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绘画上5个最常见的错误 – 译学馆
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绘画上5个最常见的错误

Top 5 Drawing Mistakes

大家好 欢迎收看菠萝视频 我是斯坦·普罗科朋可
Hey guys, welcome to Proko. I’m Stan Prokopenko.
上个视频我讲了最常见的五种画阴影错误 得到了很好的反馈
My last video on the Top 5 Shading Mistakes was really well received,
所以我又录了一个
so I’m back with another,
讲最常见的五种绘图错误
Top 5 Drawing Mistakes.
画阴影是绘画的一部分
Shading is part of drawing,
这个视频我不讲这个 是因为……
but I’m excluding that from this video, because…
上一个视频已经讲过了
I already covered it.
看看那个视频 想一下你是否也犯过这些错误
So watch and see if you’re making any of thesemistakes.
统计表明 你可能会出现过这样的错误
Statistically, you probably are.
但是这都很正常
But it’s all good.
从错误中吸取经验能让你画得更好
Learning from your mistakes is what makesyou a better artist.
在开始前
Before we jump in,
我快速提下 我正在开设一个绘画基础课程
I want to quickly mention that I’m working on a drawing basics course.
这门课适合绘画初学者
It’s meant to be a new artist’s first course.
可以领你们入门并开始画画之路
Get you started doing the right things and hit the ground running.
如果想要第一时间了解这门课程
If you don’t want to miss it when it comes out,
请前往proko.com/subscribe
get on the newsletter at proko.com/subscribe. So,
接下来是会讲到5种你可能会犯的常见绘画错误
here are 5 drawing mistakes you’re probably making,
以及如何去纠正这些错误
and how to fix them.
第五点 没有连贯性
#5 – No continuity
我这里说的没有连贯性
When I say there’s no continuity,
我是在说比如像画桌子的边缘这种
I’m talking about stuff like the edge of a table that
每次都会因为隐藏在物体后面
changes levels every time it disappears
水平位置就改变了
behind an object,
身体的四肢没有对齐
the limbs don’t line up,
从手的位置延伸出来剑柄
the hilt of a sword that changes angles or thickness
角度或者厚度会被修改
as it comes out of a hand…
诸如此类
stuff like that.
你的艺术超能力可以纠正这种错误 那就是透视角度
This mistake can be fixed by using your artistic superpower, X-RAY VISION!
我说的是要穿过形状画一条线
I’m talking about drawing through your forms.
根据细线条来勾勒物体
Use light lines to draw through objects
确保每一部分的大小和位置都合理
make sure everything is the right size and in the right place.
也许这些信息和线条
Maybe some of this information and some
在终稿里不会呈现出来
of these lines won’t make it to the final drawing,
但是作为一名创作者
but as the creator
你需要理解画面背后的东西
of this world you need to understand more than you show.
用透视的角度起稿可以帮助你定好物体的框架
Starting the drawing with x-ray vision allows you to define those things that are behind
并且不失去连贯性
other things and not lose continuity.
第四点 避开弱点
#4 – Avoiding Weaknesses
接下来的错误是你会因为不会画
The next mistake is avoiding drawing things just
而不去画一些物体
because you don’t know how to draw them.
几乎每个人都做过这种事 我也不例外
Everyone’s done this at least once, me included.
就像这样
It looks like this.
不会画手?
Can’t draw hands?
画的时候就把手放进口袋 或画上手套 或者不画
Put them in pockets, or gloves, or just cropthem out.
不会画脚?
Can’t draw feet?
这不就是发明鞋子的原因吗?
Isn’t that why they invented shoes?
那我会把脚下的草画高一点
I’ll just make this grass patch a little taller.
我知道一些风景画家只画风景的理由
I know some landscape artists that paint only landscapes
是他们不擅长画人物
because they’re not good at painting people.
有些专业的风景画家
These are professional landscape painters.
他们把作品放在画廊展示并售卖
They show and sell their work in galleries.
画中风景没有任何问题
There’s nothing wrong with landscapes.
都很美
They’re beautiful.
但如果我总是需要把人从风景画中去掉
But personally, I would feel very limited
或者只画他们的后背
if I always had to remove people from my landscape paintings.
我个人感觉有局限性
Or only paint them from the back.
想象一下詹姆斯·格尔尼的画中没有人或动物
Imagine James Gurney’s paintings without peopleor animals.
那这些画会显得很单一
They would be so much more lonely..
虽然依旧很美 不过难道你不会庆幸
Still beautiful, but aren’t you glad
还好詹姆斯懂得如何画出他想表达的东西么
that James learned how to paint anything he wanted?
难道你不想要能画出任何你想表达的东西吗
Don’t you want to be able to paint anythingyou want?
回避弱点会成为一种模式 一种习惯
Avoiding your weakness becomes a pattern. A habit.
你可以暂时避开这个弱点
You can get away with this for a while,
但事实是你阻碍了自己的成长
but really you’re just stumping your own growth.
为什么要限制你自己?
Why limit yourself?
画家了解画家 你的做法是很明显的
And artist to artist, it’s super obvious whatyou’re doing. Yeah,
我了解你
I see you. Instead,
相反你要直面它们
face them head on.
下决心把你的弱点变为优点
Be determined to make your weaknesses intoyour strengths.
对自己有足够的自信
And be confident enough in yourself to believe
相信自己可以把弱点转变为优点
that you can turn weaknesses into strengths.
一个伟人曾经说过
A great man once said:
不是你的问题 而是面对问题的反应定义了你
You’re not defined by your problems, but by your response to them.
第三点 凌乱的线条
#3 – Messy lines
这是我自己画的凌乱的线条
I make my own share of messy drawings.
凌乱的线是有趣的
Messy lines are fun.
画凌乱的线条可以让你更大胆
Making messy lines frees you up from not making any lines
不会因为担心凌乱而不去画凌乱的线条
at all for fear of making them messy.
继续画吧
So go ahead.
享受吧
Have fun.
画一团凌乱的东西
Make a mess.
但不要将你画的凌乱线条成为“大师之作”
But don’t call it mastery.
大师画得狂放是有选择性的 而不是因为缺乏技能
Masters get wild by choice, not by lack ofskill.
还有不要称之为你的“风格”
And please don’t call it your style.
缺乏技能是一个令人尴尬的风格
A lack of skill is an embarrassing style.
让我们来看一个凌乱线条的例子
Let’s look at an example of a messy drawing.
太多的线条使这幅画看起来不清晰
Too many lines make this drawing unclear.
绘画是一种交流 不清晰的绘画只是在自言自语
Drawing is communication, and unclear drawingis just muttering.
如果你需要画六根线条来勾勒一个物体的轮廓
If you need 6 lines to indicate the contour of an object,
是因为你喜欢用六根线条勾勒形状
is it because you just love that six-line look,
还是说你无法确定哪条是正确的?
or because you don’t know which line is right?
或者是因为你很赶 亦或是紧张?
Or because you were rushing or nervous?
你在自豪这种模糊不清的做法吗?
Are you proud of the fuzziness?
我如何确定手臂的比例?
How would I check my proportions on this arm?
像这样?
Like this?
还是像这样?
Or like this?
这就像一张标识着“我不知道 大概就在这附近吧”的地图
It’s like a map that says”I dunno, it’s aroundhere somewhere.”
这真的是臀部的形状吗?
Is this actually the shape of the hips?
还是你只是没有花心思去确定它?
Or you just didn’t spend the time to defineit?
这是一条长满了毛的大腿吗
Is this leg really covered with fur?
还是说只是你没法画出一条长的流畅的线条?
Or you just can’t pull one long fluid line?
这很有可能是因为
It’s probably because you’re using your
你用手腕和手指来画长线条
wrist and fingers to draw long lines instead of
而不是利用你的手肘和肩膀
your elbow and shoulder.
训练自己去能够用肩膀画长的流畅的笔画
Train yourself to be able to draw long fluid strokes from your shoulder
以及用手腕画出一些细节部分
and short detailed strokes with your wrist.
慢下来 琢磨一下你的线条
And slow down to think about your lines.
用深思熟虑的成熟技巧取代你潦草的作画习惯
Replace your sloppy habit with deliberatemasterful dexterity.
这会耗费大量的时间
It’ll take time, a lot of time.
但是你拖得越久 坏习惯就会更加根深蒂固
But the longer you wait, the stronger thebad habit becomes.
这里有一些大师选择性画风粗犷的例子
Here are some examples of masters gettingwild by choice.
尼古拉·费欣
Nicolai Fechin
哈里·卡米尔
Harry Carmean
海因里·希克利
Heinrich Kley
约瑟夫·克莱门·特科尔
Joseph Clement Coll
杜米埃
Daumier
还有伦布兰特
and Rembrandt
他们画的线条看着很乱
Their lines look messy.
但却很合适
But it works.
为什么
Why?
在这幅画里
In this drawing,
史提夫·休斯顿用许多线条营造一种能量和情绪
Steve Huston uses many lines to create an energy or feeling of motion.
他不是在“揣摩”
He’s not”searching”.
他知道手臂的准确位置
He knows exactly where the arm is
以及手臂上的每块肌肉连接着哪块骨头
and where every muscle on the arm attaches to the bones.
这种凌乱 如果能称之为凌乱的话 是有意画的
The ‘messiness’, if you can even call itthat, is intentional.
有大量的例子证明了凌乱的美感
There are plenty of examples where messinessis good.
但是老实说
Be honest.
你笔下的凌乱是有意的吗?
Is your messiness intentional?
还是那只是个坏习惯?
Or is it a bad habit?
第二点 比例
#2 – Proportions
让自己画出成功的作品 要确保纸上的空间
Set yourself up for success by making sure you have enough room on the page
足够让你画你想画的所有东西
for the whole thing you wanna draw.
这听起来很傻 但人们常常做得不够好
It sounds silly, but people mess it up all the time
所以把你的比例画好
so get your scale right.
当你开始作画的时候
As you start the drawing,
从各个地方开始起稿
skip around from place to place
或从大概的轮廓把所有物体画出来
or start with a large envelope around the whole thing
然后分成一小部分一小部分
and then break it down into smaller and smaller pieces.
学生有时候会犯比例方面的错误
Students sometimes make proportion mistakes
因为他们常常限制了自己的视角
because they got stuck in tunnel vision,
从上往下画 然后当画到下面的时候
drawing from top down and then realizing everything got bigger and bigger
所有部位越画越大
as they went down the page.
或者他们没有留有足够的地方画脚了
Or that they didn’t leave enough room at the bottom for the legs,
所以为了能将整个人画在纸上 他们把脚画短了
so they make the legs shorter to fit the figure on the page.
拿远一点看看整幅画 然后先想一下
Take a step back, look at the whole picture, and think ahead.
你画作的比例要好
You’ve got to have good proportions,
否则你的画可信度不高
or your drawings just won’t be believable.
意思是要么将参照物画得准确
That means drawing accurately from a reference.
要么通过塑造风格和夸张手法达到一种平衡
Or stylizing and exaggerating in a balanced way,
就算画得不精准 看起来也很酷
that looks cool even though it’s not perfectly accurate.
无论是哪种表达方式 你都必须控制好你的比例
Either way, you have to be in control of your proportions.
要达到这种水平 你需要锻炼眼睛如何看的更准
To do that you got to train your eye to see accurately.
锻炼的方法就是反复检查你的作品
The way to train your eye is to check and double check your work.
用工具比如你的铅笔测量
Measuring with a tool, like your pencil,
训练自己直到能够做到靠眼睛做出测量
trains you to eventually be able to measure with just your eyes.
如果你画一幅画耗时超过十分钟
If you’re spending more than 10 minutes on a drawing,
那么你应该运用一些测量技巧去检查和纠正你画的比例
you should be using measuring techniques to check and correct your proportions.
就是那么简单
It’s that simple.
一开始检查比例时可能会感到浪费时间和无聊
Checking proportions can be kind of time-consuming or boring at first,
但通过练习
but with practice
你会很快就画出来
you’ll get really fast at it.
对我来说 这现在已经是一件下意识的事情了
For me, it’s basically a subconscious thing now,
一点都不花时间
and it takes no time at all.
我画的比例不是完美的
My proportions are not perfect.
我也常常犯错误
I make mistakes all the time.
但通过测量过程让我的画达到一个精准程度
But the process of measuring and getting my drawing to an accurate point,
已经不再困难
isn’t difficult anymore.
如果你需要进修关于画好人物比例或者正确测量方式
If you need a refresher on human proportions or measuring correctly,
我的人物绘画基础课程里有这样的课
I’ve got lessons in my figure fundamentals course.
所以来上课吧
so get on it.
这很重要!
It’s important!
最后 关于最常见的绘画错误最重要的一点 我觉得是
Finally, the #1 most common drawing mistakeI see is…
第一点 符号
#1 – Symbols
我们都是这样开始画画的
We all start drawing this way.
让一个小孩儿去画一张脸
Ask a child to draw a face,
她会在脸上画一个表情符
she’ll draw an emoji of a face.
当她画一栋房子时
As her to draw a house,
她会画一个常见的房屋符号
she’ll draw the universal symbol for house.
即使是成年人 我们的大脑里也充满着符号
Even as adults, our minds are full of symbols.
浴室
Bathroom.
走路
Walk.
蝙蝠侠
Batman.
心脏
Heart.
我相信你知道其实心脏并不是那种形状的…
I’m sure you know a heart doesn’t actuallylook like that…
而眼睛其实也不是这样的
And an eye doesn’t actually look like this.
不过比起心脏的图形来说 眼睛这个图形更接近眼睛
It’s closer to an eye than this is to a heart,
但是它依然只是个简化的符号
but still, it’s a simplified symbol.
我们能迅速认出符号 是因为我们曾看过它们
We recognize symbols quickly because we’ve seen them before.
但是当我们想去画一些新的东西
But when we want to draw something new –
一些我们从来没见过的东西 要将这些东西画得看起来像真的一样
something we haven’t seen before and that looks like the real thing,
我们需要的不仅仅是符号
we need more than symbols.
对此我有两个解决方案
I see two solutions to this.
一个是较简单 更适合初学者的解决方案
An easier more beginner solution.
以及一个进阶的 需要花费更多时间去学习的
And the more advanced solution that takes longer to learn.
初学者版是去学习着像画家一样思考
The beginner solution is to learn to see like an artist.
学会观察你的参照物真实的样子
Be able to observe your reference as it actually is.
从一个特定的视角去观察它实际的形状
To see the true shapes as they appear from a specific perspective.
眼皮不是杏仁状的 它更立体
The eyelid is not an almond shape – it’s more three-dimensional.
不同的角度能看到不同的曲线
The curve appears differently from different angles.
这需要认真地观察一只眼睛 就像第一次看到一样
It takes serious observation to look at an eye as if for the first time.
一些画家为了去除符号的影响
Some artists get past symbols
画画的时候眼睛斜着观察物体真实的形状
by drawing with their eyes squinted to notice the actual shapes.
或者通过倒着画
Or by drawing upside-down…
把参照对象倒着放
…the reference upside down.
这会使你发现崭新的参考对象
This allows you to see the reference fresh,
一种从未见过的样式
in a way you haven’t seen it before,
迫使你去观察真实的形状
forcing you to observe the actual shapes.
个人来讲 我不喜欢倒着画
Personally, I don’t like to draw upside-down.
我通过更加紧密观察对面的事物来避免符号带来的影响
I avoid drawing symbols by paying close attention to the subject in front of me.
如果你想要描绘或者创造的话 仅靠密切观察是不够的
But it takes more than just looking closely if you want to edit or invent.
进阶的解决方案是去学解剖学 以及学习你所画的事物的结构
The advanced solution is to learn the anatomy and the forms of the things you draw.
一只眼睛有它的解剖面和结构
An eye has anatomy and form.
眼睑包围着眼球
The lid wraps around the eyeball,
在眼睛上方开合 以及角膜是有凸起部分的
opens and closes on it, and this cornea creates an extra bulge.
眼睑上下方水平面可以看出眼睑是有厚度的
The lids have thickness, revealed by their top and bottom planes.
这就是解剖学
That’s anatomy.
这就是结构!
That’s form!
去观察 相信你的眼睛
To observe, trust your eyes.
画你所看见的东西 而不是画你认为看到的东西
“Draw what you see, not what you think you see.”
想理解你看见的东西 学习解剖学
To understand what you see, learn anatomy,
然后你会发现能看到的东西远比肉眼看到的更多
and you’ll see more than what meets the eye.
去创造 学习他们不同角度的结构
To invent, learn the forms from their varying angles.
那样你就可以发挥你的想象画出你眼前的事物
That way you can draw what you see in your imagination.
但是卡通是怎样的呢?
But what about cartoons?
卡通片里只是画的简化的符号是错误的吗?
Is it wrong to simplify and draw symbols in a cartoon?
不!
No!
卡通不是真实的
Cartoons are not real.
他们就是简单的生动的符号
They are simplified animated symbols.
除非你想的卡通是这样的
Unless you’re thinking of a cartoon like this.
这些不是符号 它们更接近真实
These are not symbols, they’re a lot closer to reality.
目的是很重要的
Intent is important.
如果你想要表现真实 那就避免符号
If you’re going for realism, avoid symbols.
如果你打算画一个真实人物画像
If you’re trying to draw a realistic portrait
而你却在脸部表情上唐突地加上了各种象形图案
and you’re popping Egyptian hieroglyphs for facial features,
那么我会去找你
I will find you,
教你怎么画画
and I will teach you how to draw.
我讲完了
And that’s it!
对这些错误是否感到有些似曾相识
Did any of them feel a little too familiar?
写在评论里让我知道吧
Let me know in the comments.
你都有过哪些错误做法呢?
Which of these mistakes do you make?
重复一下 如果你想参加绘画基础课程
Again, if you want to participate in the Drawing Basics course,
确认你已经订阅了新闻邮件
make sure you’re subscribed.
如果你有时间的话 帮我个忙
If you have a second, do me favor.
如果你的朋友或者同学
If you have any friends or classmates
也犯了这些错误 帮助一下他们
that make some of these mistakes, save them!
向他们介绍这个视频
Tell them about this video.

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视频概述

五种最常见的绘画错误以及应对技巧

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

青崖

审核员

审核员YZ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tCZIqbRDphs

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