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五大阴影错误 – 译学馆
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五大阴影错误

Top 5 Shading Mistakes

《Proko绘画 画阴影时的五大错误》
大家好 我是Stan Prokopenko
Hey guys, I’m Stan Prokopenko.
我教素描和油画已经有十年时间了
I’ve been teaching drawing and painting for 10 years now.
我看过大量作品集
I’ve seen a lot of portfolios.
我评论过数以千计的作品
I’ve critiqued thousands of assignments.
我刚任教时
And the problems I saw in student work
在学生作品中看到的问题
back when I first started teaching
至今依然常见
are the same ones I’m still seeing now.
这些基本问题
These are fundamental issues that don’t change
不会随photoshop的版本更新
with the latest version of photoshop
甚或时代更迭而变化
or even what century you live in.
在我们进入主题之前
Before we jump in,
我想提一下
I want to quickly mention
我正在做的一门素描基础课
that I’m working on a drawing basics course.
这是为新手艺术家准备的入门教程
It’s meant to be a new artist’s first course.
让你们有个好的开始
Get you started doing the right things
走上正确的道路
and hit the ground running.
如果你不想错过这个新课程
If you don’t want to miss it when it comes out,
请登录proko.com/subscribe订阅 获取咨讯
get on the newsletter at proko.com/subscribe.
那么 这里是五个你们可能会在画阴影时犯的错误
So here are 5 shading mistakes you’re probably making,
以及解决它们的方法
and how to fix them.
第五 本末倒置
#5 – Icing Before Cake
我经常遇到刚刚起步的艺术家
I meet artists all the time who are just starting out,
他们在练习技巧
and they’re practicing techniques and
人体构造和阴影细节 这些很见功底的东西
anatomy and shading details and all this really cool stuff…
但是这并没有让他们的素描更好
But it’s not making their drawings better.
为什么呢?
Why is that?
当他们专注于所有花哨的技法时
While they’re focused on all the fancy fun stuff,
他们画出的作品比例非常不匀称
they’re making huge proportion mistakes,
他们的作品出现了透视错误 姿态也很僵硬
their perspective is off, and their gesture is stiff.
那甚至不是本末倒置
That’s not even icing before cake,
而是无本之木
that’s icing without cake.
你首先要有构图和技巧的基础
You’ve got to build your pictures and your skills with the fundamentals first.
每个概念都建立在前一个的基础之上
Each concept builds on the last.
表面的东西 像人体构造图
Surface stuff like anatomy,
绘画技巧和渲染细节都在最上层
techniques and rendering details are all at the tippy top,
很棒 但对初学者来说并非必要
awesome but initially unnecessary
更重要的还是基本功
and less important than the stuff at the bottom.
如果你不知道最简单的形体轮廓
You can’t shade correctly
就不能正确地画出阴影
if you don’t know the simple form;
如果你不理解透视
you can’t draw the simple form
就画不出简单的形体轮廓
if you don’t understand perspective;
如果你画不出一条直线
The forms don’t matter
保持比例协调 或绘制动态姿势
if you can’t draw a straight line, keep your proportions in check
那么外表轮廓就毫无意义
or establish a dynamic pose.
这是我刚学了几年绘画时的画一张画
This is a drawing I did a few years into my studies.
如果你觉得它真棒 你已经落入我的圈套
If you think it’s really good, you’ve fallen for my tricks.
这个时期 我已经很擅长画阴影了
At this point in my development I got good at shading.
但是它充满了结构上的错误
But it’s filled with structural errors.
我那时候并没有真正理解形态构造
I didn’t really understand form.
我只是学了一些有用的技巧
I just learned some effective tricks
让画看起来有立体感
to make the drawing appear 3D.
强化核心阴影 画上一些反光
An exaggerated core shadow, some reflected light,
再加上明亮的高光来锦上添花
and a bright highlight as a cherry on top.
哇 好简单!
Wow, it’s so easy!
而对于不协调的结构而言
But it’s all just a cheap distraction
这一切只是低级的掩盖手法
from the uninformed construction.
技巧也许让图画看起来好看
The icing might be the part that makes it look pretty
或者让它脱颖而出
or makes it stand out,
但是只有花哨的技巧 画作就很糟了……
but icing by itself is gross…
只是在堆砌华而不实的技巧而已
It’s empty calories.
每次你想先涂睫毛膏再画眼影的时候
Remember this every time you want to draw eyelashes
务必回忆一下这点
before the eye socket.
第四 糟糕的参照物
#4 – Bad reference,
哇 大家等等
Whoa, hold up guys,
我刚被标记了 必须得拍张自拍
I just got tagged and I’ve got to take a selfie…
看看……首先 相机角度要高 显瘦
let’s see… First, camera up high, very slimming.
这里有点暗 开闪光……
Kinda dark in here, turn flash on…
咔嚓……好了
Click… Alright,
现在我要选个好看的滤镜……嗯……
now I’ve got to choose a nice filter… Hmm…
再调整一下……
Tweak that a little bit…
完美
Perfect.
我们已经把这张照片修得不成样子了
We’ve distorted and edited the shit out of that photo.
它也许使人更好看 或者甚至是张好照片
It might be flattering or maybe even a good photo,
但是摄影和素描是两个不同的领域
but photography and drawing are two different fields.
一张好照片 不一定能给素描提供好的参考
Something that makes a good photo won’t necessarily make good reference for drawing.
你不可能看着这张照片
You won’t be able to draw something like this,
画出这样的一张画
from a photo like this.
使用不合适的照片做参考这种错误很常见
Drawing from bad photos is super common,
但是也很容易避免
but super easy to fix
我几年前写过一篇如何选择参照物的博客
I wrote a blog post about it ages ago,
你可以去那了解
so you can go there for a more detailed lesson
关于什么是好的参考照片的更多细节
on what makes good photo reference.
但 总结起来……
But to paraphrase…
不要用过度曝光或者曝光不足的照片
Don’t use overexposed or underexposed photos.
不要用平面光或者是闪光灯拍的照片
Don’t use flat-lit or flash-lit photos
不要用模糊的照片
Don’t use blurry photos
不要用镜头严重变形的照片
Don’t use photos with extreme lens distortion
不要用分辨率低的照片
Don’t use tiny photos.
确保分辨率能让你
Make sure the resolution is high enough so you can
至少能够看清鼻孔和眼睑的形状
at least see the forms of the nostrils and eyelids
还有不要用杂志上被p过的照片
And don’t use photoshopped photos from magazines
在找参考照片时
When looking for reference,
要找像这样的 光源好 阴影清晰的照片
look for photos with good lighting and clear shadows, like this.
这样你才能画出一张有立体感的画
This will translate into a dimensional drawing.
照着这种闪光灯拍的 没有阴影的图片作画
Drawing from a flash photo like this with no shadows
会增加解析画面结构的难度
makes it much harder to define the forms in your drawing.
倒不是完全不可能 我试过
It’s possible, I’ve done it,
但需要高超的眼力和对半色调的精准把控
but it takes a trained eye and ability to use subtle halftones
才能构造出阴影
to define the forms.
初学者经常画出没有光影的 模糊的大块阴影
Beginners usually end up with flat, muddy looking patches of tone.
如果你刚开始学画画
If you’re just getting started,
我建议你只画光源充足
I recommend sticking to photos with lighting
能清晰展示明暗对比的照片
that clearly defines the forms.
你能找到专为画手打造的
You can find photo packs made specifically for artists
光照良好 后期最少的图片集
that have good lighting and minimal touch-ups.
我这收集了一些
I’ve got some here.
当你画得时间久了之后
In the long run,
最好是自己学会拍参考照片
the best thing to do is learn how to take your own reference photos.
而如果你能画实物的话
And if you can draw from life instead, well,
那就比任何照片都要好了
that’s better than any photo.
第三 轮廓
#3 – Outlines
希望是一直存在的 但有时你也会灰心失望
There’s always a silver lining, but there’s also not,
因为现实世界 并没有轮廓线
because the real world doesn’t have outlines.
但作为初学者 我们都会在所有东西周边
Yet as beginners, we all start by drawing thick,
画出一圈又粗又黑的轮廓线
dark outlines around everything.
画素描或者卡通画时用线条本身没错
Now there’s nothing wrong with linear drawing or cartoons
如果你的本意如此的话
if that’s your intention.
但如果你是尝试写实画
But if you’re trying to draw realistically,
就需要对轮廓线多加思索
you need to be thoughtful about your outlines.
使用轮廓线是没问题的
It’s ok to use them.
但过度使用或者依赖轮廓线就是错误的了
It’s a mistake to overuse them, or use them as a crutch.
不要考虑平面形状 而从考虑立体面开始吧
Stop thinking of 2D shapes and start thinking of 3D planes.
了解鼻子的构造
Knowing the structure of the nose
也就是基于人体构造来画鼻子的各个面
that means the plans of the nose, which are based off of anatomy,
能帮助你将不同色调的平面组合在一起
will help you place patches of tone
让鼻子看起来更形象
that make it look like a convincing nose.
这时就不需要轮廓线了
No need for outlines.
你可以画一整张没有轮廓线的画
You can draw a whole picture without any outlines,
因为这就是我们实际上看到的东西
since that’s how we actually see things.
像约翰·辛格·萨金特这样的大师
Masters like John Singer Sargent,
知道如何兼用二者
know how to use both
在这幅画里中的面部
In the face of this drawing,
他没有用轮廓线 只用了色调
he’s not using outlines, just tone.
面部是画的重点 所以他用了更写实的画法
It’s the center of interest, so he makes itmore realistic.
在其他次要的部分 他用上了轮廓线
In all these secondary elements, he uses outlines.
这些轮廓线是他故意添加的
The outlines are deliberate.
面部的色调和其它部分的轮廓线形成很好的对比
The tonal face and the outlined parts have a nice contrast.
轮廓线看起来也不单调了
And the outlines don’t look boring.
它们主次分明
They have a variety to their weight.
下巴和脖子是轮廓线勾勒的
The jaw and neck are outlined.
但耳朵就不是
But the ear isn’t.
耳朵边缘融入背景了
The edge is lost into the background.
他在画中分散使用轮廓线
He used the outline sparingly,
只把它们用在他想突出的结构上
and only in areas where he wanted the forms to pop.
人物左侧阴影更重
The left side of the figure is separated
以达到从背景中突出人物的效果
from the background with a value difference.
下巴 脖子 衣服 领结和外套 色调都很相似
The jaw, neck, shirt, bowtie, and jacket are all very similar in value.
需要画出十分微妙的阴影 才能用色调来区分它们
To separate them with tone, would requirevery subtle shading.
在这样的速写里
In a quick drawing like this,
太多不重要的细节可能是画蛇添足
too much detail in secondary elements could look overworked.
好的轮廓线应该是清晰 简洁的
A well placed outline is clean and simple.
这样才是成功的作品
It does the job.
第二 不敢把阴影画太黑
#2 – Afraid of the Dark
下一个错误就是阴影处不够黑
The next mistake is not going dark enoughwith your shadows.
我总是能看到这种情况 特别是在肖像画上
I see this all the time, especially on portraits.
人们不敢在白皮肤上画很黑的阴影
People are afraid to put dark shadows on fair skin,
因为他们知道皮肤本身是白色的
because they know that the local color of the skin is pale,
所以他们认为亮肤色应该用浅调子
so they think light skin, light values.
但是阴影就只是阴影
But the shadow is just a shadow.
它是光照不足造成的
It’s the lack of light.
它就应该是黑的
It’s supposed to be dark.
或者有些人不敢画太深
Or some people are afraid to go too dark
因为画太深可能擦不掉
because they might not be able to erase it
所以他们的画中 阴影和中色调一样亮
so the shadows end up being just as light as their halftones.
阴影不够深 就会丢掉光源打造的明暗氛围
By removing the shadows, you remove the mood that the lighting created.
也就失去了结构的立体感
And you’re losing the 3-dimensionality ofthe forms.
如果你不喜欢照片里的光源
If you don’t like the lighting in the photo,
那为什么要画这张照片呢?
why did you use the photo?
重拍一张吧!
Retake it!
不要太难为自己
Don’t make it that hard on yourself.
凭空在脸上创造光源分布真的很难
Inventing a new light setup on a face is really hard.
如果你有经验的话 那无所谓
If you’re advanced you can do whatever.
就算对着海狸 你也能画出漂亮的姑娘
You can draw a pretty girl while looking at a beaver!
但是如果你是初学者 还是别了
But if you’re a beginner, don’t.
所以 要避免画得很模糊或者画成卡通风格
So to avoid muddy or cartoony drawings,
学着如何正确地分辨光影饱和度吧
learn how to see values correctly.
在画画的时候
When you’re drawing,
要确保区分开光亮部分和阴暗部分
make sure you separate the light family from the shadow family.
记住这个规则:
Remember the rule:
最亮的阴影要比最暗的光亮颜色更深
the lightest dark is darker than the darkest light.
如果不是很懂这句话什么意思
If you’re not sure what that means,
下一个错误就是为你准备的了
this next mistake is for you.
第一 光暗混淆
And #1 – Sloppy Values
我最常见到的阴影错误
The most common shading mistake I see
就是明暗区分不明确
is not organizing your values correctly.
像我上一条里提到的阴影不够黑
Not making your shadows dark enough like I mentioned
是一种情况
in the last mistake is one way,
但是把半色调画太黑也不是什么好事
but making your halftones too dark is just as bad.
所以 整体画作明暗不分才是大毛病
So,general sloppiness with your value control is the bigger issue.
首先需要理解的就是
The first thing that is important to understand
物体表面任意一点的明暗度
is that the value on any particular point on the surface is mostly determined
很大程度上取决于物体表面和光源间的角度
by the angle of the surface in relation to the light source.
除非你要画的是高反光的表面
Unless you’re dealing with highly reflective surfaces,
这样的话它们更像是一面反映环境的镜子
then they act more like a mirror to the environment.
不过现在我们讨论的是类似皮肤的表面
For now, let’s stick to surfaces like skin,
它不怎么反射光线
which are slightly reflective.
不久以前 我做了一节“如何画素描阴影”的课
I did a lesson on”How to Shade a Drawing” a while ago.
我强烈建议你接下来看看那节课的视频
I highly recommend you watch that next.
但总的来说 物体表面正对光源的那部分
But generally, the part of the surface that points directly
被称作高光
toward the light is called the center light.
它是最亮的部分 比任何其它反光部分还要亮
It will be the brightest spot, excluding any reflected highlights.
随着表面逐渐远离光源
As the surface turns away from the light source,
这些面会渐渐变深
those planes will get progressively darker.
这些就是半色调
These are known as halftones.
它们离光源越远 色调就越深
The more they face away the darker they are.
过了明暗交界线以后
After we pass what’s called the”terminator”,
这些面接受不到任何光源直射的光
the planes don’t receive any direct light from the light source,
因为它们背对着光源
since they are facing away from the light.
在这里面所有部分都是阴影区
Everything in there is shadow.
只要你不在太空 阴影就不会是纯黑色的
Unless you’re in space, shadows won’t be pure black.
光会从环境里的其他东西上反射回来
Light will bounce off other things in the environment.
所以 在阴影区还是存在反射的光 或反光
So within the shadows you’ll have bounce light, or reflected light.
但是这里的色调还是比受到光照的半色调要深
But those are still darker than the halftones in the lit side.
这就是整体的概念了
That’s the general concept.
还有明暗交界线 投影 核心阴影和高光
There’s also occlusion shadows, cast shadows, core shadows and highlights,
你可以浏览其他课程得到更详细的解释
but you can go over the other lesson for the full explanation.
好 现在你理解了结构 以及如何用光表达结构
Ok so now that you understand form and how light reveals form,
最重要的是在画画时 始终要用上这些技巧
it’s important to stay consistent throughout your drawing.
光线能凸显出结构的立体性
Light revealed the 3 dimensional forms
因为物体表面的色调能告诉观众这个面的角度
because the value of a plane tells the viewer the angle of that plane.
如果你把半色调画得和阴影一样黑
If you make your halftones as dark as your shadows,
那你就没有传达出正确的角度
then you’re not communicating the correct plane angles
这会破坏结构的立体感
and that breaks the illusion of form.
这就带我们回到了这个规则
That brings us back to that rule:
最亮的阴影要比最暗的光亮颜色更深
the lightest dark is darker than the darkest light.
让我稍微换一下说法
Let me rephrase that a little.
最浅的阴影要比最深的半色调更黑
The lightest shadow is darker than the darkest halftone.
是不是好懂一点了?
Make a little more sense?
你会想 下巴底下的反光
You’d think that this reflected light under the jaw
比两颊侧的半色调要浅 对吧?
is lighter than this halftone on the side of his cheek, right?
实际上……不对!
Well… wrong!
我来证明一下
I’ll prove it.
把这个取一下色
Sample this color.
铺开 这样你能看到它是同一个颜色
Extend it out so you can see it’s the same color.
然后在另一侧重复
Then do the same with this side.
哇塞
Whoooooa.
所以 如果它在阴影区
So,if it’s in the shadow family,
它就该比在光区的任何东西都要黑
it should be darker than anything in the light family.
你要组织好明暗关系 然后正确运用在画里
Organize your values and use them correctly in your drawing.
我的意思不是
And I don’t mean
你必须完全像这样安排你的色调
that you have to organize your values exactly like this.
你可以扩展光区 压缩阴影部分
You can stretch your light family and shrink the shadows.
或者你可以增加两者之间的对比
Or you can add more contrast between the two.
你甚至不需要用上所有色度
You don’t even have to use the full value scale.
你可以限制你的色度 让5号光成为最暗的色调
You can limit your values so that your darkest dark is a value 5.
但色调之间的明暗关系依旧是有序的
But the relationship of the values are still organized.
关键是要在画里始终保持这种有序的关系
And the key is to stay consistent with that throughout your drawing.
如果你要打破这种明暗关系 必须有合适的理由
If you break that, it should be intentional.
还有不完整的阴影
There’s also incomplete shadows.
潦草的阴影中会有一些漏光的小区域
Scratchy shading that has all these little holes of light in the shadow.
这些漏光区域和高光一样亮
The holes are as light as a highlight,
它们会破坏阴影
and they break up the shadow
破坏光在结构上的效果
and ruin the effect of light on form.
让阴影看起来不是一片黑暗 而是一块一块的光斑
So the shadows don’t actually look dark, they just look spotty.
阴影看起来像半色调 半色调看起来像阴影……
Shadows look like halftones and halftones look like shadows…
结果就是皮肤看起来很脏
The result is dirty looking skin.
你可以通过手动填充这些小洞来弥补
You can fix this by filling in the holes manually, blending,
或者防患于未然
or preventing it from happening in the first place
画阴影时排线紧凑一点
by shading with tight, close-together lines.
当阴影像这样协调干净时
When the shadows are consistent and clean like this,
画作就会有一个更真实 更立体的感觉
it has a much more realistic and 3D feeling.
你的目标是清楚地传达出哪里是光 哪里是暗
The goal is to clearly communicate what is light and what is shadow.
这样就能打造出清晰的立体结构
That makes clear 3D form.
这是另一个大师打破规则的例子
Here’s another example of a master breaking the rules.
哈里·卡米尔不总是用完整的色调打造阴影
Harry Carmean doesn’t always fill in his shadows with clean tone.
但他依然能很清晰地表达
But he’s still clearly communicating
何处是阴影 何处是光
what is shadow and what is light.
他只在阴影处用深色铅笔
He uses the dark pencil only in the shadows.
只在光照处用白色铅笔
He uses the white pencil only in the lights.
这就把两者清晰区分开来
This clearly distinguishes the two.
他精妙地把控住了阴影的杂乱感
His mess is extremely well controlled.
使作品充满活力 观赏起来也很有趣
It’s full of energy and fun to look at.
光影设计巧妙 结构准确且具有动感
It’s skillfully designed, the anatomy is accurate and dynamic.
作品有很强的整体感
It all holds together.
再说一遍 如果你想参加绘画基础课
Again, if you want to participate in the Drawing Basics course,
一定要订阅哦
make sure you’re subscribed.
如果你有几秒钟时间的话 请帮我一下
And if you have a few seconds, do me a favor.
如果你的朋友或者同学
If you have any friends or classmates
犯了相同的错误 救救他们!
that make some of these mistakes, save them!
请把这个视频告诉他们吧
Tell them about this video.

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译制信息
视频概述

素描时你知道怎么正确画阴影吗?常见的阴影错误又有哪些呢?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Hlq

审核员

审核员BY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LrHfrncvODQ

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