管中抽离了气体
As the gases have been removed from the tube,
电子移动时只会遇到很少阻力
the electrons have very little resistance to their movement,
于是都被吸引到带正电的阳极
and they are attracted to the positively charged anode.
这就形成了电路及电流
This completes the circuit and a current flows.
但我们可通过栅极
But we can manipulate this flow of electrons
用许多方法来控制电子的流动
in many useful ways with the grid.
比如 我们可以把它作为开关
For example we can use it as a switch,
如果我们在这里放置一个灯泡
if we place a light bulb here it will only light
那么它只有在正电压通过栅极时才能发光
up when there is a positive voltage acrossthe grid.
但如果我们施以负电压
If we apply a negative voltage the
负电荷会排斥电子通过
negative charge will repel electrons tryingto pass through.
这是二进制编码的基础
This is the foundation for binary coding
正是二进制孕育了信息时代
which is the 1s and 0s that gave birth to the age of information.
在这里 1是正电压 0是负电压
Here, 1 is a positive voltage and 0 is a negative.
1使灯泡发光 0则关闭灯光
1 turns the light on, 0 turns it off.
世界上第一台通用电子计算机——
The world’s first general purpose electronic computer,
ENIAC计算机
The ENIAC, used 18 thousand vacuum
使用1万8千个真空管进行运算
tubes to perform calculations.
它由约翰·麦克利和J·普锐斯珀·艾克特研发
Designed by John Mauchly & J. Presper Ekert,
于1945年完工
it was completed in 1945.
它是在二战时期为计算炮弹轨迹而建造的
It was purpose-built to calculate trajectories for artillery during world war 2.
一个成年人一天能做的计算量
A calculation that would take a human a day to calculate,
ENIAC计算机只要30分钟就能搞定
took ENIAC 30 minutes.
但是这台计算机重达三十吨 占据了整个房间
But this thing weighed 30 tonnes and took up an entire room.
而且耗电量惊人
It was incredibly power hungry,
因为电子管阴极需要加热才能操作
as the vacuum tubes cathodes needed to be heated to work,
这也意味着
which also meant that the
真空管经常会烧坏并需要更换
vacuum tubes burnt out regularly and needed to be replaced.
这台计算机的功能相当于
All this to perform a function that
手机在玩“愤怒的小鸟”时的功能
your phone basically does within Angry Birds.
今天 一块硅片就能容纳它的计算能力
Today, its computing power could be contained on a silicon chip
其体积不会超过一粒沙子
no larger than a grain of sand, and that
这都得感谢晶体管
is thanks to the transistor.
一部现代手机包含了大约20亿个晶体管
A modern phone has around 2 billion transistors, which perform
它的功能和电子管相同 但体积小至纳米级
the exact same job as the vacuum tube, but on a nanoscale.
我们来看看它是如何操作的
Let’s look at how it works.
很多人觉得晶体管是长这样的
Many of you will recognise the transistor as one of these,
但这是个通孔晶体管
but this is a through hole transistor
你可以从电子商店买到晶体管
that you can buy from hobby electronics stores for your DIY projects.
CPU中的晶体管需要用显微镜才能看见
The transistors in your CPU are microscopic and are manufactured
制作过程要求极高的精度
with incredible precision with machines on
因为要从硅块上切割硅晶体薄片
thin wafers of silicon crystal that are sliced off silicon ingots, like this.
是什么让硅如此特殊
So what makes silicon so special
以至于让旧金山湾区的一整个区域
that an entire section of the San Francisco Bay area
被冠上了“硅谷”的绰号呢?
has been nicknamed after the material?
硅是一种半导体
Silicon is a semiconductor,
这意味着可通过在晶体中加入杂质的办法
which means that its conducting properties can be tailored
去调节其导电性能
by introducing impurities to the crystal structure.
硅的价电子层有4个电子
Silicon has 4 electrons in it’s valence shell,
最外层轨道上的电子
this is the outermost orbit for electrons,
决定了原子的许多化学性质
and it determines many of the chemical properties of the atom.
原子都希望外层拥有8个电子
Atoms want 8 electrons in that shell,
以使之变得稳定
as this makes them very stable.
所以硅很容易与4个相邻的硅原子形成共价键
So silicon readily forms covalent bonds to 4 neighbouring silicon atoms
以获得另外4个电子
to gain those extra electrons.
如果在纯硅晶体中加入杂质
Now if we introduce those impurities to this pure silicon crystal,
我们就能改变它的导电性
we can change how it conducts a current.
如果我们加入磷
If we add phosphorus,
磷的价电子层有5个电子
which has 5 electrons in it’s valence shell,
多余的电子能在晶体结构间游走
the extra electron is left free to roam the crystal structure.
这个额外电子会使N型带负电荷
This extra electron makes the N-type negatively charged,
“N型半导体”名称由此而来
which is where the name comes from.
P型半导体带有正电荷
The P-type is positively charged
因为它掺入了价电子层有3个电子的硼
because it is doped with boron, which has three electrons in its valence shell.
为了获得最后一个电子
This structure wants to gain its final electron,
这种结构会偷取相邻原子的电子
and will steal electrons from its neighbouring atoms.
从而产生移动的正电荷 称之为空穴
this creates a mobile positive charge, called a hole.
由于我们增加了移动的电荷
The conductivity of the material has thus been increased
半导体的导电性也增强了
as we have increased the number of mobile charges.
若我们这样排列N型与P型半导体
When we arrange n-type and p-type semiconductors
然后给各个半导体加上端子
like this and attach terminals to each, we
就会形成世界上最常见的晶体管——
create the world’s most prevalent transistor.
NPN型晶体管
The NPN transistor.
在N型和P型半导体的连接处
The transistor works due to the interaction of those free electrons and holes
自由电子和空穴的相互作用是晶体管的原理
at the n-type and p-type junction.
N型的自由电子会移动
Free electrons in the n-type will migrate
去填补P型里的空穴
over to fill those holes in the p-type.
这会产生一种称为“耗尽层”的边界层
This creates a boundary layer called the
因为负电荷相互排斥
depletion layer which prevents more electrons passing through,
耗尽层会阻止其他电子通过
due to the negative charges repellingeach other. But,
但正电压出现时
when a positive voltage is applied to the base
会使耗尽层失去效用 并让电流通过
it negate that depletion layer and allows current to flow through,
形成电流回路
completing the circuit.
如你所见
As you can see,
这和真空管的功能十分相似
this is very similar to the function of the vacuum tube.
那它究竟是如何让计算机实现
So how exactly does this allow computers to
我们现今所见的所有这些复杂功能的呢?
perform all these complex functions that wesee today.
让我们看一个简单的例子
Let’s look at a very basic example.
让两个数相加
Let’s add two numbers together.
首先我们需要知道在二进制中如何表示数字
First weneed to learn how numbers are represented
我们用1和0存储数据
in binary, that’s the 1’s and 0’s that are used to store data.
这是数字15
This is the number 15,
是用4比特能表示的最大数字
which is the largest number you can represent with 4 bits..
第一个比特代表1
The first bit represents 1,
第二个代表2 然后是4 最后是8 加起来就是15
the next represents 2, then 4 and finally 8, added up that equals 15.
在此模式中 每个比特都表示前一个比特的两倍
This pattern continues with each successive bit representing double the previous,
所以如果我们再加一个比特
so if we add an additional bit
就能表示31
we can count up to 31.
要计算5加6
Let’s add 5 and 6 together.
我们需要这样一个电流回路:
To do this we want a circuit
当其中一个数值为1时 这个位置保持为1
that will hold a 1 in this position when either are 1
当数值同时为1时 把1前移一位
and carry the 1 forward when both are 1,
你看 这样就能得到数字11
as you can see this will give us the number 11.
能完成这个任务的最简单的电流回路是
the simplest circuit that can do this is a half adder
包含了两种逻辑门的半加器
Which contains two types of logic gates,
这些是能修改二进制代码的设备
these are devices that can modify the binary code, they are
也是用晶体管制造的
built using transistors.
首先是“异或”逻辑门
The first is the XOR logic gate,
它只在其中一个输入值为1时输出1
which gives a 1 only when one of the inputs is one,
如果输入值同时为0或1 则输出0
if both are 0 or 1 it gives a 0.
第二个是“与”门 除了两个输入为1的情况外
The second Logic gate is an AND gate, which gives a 0 for everything
其他情况下 皆输出1
except when both inputs are 1.
像这样设置逻辑门 我们就能得到一个半加器
If we wire these logic gates like this we create a half adder,
它能输出两种结果:和数与进位
which gives two outputs our Sum and our Carry.
这样我们就能一次增加一个二进制位数
Which allows us to add our binary number one bit at a time.
若要一步完成计算 就需要更复杂的电流回路
A more complicated circuit is needed to perform the calculation in one step.
现代计算机能实现每秒以百万计的计算
Modern computers can perform millions of these calculations per second and they are still
其运算速度仍在变得更快
getting faster. The Co-founder
因特尔的创始人戈登·E·摩尔在1965年发现了一种趋势:
of Intel Gordon E. Moore noticed a trend in 1965 that the
集成电路中晶体管的密度每两年增加一倍
density of transistors on integrated circuits doubles every two years,
这种趋势一直保持到最近
that trend has held until very recently
现在增长速度有所放慢
but it is starting to slow down.
原因之一是鲜为人知的摩尔预测 摩尔第二定律或岩石定律
One of the reasons for this is the less well known of Moore’s predictions, Moore’s second law or Rocks law,
即生产这些设备的成本每4年增加一倍
which states that the cost of manufacturing these devices will double every 4 years.
因特尔去年发布了一项声明:
Intel made an announced last year
进步的速度变得缓慢
that the rate of advancement was slowing for these reasons
因为芯片生产商越来越难
it’s getting more and more difficult for chip manufacturers
在维持利润的前提下缩小产品的体积
to shrink their product while maintainingprofit.
晶体管面临的另一个问题是量子隧穿
Another problem that transistors are facingis quantum tunneling.
在晶体管越做越小的同时 它们之间的屏障也在变小
As these transistors get smaller, so do the barriers between different sections.
晶体管每个部分的屏障越来越薄
The barriers between each section of the transistor are getting so thin,
导致电子能从其中穿过
that electrons can pass right through them.
如果在硅晶体管之后没有更好的替代品
With no definitive successor to the silicon transistor lined up
维持了五十年的高速增长会在不久的将来停滞
this incredible period of growth over the last 50 years could plateau in the near future.
有人想利用量子力学
Some want to harness quantum mechanics
实现比晶体管速度更快的运算
to perform calculations faster than any transistor ever could,
其他人想用所谓的物联网实现计算去中心化
others want to decentralise computing power with the so calledinternet of things.
因特尔曾说
Intel have said themselves
他们将计划把工作重心
that they plan to shift their focus from increases
从提高运算速度转向减少电力消耗
in speed to decreases in power consumption.
唯一能肯定的是
One thing is for sure,
在不久的将来 计算机产业必须重新定义自己
the computer industry will have to redefine itself in the near future.
感谢收看!
Thanks for watching!
感谢你们的大力支持
Thanks to your incredibleresponse to their last sponsorship
TheGreatCoursesPlus又一次赞助了我们
TheGreatCoursesPlus have sponsored me once again.
感谢所有的订阅者和众筹赞助者
So thank youto all my subscribers, patreon supporters
以及TheGreatCoursesPlus对“真实工程”的帮助
and TheGreatCoursesPlus for helping Real Engineeringexist.
如果你喜欢我的视频
If you enjoy my videos,
你一定也会爱上TheGreatCoursesPlus
you will definitely like TheGreatCoursePlus.
那里有来自世界各地的著名学者 以及超过7000个不同的课程
They have over 7000 different lectures from world renowned educators.
话题内容极其广泛
They have a huge range of topics,
如果你想多了解一些电学知识
if you would like to learn more about electronics they
那里也有相关的课程
even have a course for that or you can learn
你还能在那里学习摄影 象棋 烹饪等
about photography, chess and cooking.
这些课程能增进你对许多领域的深层了解
These courses give you indepth knowledge of a variety of subjects,
而且你可以按自己的节奏来学习
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your own pace without tests or exams.
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若你想观看更多内容或支持“真实工程”
If you would like to see more content or support
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Facebook and twitter accounts are below.

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视频概述

这是信息时代最伟大的发明。从史上第一台笨重的电子计算机,到如今小巧的智能手机,它见证着科技的革新,也引领着时代的发展。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

靡初

审核员

审核员YZ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OwS9aTE2Go4

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