To survive here,
#5：死而复生的昆虫 在这里 为了生存
you have to be prepared to die here.
But the sun can return, as quickly as the storm arrived.
And a rise of just a few degrees
is enough to spark a thor even underground.
A mountain stone weta.
It has the most extraordinary survival technique of all.
The ability to come back from the dead.
Only in a specialized filming chamber,
can we capture its extraordinary talents.
The weta has developed special proteins
which prevent ice crystals from forming inside itself.
A remarkable trick for a creature
whose ancestors once lived in prehistoric warm wet forests.
But when New Zealand’s mountains grew up beneath them around 5 million years ago
they were forced to come up with this incredible ability
to survive near lethal temperatures.
Defrosting uses up a lot of energy.
So mountain snowberries are a welcome sight.
The weta needs to stock up while it can.
The next Antarctic storm could be the return of winter.
It can tolerate over 80% of its body freezing solid
and can do so day in and day out for weeks at a time.
Nowhere else in New Zeland does life go to such extremes to survive.
No, you can’t. You can’t definitely smell it. Joe.
#4：长劲鹿的蓝色舌头 不 乔 你不一定能闻到
I generally feel like I’m gonna vomit.
Deaths. That’s disgusting. No no no no.
见鬼 太恶心了 不 不要
Right. Enough of that.
South Africa can be one of the harshest environments on the planet,
with temperature soaring during the day and sometimes plummeting at night.
But the animals that live here, have evolved to withstand these elements.
And over millions of years,
come up with some weird and wondeful ways
in which to survive in the Savannahs.
The Savannah is the largest biome in South Africa.
Covering over one third of the entire country,
it is a mixture of shrubs and trees.
But it is dominated by grassland.
And it’s these long grasses
that are the hunting grounds for one of South Africa’s most peculiar creatures.
The secretary bird.
Endemic to sub-Saharan Africa
and unmistakable in appearance.
These large birds are in fact related to raptors.
But unlike other species in the family,
Secretory birds spend most of their time on the ground,
walking around in search of prey.
Nesting pairs will mate for life,
and will be seen stalking together when raising chicks.
When hunting, they use their exceptionally long legs to strike their prey,
delivering a fatal blow with a single kick.
Their kicks are indeed that powerful
they are the equivalent of five times its own body weight.
And the strike is delivered in 15 milliseconds.
That’s one tenth of a blink of an eye,
making the secretary bird
one of the most remarkable creasures that lives on the Savannahs.
But here in South Africa,
even familiar animals have unusual features.
Now the leopard tortoise is the only member of the tortoise family
that doesn’t have a scute on the top of its neck.
Scutes are the keratin plates which make up the tortoise’s shell.
Tortoise species around the world are terrestrial
and will only head to water to drink.
But due to the lack of this upper scute,
the leopard tortoise has the ability to raise its head.
And will often be seen taking a dip during the heat of the day.
South Africa is known for its megafauna.
But as night begins to fall,
a host of other species come to life,
including those that live on the forest floor.
The African giant millipedes.
The largest millipede species in the world.
They can grow up to around 12 inches long
and live between five to seven years in the wild.
And they have around three to four hundred legs
with four per body segments.
And they don’t breathe through lungs like you and I.
Instead they have these tiny pore like structures
located along the length of their body known as sphericals which they breathe through.
And they are nocturnal species.
We’ve seen quite a few just exploring the environment and foraging.
So we cannot let this one go now.
Millipedes are amongst the most diverse group of arthropods in the world,
being one of the earliest animals to walk on land.
As a result of having poor eyesight,
they communicate through touch.
They navigate their environment by feeling with their legs and antennae,
and are able to taste the surroundings with their bodies.
As decomposers, they feed on debris collected on the ground,
recycling dead waste which becomes new soil,
making them vital for the Savannah ecosystem.
The open grasslands of Africa are one of the most diverse ecosystems on earth.
They support millions of species which are all intrinsically connected.
But they are also amongst some of the fastest changing
and unpredictable African environments.
Parts of large-scale African Savannah have disappeared
by 75% in the last 50 years,
areas which are vital for the species which live there.
One animal has suffered greatly across the continent
due to extreme habitat loss.
But in South Africa, their population is increasing.
One of the most distinctive species across the continent,
and also the tallest mammal to walk our planet.
The easiest way to tell the difference between a male and a female is
the horns on top of their head called the Ossicones.
Now a female will have tufts of hair on top
whereas the male will be completely bald and that’s all due to fighting.
Known for their remarkable biology,
they have evolved some peculiar adaptations,
which allow them to graze without competition.
Their huge long tongues are pigmented, kind of dark bluey color,
which protects them from the sun.
And this enables them to eat high in the treetops all day long.
Not only are they able to withstand the scorching sun while they eat,
but their skin is truly extraordinary.
It was long wondered
why giraffes had their spectacular patterns,
but would seem their striking patches may help them stay cool.
It was found underneath each darkened patch,
they had sweat glands.
But the size of these glands were significantly larger,
suggesting that indeed their skin
plays a vital part in them regulating their body temperature.
And therefore surviving.
Giraffes are capable of traveling more than ten miles a day
as they browse acacia trees.
But when the giraffes begins to feed,
the acacia tree releases powerful chemicals to deter its predator.
And as it does,
it sends signals down through its root network,
warning the surrounding trees.
But as the giraffe eats its spread seeds,
and can even pollinate the acacia’s flowers.
In this evolutionary arms race,
every single living thing is connected,
as they evolved as one over millions of years.
And without the giraffe,
the open plains would look very different.
To help her in her quest,
she’s equipped with three superpowers.
First, an amazing approach to getting about.
Portia is a jumping spider,
able to leap up to 50 times her own body length.
Nowhere seems beyond her reach.
Next, her second superpower — superb eyesight.
Essential, if she’s to distinguish her prey in all this clutter.
Because her prey doesn’t stray.
Portia is a spider-eating spider.
This raises a few problems.
Her lunch is three times her size,
packed with vernom,
and surrounded by a sticky trap.
Not at all,
because of her third superpower.
Portia is a genius.
She can map her world in three dimensions
and formulate a plan of attack.
She can have an idea.
The web builder is blind.
It won’t have a clue that she’s coming.
Right on target.
And safely behind those fangs.
But a mind as active as Portia’s,
can always do with more brain food.
Here there’s no anchor point for the abseil.
But Portia has another idea.
Instead of going to the spider,
she will bring the spider to her.
She plucks the strands to imitate struggling prey,
drawing the spider in
to its death.
A mudskipper, a fish that spends most of its life out of the sea.
It can walk on land and breathe air.
Its life is very different from that of most fish.
A fish out of water, maybe.
But they thrive here in Japan.
So what’s made this upheaval worthwhile?
The answer lies in the mud.
As the tide retreats,
it exposes mud flats.
Sunlight hits the rich silt,
and tiny plants and animals flourish there.
All food for a mudskipper.
But life on land is not without problems.
It’s hard work to find a mate.
Jumping high above the mud will get you noticed.
With eyes perched on the top of their heads,
the mudskippers keep a lookout for both friend and foe.
And males fight those who intrude on their territory.
They must also take care not to dry out in the sun.
Rolling in the ooze
keeps the skin cool and moist.
For this smaller species,
a better option is to retreat underground.
So he digs himself a tunnel down into the mud.
His heap of spoil
is an indication of the extent of his excavations.
With the tide flooding the tunnel twice a day,
maintenance is a real burn.