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动物最迷人的五种适应方式|BBC 地球

Top 5 Animal Adaptations | BBC Earth

BBC地球 最迷人的五种动物适应
To survive here,
#5:死而复生的昆虫 在这里 为了生存
you have to be prepared to die here.
你必须要做好死亡的准备
But the sun can return, as quickly as the storm arrived.
但太阳的再现 也能和风暴的降临一样迅速
And a rise of just a few degrees
仅是几度的回暖
is enough to spark a thor even underground.
即便在地底 也足以带来生机
Frozen solid.
冻得僵硬
A mountain stone weta.
这是一只山岳树沙螽
It has the most extraordinary survival technique of all.
它有着最非凡的生存本领
The ability to come back from the dead.
即起死回生之术
Only in a specialized filming chamber,
只有在专业摄影室中
can we capture its extraordinary talents.
才能拍摄到它非凡的本领
The weta has developed special proteins
沙螽进化出了特殊的蛋白质
which prevent ice crystals from forming inside itself.
以防止冰晶在体内凝结
A remarkable trick for a creature
这种本领很引人瞩目
whose ancestors once lived in prehistoric warm wet forests.
毕竟它的祖先曾生活在暖湿的史前森林
But when New Zealand’s mountains grew up beneath them around 5 million years ago
但在大约五百万年前 新西兰群山拔地而起
they were forced to come up with this incredible ability
它们被迫产生了这种惊人的能力
to survive near lethal temperatures.
以便在接近致命的低温中存活
Defrosting uses up a lot of energy.
解冻会消耗很多能量
So mountain snowberries are a welcome sight.
因此山雪浆果是很受欢迎的
The weta needs to stock up while it can.
沙螽需要尽可能地囤积食物
The next Antarctic storm could be the return of winter.
下一场南极风暴可能是寒冬的回归
It can tolerate over 80% of its body freezing solid
就算身体百分之八十冻硬了 它也能忍受
and can do so day in and day out for weeks at a time.
而且能每天如此 一次维持数周
Nowhere else in New Zeland does life go to such extremes to survive.
在新西兰的其它地方 生存不会如此周折
No, you can’t. You can’t definitely smell it. Joe.
#4:长劲鹿的蓝色舌头 不 乔 你不一定能闻到
I generally feel like I’m gonna vomit.
我简直要吐了
Deaths. That’s disgusting. No no no no.
见鬼 太恶心了 不 不要
Right. Enough of that.
好了 受够了
South Africa can be one of the harshest environments on the planet,
南非大概是全球最恶劣的生存环境之一
with temperature soaring during the day and sometimes plummeting at night.
白天温度飙升 晚上有时又骤降
But the animals that live here, have evolved to withstand these elements.
但这里的动物已经进化到能承受恶劣气候
And over millions of years,
而且在数百万年间
come up with some weird and wondeful ways
它们具备了一些奇妙古怪的本领
in which to survive in the Savannahs.
以便在稀树大草原上生存下来
The Savannah is the largest biome in South Africa.
稀树大草原是南非最大的生物群落区
Covering over one third of the entire country,
占国家总面积的三分之一以上
it is a mixture of shrubs and trees.
它是灌木和树木的混合体
But it is dominated by grassland.
但主要是草原
And it’s these long grasses
正是这些高高的草
that are the hunting grounds for one of South Africa’s most peculiar creatures.
为南非一种最独特的生物提供了狩猎场地
The secretary bird.
蛇鹫
Endemic to sub-Saharan Africa
是撒哈拉以南非洲的特有动物
and unmistakable in appearance.
外貌很有辨识度
These large birds are in fact related to raptors.
这些大型鸟类实际上与猛禽有亲缘关系
But unlike other species in the family,
但与该科中其它物种不同
Secretory birds spend most of their time on the ground,
蛇鹫大部分时间在地面上
walking around in search of prey.
四处行走 寻找猎物
Nesting pairs will mate for life,
筑巢的一对将终生为伴
and will be seen stalking together when raising chicks.
并且在喂养幼鸟时 会一起追踪猎物
When hunting, they use their exceptionally long legs to strike their prey,
捕猎时 它们会用特别长的腿袭击猎物
delivering a fatal blow with a single kick.
单是一击 便可致命
Their kicks are indeed that powerful
它们的打击力确实强大
they are the equivalent of five times its own body weight.
相当于自身重量的五倍
And the strike is delivered in 15 milliseconds.
而且这样的一击只需要十五毫秒
That’s one tenth of a blink of an eye,
是眨眼时间的十分之一
making the secretary bird
这就使蛇鹫成了
one of the most remarkable creasures that lives on the Savannahs.
稀树草原上最非凡的生物之一
But here in South Africa,
但在南非
even familiar animals have unusual features.
即便是平常的动物也有不常见的特征
Now the leopard tortoise is the only member of the tortoise family
现在 豹纹陆龟是陆龟族中唯一的成员
that doesn’t have a scute on the top of its neck.
它的脖子上没有鳞甲
Scutes are the keratin plates which make up the tortoise’s shell.
鳞甲是构成乌龟外壳的角质鳞板
Tortoise species around the world are terrestrial
世界各地的乌龟品种都是陆生的
and will only head to water to drink.
且只会把头伸进水里喝水
But due to the lack of this upper scute,
但是因为脖子上面没有鳞甲
the leopard tortoise has the ability to raise its head.
豹龟能把头抬起来
And will often be seen taking a dip during the heat of the day.
而且经常被看到在白天最热时泡澡
South Africa is known for its megafauna.
南非以其拥有巨型动物闻名遐迩
But as night begins to fall,
但是随着夜幕的降临
a host of other species come to life,
许多其他物种开始出现
including those that live on the forest floor.
其中包括那些生活在森林地面的动物
The African giant millipedes.
非洲巨型千足虫
The largest millipede species in the world.
世界上最大的千足虫
They can grow up to around 12 inches long
它们可以长到大概12英寸长
and live between five to seven years in the wild.
在野外能存活5到7年
And they have around three to four hundred legs
而且它们有大约300到400条腿
with four per body segments.
每个体节有4条腿
And they don’t breathe through lungs like you and I.
还有 它们不像你我那样用肺呼吸
Instead they have these tiny pore like structures
取而代之的是 它们通过身体上的
located along the length of their body known as sphericals which they breathe through.
这些被称作是球状体的微小孔状结构呼吸
And they are nocturnal species.
并且它们是夜行动物
We’ve seen quite a few just exploring the environment and foraging.
我们很少见仅探索环境和觅食的动物
So we cannot let this one go now.
所以我们不能让这只现在就走
Millipedes are amongst the most diverse group of arthropods in the world,
千足虫是世界上种类最多的节肢动物
being one of the earliest animals to walk on land.
也是最早在陆地上活动的动物
As a result of having poor eyesight,
由于视力不好
they communicate through touch.
它们通过触摸交流
They navigate their environment by feeling with their legs and antennae,
它们用腿和触角藉着感知来辨别周围的环境
and are able to taste the surroundings with their bodies.
还能够用它们的身体来体验周围的环境
As decomposers, they feed on debris collected on the ground,
作为分解者 它们以在地面上收集的残骸为食
recycling dead waste which becomes new soil,
将死物变废为宝 形成新的土壤
making them vital for the Savannah ecosystem.
这使得它们对于大草原的生态至关重要
The open grasslands of Africa are one of the most diverse ecosystems on earth.
非洲开阔的草原是地球上最多样化的生态系统之一
They support millions of species which are all intrinsically connected.
它们养育着数以百万计的有内在联系的物种
But they are also amongst some of the fastest changing
但它们也是非洲环境
and unpredictable African environments.
变化最快且变化莫测的一部分
Parts of large-scale African Savannah have disappeared
在过去的50年里 部分大面积的
by 75% in the last 50 years,
非洲大草原已经消失了75%
areas which are vital for the species which live there.
这些地区对于生活在那里的物种来说是极为重要的
One animal has suffered greatly across the continent
由于栖息地的极度丧失 有种动物
due to extreme habitat loss.
在整个大陆都遭受重创
But in South Africa, their population is increasing.
但在南非 其数量却在增加
The giraffe.
长颈鹿
One of the most distinctive species across the continent,
这是整个大陆最独特的物种之一
and also the tallest mammal to walk our planet.
并且也是在世界上行走的最高的哺乳动物
The easiest way to tell the difference between a male and a female is
区分雌性和雄性长颈鹿最容易的办法是
the horns on top of their head called the Ossicones.
它们头顶上那个被称作Ossicones的角
Now a female will have tufts of hair on top
雌性头顶上会有几簇毛发
whereas the male will be completely bald and that’s all due to fighting.
而雄性则完全秃顶 这都是打斗造成的
Known for their remarkable biology,
它们以非凡的生理习性而闻名
they have evolved some peculiar adaptations,
进化出了一些特殊的适应能力
which allow them to graze without competition.
让它们在没有竞争的情况下吃草
Their huge long tongues are pigmented, kind of dark bluey color,
它们那大而长的舌头是有色的 有点像深蓝色
which protects them from the sun.
可以保护它们免受太阳的伤害
And this enables them to eat high in the treetops all day long.
而且这使它们能整天在高高的树梢上进食
Not only are they able to withstand the scorching sun while they eat,
它们不仅能在进食时抵御炎炎烈日
but their skin is truly extraordinary.
而且它们的皮肤也非常特别
It was long wondered
长久以来
why giraffes had their spectacular patterns,
人们一直好奇长颈鹿为何会有那么壮观的图案
but would seem their striking patches may help them stay cool.
不过看起来那醒目的斑纹可能有助于它们保持凉爽
It was found underneath each darkened patch,
人们发现 在每一块暗斑下
they had sweat glands.
它们都长有汗腺
But the size of these glands were significantly larger,
然而这些腺体的大小明显更大
suggesting that indeed their skin
这表明它们的皮肤
plays a vital part in them regulating their body temperature.
确实在调节体温方面起着至关重要的作用
And therefore surviving.
因此它们得以幸存
Giraffes are capable of traveling more than ten miles a day
长颈鹿在吃金合欢树时
as they browse acacia trees.
一天能走10多英里的路
But when the giraffes begins to feed,
但当长劲鹿开始进食时
the acacia tree releases powerful chemicals to deter its predator.
金合欢树会释放出强大的化学物质来阻止它的捕食者
And as it does,
当这样做时
it sends signals down through its root network,
它会向下通过其根网发送信号
warning the surrounding trees.
警告周围的树木
But as the giraffe eats its spread seeds,
不过 当长颈鹿吃下它散播的种子时
and can even pollinate the acacia’s flowers.
甚至可以给金合欢的花授粉
In this evolutionary arms race,
在这场进化上的军事竞备中
every single living thing is connected,
每一个生物都是相互联系的
as they evolved as one over millions of years.
因为数百万年间 它们已经整体进化
And without the giraffe,
如果没有长颈鹿
the open plains would look very different.
这开阔的草原看起来将会大大不同
#3:为什么火烈鸟是粉色的?
火烈鸟长途跋涉数千英里寻找食物
一种有毒的蓝绿色藻类 对大多数动物都是致命的
当非洲的湖泊条件适宜时
成千上万只鸟会聚集在一起觅食
这些碱性水会引起化学灼伤
但火烈鸟的腿有厚厚的皮肤保护
它们的饮食只有一个副作用
它们羽毛的粉红色是由藻类中的色素引起的
在火烈鸟天堂待够了后
它们可以继续前往筑巢地
#2:拥有三种超能力的蜘蛛
To help her in her quest,
为了帮助觅食
she’s equipped with three superpowers.
她具备了三种超能力
First, an amazing approach to getting about.
第一种 是神奇的活动方式
Portia is a jumping spider,
Portia是一只跳蛛
able to leap up to 50 times her own body length.
能够跳跃到自己身长50倍的高度
Nowhere seems beyond her reach.
似乎没有什么地方是她到不了的
Next, her second superpower — superb eyesight.
接下来 她的第二个超能力——极佳的视力
Essential, if she’s to distinguish her prey in all this clutter.
如果她想在一片混乱中辨别猎物的话 这就很重要
Because her prey doesn’t stray.
因为她的猎物不会迷路
Portia is a spider-eating spider.
Portia是一只以蜘蛛为食的蜘蛛
This raises a few problems.
这就带来了一些问题
Her lunch is three times her size,
她的午餐是她自身大小的三倍
packed with vernom,
且充满毒液
and surrounded by a sticky trap.
周围还有蜘蛛网包围
Mission impossible?
这是不可能完成的任务吗?
Not at all,
当然不是
because of her third superpower.
就因为她的第三个超能力
Portia is a genius.
Portia是个天才
She can map her world in three dimensions
她能在三维世界中绘制她的世界地图
and formulate a plan of attack.
并制定进攻计划
She can have an idea.
她能知道
The web builder is blind.
这网的建造者是看不见的
It won’t have a clue that she’s coming.
它对她的到来一无所知
Right on target.
正好击中目标
And safely behind those fangs.
并安全地躲在那些毒牙后面
But a mind as active as Portia’s,
不过 像Portia这样活跃的大脑
can always do with more brain food.
处理更大的健脑食物也是足够的
Here there’s no anchor point for the abseil.
这里没有绳索的固定点
But Portia has another idea.
但是Portia有别的主意
Instead of going to the spider,
她会让蜘蛛“送上门”
she will bring the spider to her.
而不是去找它
She plucks the strands to imitate struggling prey,
她拨动蛛网 模仿正在挣扎的猎物
drawing the spider in
引诱蜘蛛
to its death.
落入虎口
#1:弹涂鱼: 在陆地上行走的鱼
A mudskipper, a fish that spends most of its life out of the sea.
弹涂鱼 一种大部分时间都不在海里的鱼
It can walk on land and breathe air.
它可以在陆地上行走并呼吸空气
Its life is very different from that of most fish.
它的生存方式与大部分的鱼都很不相同
A fish out of water, maybe.
也许是因为离开了熟悉的环境
But they thrive here in Japan.
然而它们在日本却生机盎然
So what’s made this upheaval worthwhile?
那么 是什么让这样的改变变得有价值呢?
The answer lies in the mud.
答案就在泥土里
As the tide retreats,
随着潮水退去
it exposes mud flats.
海岸泥浆滩暴露了出来
Sunlight hits the rich silt,
阳光照射在这肥沃的淤泥上
and tiny plants and animals flourish there.
小型的动植物在此生机勃勃
All food for a mudskipper.
所有这些都是弹涂鱼的食物
But life on land is not without problems.
然而陆地上的生活并非没有问题
It’s hard work to find a mate.
寻找伴侣就很难
Jumping high above the mud will get you noticed.
在淤泥上高高跃起会被注意到
With eyes perched on the top of their heads,
藉着长在头顶上的眼睛
the mudskippers keep a lookout for both friend and foe.
弹涂鱼对朋友和敌人都保持着警惕
And males fight those who intrude on their territory.
并且雄性会与入侵它们领地的动物搏斗
They must also take care not to dry out in the sun.
它们还必须注意不要被阳光晒干
Rolling in the ooze
在泥里打滚儿
keeps the skin cool and moist.
能保持皮肤的凉爽和湿润
For this smaller species,
对于这种较小的物种
a better option is to retreat underground.
一个更好的选择是撤退到地底下
So he digs himself a tunnel down into the mud.
于是他给自己在泥里挖了一条隧道
His heap of spoil
他的一堆战利品
is an indication of the extent of his excavations.
表明了他的挖掘范围
With the tide flooding the tunnel twice a day,
由于潮水一天两次淹没隧道
maintenance is a real burn.
维护实在是件令人头疼的事儿

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视频概述

动物们在复杂多样的生态环境中不断适应,进化,各有各的独门秘籍,来看看最让人惊叹的榜单TOP5都是谁吧!

听录译者

人间忽晚

翻译译者

毛毛虫

审核员

审核员OYN

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZT8YswmQuAg

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