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“公地悲剧”理论 – 译学馆
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“公地悲剧”理论

Tragedy of the Commons │ The Problem with Open Access

这是一个叫“公地悲剧”的模型
This is a model called the tragedy of the commons
或者应该称之为“开放使用权的难题”
Which should be called the problem with open access
因为它和公地没什么关系
since it has little to do with a commons.
“悲剧”一词也有点夸大了
And tragedy is kind of dramatic.
我们假设现有一片草地
Let’s say there’s some land with grass on it
人们把它用作放牧牲畜的牧场
that people use as pasture for their animals.
它非私人所有 任何人都能来这放牧他们的牲畜
Nobody owns it and anyone can come and graze their livestock here.
假设人们不在一起工作及交流
We’re assuming that people don’t communicate or work together.
这样我们就可以称这块地为“公共地”
So we would call this an open access field.
假设这块草地能养活的牲畜量
Let’s assume the number of animals this field can feed
是基于草的数量和质量
is based on the quantity and quality of the grass
而这些因素是基于这块地的健康程度
which is based on the health of the soil
而且这块地只能承载这么多牲畜
and it can only hold this many animals.
这就是它的承载能力
This is the carrying capacity.
如果牲畜增加到超过这个数量
If animals are added beyond this,
用于喂养它们的草就不能足够快地重新长出
the grass can’t re-grow fast enough to support them all.
另外草还保护土地不受侵蚀
Also the grass protects the soil from erosion.
如果在这周围放牧过多牲畜
If too many animals are around,
草地生产力就可能会下降 从而导致承载力下降
the field may decline in productivity, lowering the carrying capacity.
牲畜也会更不健康 产出质量较低的产品
The animals will be less healthy and provide lesser quality products
从而降低每只牲畜带来的利益
lowering the profit each animal provides.
所以为了整体的最大利益就要
So it’s in this group’s best interest to
保持这片草地的牲畜量小于等于它的承载能力
keep the number of animals on the field at or below the carrying capacity.
但是每个在这片草地上放牧的牧人
But every herdsman that puts animals on the field
会直接获利于他放牧的牲畜
will get the direct benefit that that animal provides for them.
却只用承担草地退化的一部分成本
But they would only share a portion of the costs of the degraded field.
如果这片草地已经到达其最大承载能力
If the field were at carrying capacity
并且有个牧人决定额外增加一头牲畜
and a herdsmen decides to add an extra animal.
这头额外的牲畜就会吃掉本应该给别的牲畜的食物
The added animal takes some of the food that would have gone to the others.
这就减少了牲畜们产生的利益
This reduces their value.
畜养了额外牲畜的牧人将获得更多利益
The owner of that additional animal comes out ahead
因为即使他所有的牲畜都不是很健康
because even though all his animals are little bit less healthy
但他拥有更多的牲畜
he has more of them.
因此每个牧人在这样的利益驱使下
But each herdsmen acts under these incentives
都会持续在畜群中增加牲畜或者让牲畜吃更长时间的草
will keep adding animals to their herd or let their animals graze longer,
只要这对他们是有利可图的
so long as it’s profitable to themselves.
但事实上他们都在损失利益
But really they are all losing out.
这有点像囚徒困境
Kind of like the prisoner’s dilemma.
现在用草地私有的情况与此进行对照
Contrast this to a situation where one person owns it.
如果草地所有者增加额外的牲畜
If they add extra animal
他们就只会损害自己的利益 所以他们不会这么做
they are only hurting themselves so they don’t do it.
既然新的牧人不会被排除在外
Since new people can’t be excluded from the field,
那么抵制新来的牧民也几乎没有意义
there’s almost no point in boycotting the news
因为谁都可以直接进来放牧
because someone else could just come in.
没有一个牧人拥有这片草地
None of the herdsmen own the field
他们也知道这片草地不会永远都能用来放牧
and they can see the field may not be around forever.
他们看不到保护草地的意义
They see no point in conservation
所以就尽力在别人过度放牧之前自己多利用这块地
and just try to use it before someone else does.
现在我们将这个模型推广至
OK so we go on to apply this model to
无人管理的开放渔场 开放使用的森林
unregulated open access fisheries, open access forests
和无人管理的大学宿舍洗碗池
and unregulated college dorm dish sink.
但将这个模型应用于现实有一点问题:
But the problem with applying this model to the real world
我们不得不假设 除了其他事以外
is that we have to assume, among other things
人们并不交流或一起工作 但这不合实际
that people don’t communicate or work together, which isn’t true.
像这样的一块草地
With a field like this,
人们通常会聚在一起制定如何使用这块地的计划
people will generally get together and make plans about its use.
他们可能会以集体为单位放牧
They may act as a single unit,
也可能会分区放牧
or just partition it in sections
他们还会控制在这块地上放牧的人数
and they will regulate the number of people that can use it.
如果人们在一起工作和交流
And if people are working together and communicating
那么就不是真正意义上的开放使用权
then it’s not really open access
并非每种管理情况都是开放使用权的情况
It’s not like every management situation is open access
直至有人把它变成是
until somebody does something about it.
所以“人们不在一起工作”并不足以
So you don’t tend to see the open access problem
导致“开放使用权的难题”
because people don’t work together.
这个难题往往出现在“人们不能一起工作”的情况下
You tend to see it in situations where people can‘t work together.
或者人们有时被迫处于一种“不被允许一起工作”的情况下
Sometimes people are forced into a situation where they’re not allowed to work together.
在这段视频中
Check out this video,
管理区域越大
also the larger the management area is,
相互联系和影响就越困难
the more difficult communication and influencing each other becomes.
举例来说 世界温室气体排放的管理
For example, the global management of greenhouse gas emissions
往往具有开放使用权的特征
tends to take on some open access properties.
基本上 当人们无法共同讨论如何使用公共资源时
Basically this model is a way of communicating that
就会呈现出模型的这种交流方式 这就很糟糕
when people can’t work together on a resource you call it open access. And it’s bad,
这就是为什么这个模型本该叫做“开放使用权的难题”
which is why the model should have been called the problem with open access.
本视频由Jesse Agar制作
本视频由哈丁肉罐头赞助
This episode is brought to you by Hardin’s canned animal meat.
现在免费提供
Now offer free.

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视频概述

看了公共地域上放牧的故事,我们会有怎样的思考呢?

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WYA1y405JW0

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