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重建底特律的新思路

Toni Griffin: A new vision for rebuilding Detroit

在2010年,底特律已经成为
By 2010, Detroit had become the poster child
深陷危机的美国城市的代表。
for an American city in crisis.
(它的)房地产业崩溃了,
There was a housing collapse,
汽车工业垮了,
an auto industry collapse,
人口在2000年到2010年间
and the population had plummeted by 25 percent
下降了25%,
between 2000 and 2010,
许多人开始放弃这座城市,
and many people were beginning to write it off,
因为它已经“荣升”美国萎缩城市的榜首。
as it had topped the list of American shrinking cities.
在2010年,我承蒙克雷斯基基金会
By 2010, I had also been asked by
和底特律市政府的邀请
the Kresge Foundation and the city of Detroit
来与他们一起领导一个城市规划项目,
to join them in leading a citywide planning process
为这座城市创造一个成果共享的未来。
for the city to create a shared vision for its future.
我以建筑师和城市规划师的身份
I come to this work
参与这项工作,
as an architect and an urban planner,
其实我也曾经服务于其他有争议的城市,
and I’ve spent my career workingin other contested cities,
如我的家乡芝加哥,
like Chicago, my hometown;
我现在的居住地哈莱姆,
Harlem, which is my current home;
还有华盛顿以及新泽西洲的纽瓦克。
Washington, D.C.; and Newark, New Jersey.
于我而言,这些城市仍然有一系列
All of these cities, to me, still had a number
有待解决的问题,关乎都市正义、
of unresolved issues related to urban justice,
社会平等、包容性以及社会资源的获得。
issues of equity, inclusion and access.
同样也是在2010年,
Now by 2010, as well,
流行设计杂志开始
popular design magazines were also beginning
仔细地研究像底特律这样的城市,
to take a closer look at cities like Detroit,
并用长达整期的篇幅来讨论“改造这座城”。
and devoting whole issues to “fixing the city.”
我的好友弗雷德 伯恩斯坦邀请我
I was asked by a good friend, Fred Bernstein,
参加《建筑师》10月刊的
to do an interview for the October issue
访谈,
of Architect magazine,
当我们看到出版杂志的标题:
and he and I kind of had a good chuckle
“这位规划师能拯救底特律吗?”
when we saw the magazine released with the title,
我和他都咯咯地笑了。
“Can This Planner Save Detroit?”
我的笑容中略带尴尬,
So I’m smiling with a little bitof embarrassment right now,
那是因为,很显然,
because obviously, it’s completely absurd
仅凭一个人的力量,尤其是一个规划师的力量
that a single person, let alone a planner,
就想拯救一座城市,这是荒唐可笑的。
could save a city.
但同时, 我笑是因为我觉得这个标题蕴含了
But I’m also smiling because I thought it represented
一丝希望,那就是我们的职业
a sense of hopefulness that our profession
对帮助一个城市走出严重危机
could play a role in helping the city to think about
有着重要的意义。
how it would recover from its severe crisis.
因此,今天下午我想花一点时间
So I’d like to spend a little bit of time this afternoon
来告诉大家我们的改造计划,
and tell you a little bit about our process
也就是改进底特律的方法。
for fixing the city, a little bit about Detroit,
我想通过展现底特律居民的意见来做到这一点。
and I want to do that throughthe voices of Detroiters.
我们的改造计划启动于2010年9月,
So we began our process in September of 2010.
那时特别市长选举刚刚结束,
It’s just after a special mayoral election,
而且有消息传出,这座城市
and word has gotten out that there is going to be
即将接受改造。
this citywide planning process,
这让底特律居民
which brings a lot of anxiety and fears
感到焦虑和恐慌。
among Detroiters.
我们已经计划好要在这样的房间里召开一系列社区会议
We had planned to hold a numberof community meetings in rooms like this
向居民介绍改造计划。
to introduce the planning process,
全城各地都有居民前来,
and people came out from all over the city,
不管是住在情况稳定的社区的
including areas that were stable neighborhoods,
还是住在已经看到
as well as areas that were beginning to see
空置现象的社区。
a lot of vacancy.
当时,
And most of our audience was representative
大部分的听众是
of the 82 percent African-American population
那占城市人口82%的非裔居民的代表。
in the city at that time.
显然,我们的会议有一个提问环节,
So obviously, we have a Q&A portion of our program,
人们在麦克风前排起长队,准备提问。
and people line up to mics to ask questions.
许多人坚定地走到麦克风前,
Many of them step very firmly to the mic,
双臂交叉在胸前,然后说:
put their hands across their chest, and go,
“我知道,你们想把我赶出自己的房子,对不对?”
“I know you people are trying tomove me out of my house, right?”
这个问题真的很尖锐,
So that question is really powerful,
当时我们就这么觉得,
and it was certainly powerful to us in the moment,
尤其是在你把这个问题与
when you connect it to the stories
一些底特律居民,
that some Detroiters had,
以及很多有类似经历的
and actually a lot of African-Americans’
居住于像底特律那样的中西部城市的非裔家庭
families have had
联系起来。
that are living in Midwestern cities like Detroit.
他们中的很多人向我们诉说
Many of them told us the stories about
他们是
how they came to own their home
从祖父母或曾祖父母那里继承房子的,
through their grandparents or great-grandparents,
他们的先辈就是那160万
who were one of 1.6 million people who migrated
从南方乡村迁徙到北方工业区的移民之一,
from the rural South to the industrial North,
这些移民的形象被雅各布 劳伦斯
as depicted in this painting by Jacob Lawrence,
记录在油画《大迁徙》之中。
“The Great Migration.”
移民来到底特律,期待着更美好的生活。
They came to Detroit for a better way of life.
他们中的很多人服务于汽车工业,
Many found work in the automobile industry,
如,福特汽车公司;迪亚戈 里维拉在这幅壁画中
the Ford Motor Company, as depicted in this mural
描绘这些故事。这幅壁画现藏于底特律美术学院。
by Diego Rivera in the Detroit Institute of Art.
他们的劳动成果给他们带来了一座房子,
The fruits of their labors would afford them a home,
对于很多人而言,这是他们拥有的第一处房产。
for many the first piece of propertythat they would ever know,
同时他们拥有了自己的社区,里面住的
and a community with other first-time
都是首次置业的非裔美国人。
African-American home buyers.
他们在北方的前数十年
The first couple of decades of their life in the North
都生活的很好,知道1950年左右,
is quite well, up until about 1950,
那时底特律的居住人口达到了峰值
which coincides with the city’s peak population
180万人。
at 1.8 million people.
也正是在这个时候底特律开始经历
Now it’s at this time that Detroit begins to see
第二波迁移大潮,
a second kind of migration,
人们搬迁到城市的郊区。
a migration to the suburbs.
在1950年到2000年之间,
Between 1950 and 2000,
底特律的城市面积拓展了30%。
the region grows by 30 percent.
但这一次,迁移大潮
But this time, the migration leaves
把非裔居民抛在身后。
African-Americans in place,
随着家庭和企业离开底特律,
as families and businesses flee the city,
城中变得人口稀少,
leaving the city pretty desolate of people
就业机会紧缺。
as well as jobs.
也就是在1950年到2000-2010年,
During that same period, between1950 and 2000, 2010,
(底特律的)城市人口下降了60%,
the city loses 60 percent of its population,
现在其人口大概是70万人。
and today it hovers at above 700,000.
当晚,出席会议并与我们交谈的听众
The audience members who comeand talk to us that night
跟我们讲述了生活在一个人口
tell us the stories of what it’s like to live in a city
如此稀少的城市的感受。
with such depleted population.
很多人说,他们的房子是街区中为数不多的
Many tell us that they’re one of only a few homes
有人居住的房子,
on their block that are occupied,
坐在自家的门廊里
and that they can see several abandoned homes
就可以看见数座被遗弃的房子。
from where they sit on their porches.
在 整座城市中,有8万座空置的房子,
Citywide, there are 80,000 vacant homes.
也有空置的不动产。
They can also see vacant property.
居民开始看到有人在这些建筑里
They’re beginning to see illegal activities
从事非法活动,如非法倾卸。
on these properties, like illegal dumping,
居民们还意识到,由于城市人口锐减,
and they know that because the cityhas lost so much population,
水费、电费、油气费都在上涨,
their costs for water, electricity, gas are rising,
因为支付财产税的人变少了,
because there are not enough peopleto pay property taxes
税金不足以维持这些服务的运营。
to help support the services that they need.
在底特律,还有大概1000块闲置土地。
Citywide, there are about 100,000 vacant parcels.
大家或许对这种规模没有概念,
Now, to quickly give you all a sense of a scale,
因为我知道,这听起来是一个巨大的数字,
because I know that sounds like a big number,
但大家只有看了城市地图才能真正明白它的含义。
but I don’t think you quite understanduntil you look at the city map.
底特律的城市面积为139平方英里。
So the city is 139 square miles.
你可以把 波士顿、三藩市
You can fit Boston, San Francisco,
以及曼哈顿岛
and the island of Manhattan
拼入底特律的地域之中。
within its footprint.
如果我们抽出所有空置的和被遗弃的房产
So if we take all of that vacantand abandoned property
并把他们拼在一起,
and we smush it together,
它们的面积大约有20平方英里,
it looks like about 20 square miles,
几乎等同于我们现在所在的
and that’s roughly equivalent to the size
曼哈顿岛的面积,
of the island we’re sitting on today, Manhattan,
曼哈顿岛的面积是22平方英里。
at 22 square miles.
空置率实在是太高了。
So it’s a lot of vacancy.
某些听众
Now some of our audience members
也会给我们讲一些他们
also tell us about some of the positive things
社区中的好消息:
that are happening in their communities,
社区中的居民团结起来
and many of them are banding together
管理空置的土地。
to take control of some of the vacant lots,
他们开辟了社区花园,
and they’re starting community gardens,
这为他们创造了一种强大的社区服务精神。
which are creating a great senseof community stewardship,
但他们仍然很明确地告诉我们,
but they’re very, very clear to tell us
这仍不令人满意,
that this is not enough,
他们希望自己的社区
that they want to see their neighborhoods
能够像先辈建城时那样繁荣。
return to the way that theirgrandparents had found them.
自2010年起,人们就有很多关于
Now there’s been a lot of speculation since 2010
如何处理空置房产的猜测。
about what to do with the vacant property,
很多人认为它们会被建设为社区花园,
and a lot of that speculation hasbeen around community gardening,
或者是所谓的城市农业。
or what we call urban agriculture.
很多人对我们说:
So many people would say to us,
“把空地变为农业用地,这个主意如何?
“What if you just take all that vacant landand you could make it farmland?
它既可以提供新鲜食物,
It can provide fresh foods,
也可以给居民提供工作机会。”
and it can put Detroiters back to work too.”
当我听到这种说法时,
When I hear that story,
我总想象着大迁徙中的先民
I always imagine the folks from the Great Migration
会在坟墓中辗转反侧,
rolling over in their graves,
可以想象到,他们背井离乡,
because you can imagine that they didn’t sacrifice
从南方迁徙到北方,
moving from the South to the North
是为了给家庭带来更好地生活,
to create a better life for their families,
而不是要他们的曾孙辈又回到田园牧歌的生活之中;
only to see their great-grandchildrenreturn to an agrarian lifestyle,
特别是,他们来到这座城市的时候,
especially in a city where they came
很多人并没有受过高中教育,
with little less than a high school education
有的甚至没有上过初中,
or even a grammar school education
但他们仍然能拥有
and were able to afford the basic elements
美国梦的基本元素:
of the American dream:
稳定的工作,以及自有的房产。
steady work and a home that they owned.
如今,底特律又出现了
Now, there’s a third wave of migration
第三波迁移大潮:
happening in Detroit:
文化企业不断进驻。
a new ascendant of cultural entrepreneurs.
企业家们把同样的空置地块
These folks see that same vacant land
和被遗弃的房屋
and those same abandoned homes
看做获取新的
as opportunity for new,
创意和利润的机遇;
entrepreneurial ideas and profit,
他们可以像旧有的模式那样,
so much so that former models
迁入底特律,
can move to Detroit,
购置房产,建立成功的
buy property, start successful
企业和饭店,
businesses and restaurants,
并在自己社区中成为成功的社区活动家,
and become successful communityactivists in their neighborhood,
带来积极的变化。
bringing about very positive change.
同样的,一些小型的制造企业
Similarly, we have small manufacturing companies
也正在认真考虑进驻底特律。
making conscious decisions to relocate to the city.
Shinola是一家高档手表
This company, Shinola, which is a luxury watch
与自行车制造商,
and bicycle company,
它特意选址底特律,
deliberately chose to relocate to Detroit,
理由是
and they quote themselves by saying
他们被底特律闻名全球的创新能力所吸引。
they were drawn to the global brand of Detroit’s innovation.
他们也知道,他们可以充分利用
And they also knew that they can tap into a workforce
一批仍然精于工业制造的劳动者。
that was still very skilled in how to make things.
现在,我们看到社区服务精神
Now we have community stewardship
在社区中萌芽发展,
happening in neighborhoods,
文化企业决定
we have cultural entrepreneurs making decisions
迁入底特律,创建新公司,
to move to the city and create enterprises,
并且,制造业也准备迁入,
and we have businesses relocating,
但这一切都发生在一个
and this is all in the context
我们都熟知的大环境之中:
of what is no secret to us all,
一位紧急状况下的负责人
a city that’s under the control
正在管理底特律,
of an emergency manager,
而就在这个7月,他根据联邦破产法第9章提出了破产申请。
and just this July filed for Chapter 9 bankruptcy.
我们在2010年就启动了这个项目;到2013年,
So 2010, we started this process, and by 2013,
我们推出了“未来底特律”项目,
we released Detroit Future City,
这是我们的一个战略计划,以引导这座城市
which was our strategic plan to guide the city
走上更好、更繁荣、
into a better and more prosperous
更可持续的发展道路——
and more sustainable existence —
这不是它过去的模式,而是它可以利用的模式;
not what it was, but what it could be,
我们审视了新的经济增长方式,
looking at new ways of economic growth,
新的土地利用模式,
new forms of land use,
更加稳定而稠密的社区,
more sustainable and denser neighborhoods,
重新配置的基础设施和城市服务系统,
a reconfigured infrastructureand city service system,
以及更大的空间让民间领袖
and a heightened capacity for civic leaders
采取行动,实施变革。
to take action and implement change.
对于我们的工作而言,有三个情况
Three key imperatives were really important
是迫在眉睫的。
to our work.
第一,这座城市其实不算很大,
One was that the city itselfwasn’t necessarily too large,
但它的经济规模却是太小了。
but the economy was too small.
在底特律,每一百人只有27个就业机会,
There are only 27 jobs per 100 people in Detroit,
这与丹佛、亚特兰大、费城的情况大不相同,
very different from a Denveror an Atlanta or a Philadelphia
它们每一百人就有35到70个就业机会。
that are anywhere between 35 to 70 jobs per 100 people.
第二,人们要接受一个事实,
Secondly, there had to be an acceptance
我们不会用以往的方式
that we were not going to be able to use
来利用所有的闲置地块,
all of this vacant land in the way that we had before
即使在将来也不会。
and maybe for some time to come.
我们习以为常的传统居住区
It wasn’t going to be our traditionalresidential neighborhoods
不会出现,
as we had before,
而且,尽管城市农业产出丰厚
and urban agriculture, while a very productive
且成功干预了底特律的危机,
and successful intervention happening in Detroit,
它也不会是唯一的出路。
was not the only answer,
我们要做的是,关注那些
that what we had to do is look at these areas
空置率很高
where we had significant vacancy
但仍有大量人口的区域,
but still had a significant number of population
那些居民年轻,有干劲,有创意,
of what could be new, productive, innovative,
可以为企业所利用;
and entrepreneurial uses
这样,他们使仍有
that could stabilize those communities,
将近30万人的社区更稳定。
where still nearly 300,000 residents lived.
因此,我们提出了一种新的社区构想——
So we came up with one neighborhood typology —
其实我们设计了几种模式——被称为生活工作相结合的社区。
there are several –called a live-make neighborhood,
在那里,居民可以重新利用
where folks could reappropriate
废弃建筑,
abandoned structures
并把它们改造为企业基地,
and turn them into entrepreneurial enterprises,
同时也可以再次着重强调
with a specific emphasis on looking at the, again,
占82%的非洲裔居民。
majority 82 percent African-American population.
因此,他们也可以把
So they, too, could take businesses
他们以前在居住区外建立的企业带入居住区,
that they maybe were doing out of their home
并把它们发展为更加繁荣的产业。
and grow them to more prosperous industries
同时他们也可以购置房产,使得他们同时成为
and actually acquire property so they were actually
自己所住社区中的
property owners as well as business owners
房产所有者以及企业所有者。
in the communities with which they resided.
我们也在考虑
Then we also wanted to look at other ways
除了种植作物以外的土地利用方式,
of using land in addition to growing food
希望把土地规划得
and transforming landscape into
更具生产效率。
much more productive uses,
比方说,一些地块可通过建造人工湖和蓄水池
so that it could be used for stormwater management, for example,
来建立雨水管理系统;
by using surface lakes and retention ponds,
可以设立社区便利设施、
that created neighborhood amenities,
娱乐设施,
places of recreation,
切实地提高
and actually helped to elevate
附近居民的生活水平。
adjacent property levels.
或者,我们可以设立研究中心
Or we could use it as research plots,
来治理土壤污染,
where we can use it to remediate contaminated soils,
又或者建立发电厂。
or we could use it to generate energy.
因此,“大迁徙”先民的后代
So the descendants of the Great Migration
既可以变成Shinola的精确制表工匠,
could either become precisionwatchmakers at Shinola,
就像去年Shinola广告中的威利先生那样;
like Willie H., who was featuredin one of their ads last year,
也可以自己建立
or they can actually grow a business
可以给Shinola这样的公司提供服务的企业。
that would service companies like Shinola.
好消息是:下一代的底特律人
The good news is, there is a future
依然有着光明的前途,
for the next generation of Detroiters,
不管已经身在底特律的还是想来底特律的都是这样。
both those there now and those that want to come.
所以,梅尼诺市长,你的好意我心领了;
So no thank you, Mayor Menino,
他曾说:
who recently was quoted as saying,
”我要先把底特律夷为平地再重新开始。“
“I’d blow up the place and start over.”
底特律仍有着十分重要的人群、
There are very important people,
产业以及土地,
business and land assets in Detroit,
而且还有实实在在的机遇。
and there are real opportunities there.
虽然底特律不会恢复它过去的模样,
So while Detroit might not be what it was,
但它也不会消亡。
Detroit will not die.
谢谢。
Thank you.
(掌声)
(Applause)

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