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糟糕的交通状况对身体的诸多实质性伤害

Traffic is Terrible and Terrible for You

有时生活中的小事也会带来很大的精神负担
Sometimes the seemingly small things in life can be major stressors.
就比如说 没人喜欢堵车
no one likes sitting in traffic for example
有研究表明
According to one study,
通勤是最令我们厌恶的事情之一
commuting is one of the least pleasant things we do.
不仅因为它浪费时间
But it’s not just an annoying time waster.
糟糕的通勤体验还引发了公共健康问题
There’s a case that it’s a public health issue
这是本周《健康等级》的主题
and that’s the topic of this week’s Healthcare Triage.
健康等级
感谢奥斯丁·弗兰克特 本视频改编自其专栏某段
Special thanks to Austin Frakt, from whose Upshot column this episode was adapted.
根据德克萨斯A&M运输研究协会的分析
According to analysis by the Texas A&M Transportation Institute,
美国人平均每年有42小时
the average American commuter spends 42 hours per year
都被困在交通高峰期的路上
stuck in rush-hour traffic.
在洛杉矶地区 这个时间还要再加倍
In the Los Angeles area, the figure is nearly twice that,
相当于超过了三天
equivalent to more than three days.
2015年《洛杉矶时报》的一份调查显示
A 2015 Los Angeles Times poll found
城市居民对交通情况的关注超过了其他因素
that among residents of that city, traffic concerns exceed those pertaining to
比如人身安全 财富状况或者租房费用
personal safety, finances or housing costs.
由交通问题造成的时间和燃料浪费
The total cost of traffic associated with lost time
每年总计要超过一千亿美元
and wasted fuel exceeds a hundred billion, with a B, per year.
随着时间流逝 堵在路上的车辆加重了污染
As time slips away, idling vehicles add pollution
影响了环境和人们的健康
which has environmental and health consequences,
对环境影响包括气候变暖的加剧
including contributions to climate change.
长期暴露在汽车尾气中
Long-term exposure to vehicle exhaust
易引起呼吸道疾病 尤其是对孩童而言
is associated with respiratory problems, especially in children.
另一个代价是心理幸福感
Another toll is to psychological well-being.
没来由地被困在路上这种事 会给人心里添堵
Stemming from the sense of helplessness we experience in traffic and its unpredictability.
研究数据也证实了这点
This, too, can be quantified.
一份研究显示
One study found that
花在通勤上的时间少一分钟
to save a minute of time spent in traffic,
人们就能多五分钟时间来进行娱乐活动
people would trade away five minutes of any other leisure activity.
另一份研究表明
Another study found that
人们更容易应对可预知的交通延误
we deal better with the commuting delays that we can anticipate
重压下的人会把情绪发泄到别人身上
Stressed-out people can take out the frustration on others.
我们可能都经历过或看到过路怒症
We’ve probably all experienced or seen road rage,
冲动的行为还会影响到通勤之外的事
but aggressive behavior can carry over beyond a commute.
近期 洛杉矶交通部在《公共经济学杂志》发表分析称
Recent analysis of Los Angeles traffic Recent analysis of Los Angeles traffic
交通拥堵和家庭暴力存在某种联系
documented a link between congestion and domestic violence.
研究表明 2011-2015年期间
From 2011 to 2015, a study found,
两条主干道路的晚高峰时期的堵车
extreme evening traffic on two major highways (I-5 and I-10)
使得晚间家庭暴力事件的数量增长了9%
increased the incidence of night-time domestic violence by about 9%.
该研究用交通高峰期为例给出了很好的证明
What researchers meant by extreme traffic in their study is best explained with an example.
圣塔莫尼卡居民耗费在I-10上的人均驾驶时间是45分钟
The average evening commute along I-10 for residents of Santa Monica in their study was 45 minutes.
高峰期则会增长到87分钟
Extreme traffic would increase that to 87 minutes.
政府在通勤问题造成更大的麻烦前施行了一些办法
Officials are not powerless before the problems that stressful commutes can cause.
洛杉矶在高峰期的I-10和I-110公路的特定车道
Los Angeles has put in a system that charges solo drivers more to use certain lanes
对未搭载乘客的车辆收取更高的过路费
I-10 and I-110 highways during periods of heavy traffic.
这鼓励了司机选择更通畅的时段或路线行驶
This encourages drivers to move their commutes to less congested times or routes.
西雅图SR 520大桥堵车成本研究说明
Study of congestion pricing on Seattle’s SR 520 bridge found that
过路费提升后 司机会选则替代路线
drivers using the route and its alternatives were less stressed
这缓解了拥堵 司机们对交通情况更满意了
and more satisfied with their commutes after the pricing change.
另外 许多州已用无现金电子收费系统代替收费站
In addition many states have been replacing toll booths with electronic and cashless tolling systems
比如E·Z Pass
like EZ Pass.
越来越多的雇主已允许员工在家办公
More employers are allowing people to work remotely.
有些城市的交通状况因汽车持有量增长而愈发糟糕
Trouble transit systems in some cities may be partly behind an increase in car ownership in those areas.
但一些西海岸城市正在拓展交通运输系统
But certain West Coast cities are making sweeping expansions of their public transit systems
许多城市增加自行车专道
and many cities are adding bike lanes.
那些步行或骑行上班的人能同时从两方面获益
Those who can walk or bike to work tend to have a double advantage.
不仅避开了堵车带来的危害 还能强身健体
Not only do they avoid the harmful consequences of traffic but they can also improve their health through exercise.
年轻人会更喜欢这种通勤的方式
Younger people are more likely to prefer that style of commuting
也会比前几代人开车更少
and are driving less than previous generations.
对厌恶堵车的人来说 未来有更多好消息
There may be more good news in coming decades for those who loathe gridlock.
尽管自动驾驶车辆不能真正解决堵车问题
Although self-driving cars won’t cure traffic woes on their own,
但基于经济学 它或许能缓解堵车时的焦虑
the way that economics based approaches like congestion pricing can they may be able to reduce stress.
你赶着去赴约却被困在路上
You’re crawling along in traffic and are late to an appointment
你可以小睡一会 玩电子游戏
but are allowed to take a nap, play video games
看你爱的电视剧或饮一杯鸡尾酒
watch your favorite TV show or sip a cocktail,
这样做能缓解堵车时的焦虑吗?
will that reduce your stress?
我们也不能确定
We don’t know for sure.
但我们期待这样的研究
But we look forward to the studies on that.
嘿 喜欢这节目吗?
Hey, do you like the show?
如果你可以订阅频道并点赞 对频道会有很大帮助
It really helps if you subscribe or like it wherever it isn’t the screen right now,
另一个支持频道的好办法是到patreon网提供赞助
and another good way to support the show is at patreon.com.
网址是patreon.com/healthcaretriage
Go to patreon.com/healthcaretriage.
特别感谢研究助理约瑟夫和外科医生萨姆
We’d especially like to thank our research associate Josef ‘its and our surgeon Admiral Sam,
如果你想了解更多内容
And if you want more content,
可以去收听我们的播客 它很棒
go to our podcast. It’s great.
《健康等级》播客
The Healthcare Triage podcast,
点击屏幕任何位置 你都可以得到播客的链接
wherever you download podcasts or ever that are available
还有我的书《不良饮食圣经》依旧在卖
and of course my book, The Bad Food Bible, still on sale in stores.
若你能买一本我会很感激
Appreciate it if you pick up a copy.

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视频概述

交通拥堵给人和环境带来的消极影响

听录译者

徘徊的小孩

翻译译者

辣条小王子

审核员

审核员_BY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9p-QAWo5ZRM

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