In the last two episodes we’ve seen how the mobilization for war really got going
and the usual political intrigue and today we’re going to see a little bit of fighting.
I’d like to now direct your attention to the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Austria was now ready for war with Serbia,
and on August 12th, 1914 the Austrian army invaded,
having already bombarded Belgrade for a couple of weeks.
A couple of things to think about, though:
奥匈帝国想要通过战争惩罚 摧毁 或者吞并塞尔维亚
Austria-Hungary went to war to punish, destroy, or annex Serbia,
but it’s really funny when you think how little she seemed to realize that
she had a much largermore dangerous enemy at this point.
And a lot of the early Austrian maneuvers in World War One
are a textbook case in how NOT to run a war.
One part of the problem was that war against Serbia was really popular in Vienna,
so army chief of staff Conrad sent a lot more troops down to Serbia than you would expect,
and a lot fewer to fight Russia than you would expect.
And here’s something else he did, which really pissed of Austria’s ally the German Empire.
In order to send an even larger army down to Serbia, he actually arranged for troops
that were heading to Russia to sort of secretly head to Serbia instead, without telling the Germans,
so when they found out they were really angry
because Russia had like a bajillion men and Serbia… did not.
现在 德国人情有可原地询问军队是否可以转换路线 重新派遣至俄罗斯前线
Now, the Germans, understandably, asked if the troops could be re-routed back to the Russian frontier
and here is where you get an idea of some of the problems facing Austria-Hungary in this war.
Austria-Hungary was multi-multi national and had a crazy railway system that reflected this.
在帝国的不同区域 铁路有不同的尺寸 所以火车不能互通
In different parts of the empire the railways were different gauges so trains couldn’t go through,
and in some places the train lines would just end when they got to an internal border
you’d have to get off and carry stuff although go the long way around
because Hungary or Bosnia didn’t want certain trade to happen with certain people.
So when Germany asked Austria
if she could re-route her trains and turn the troops around,
the answer was no.
They couldn’t re-route single track railways in the middle of total army mobilization,
so the troops would have to goall the way down to the Balkans,
before they could be turned aroundand then sent back to the Russian front.
On top of this was a huge fear of railroad mismanagement.
This was a justified fear, I suppose,
because all nations knew that a country that could move her troops around quickly
would have a big advantage over one who couldn’t.
So here’s what Austria did:
To avoid railroad problems,
all of the trains were required to move
at the speed of the slowest train on the slowest line for maximum coordination.
That speed was ten miles per hour.
16 kilometers per hour.
That’s how fast bicycles go.
So the Austrian army invaded Serbia at the speed of a bicycle.
But eventually they got two armies into Bosnia, about 110 kilometers apart from each other,
under the command of General Oskar Potiorek, who had never actually seen any military action before.
Now, his army was poorly trained and equipped,
and of course the Slavs in the army were a little hesitant about fighting other Slavs,
and Potiorek was also willfully ignorant of the modern aspects of warfare.
Serbia, by contrast, knew all about modern warfare
having been in two wars in the past two years.
The Serbs were also going to be fighting on their home territory, in the mountains,
and managed to mobilize half a million peopleout of a population of only around 4 million.
很让人印象深刻 当然 这些人大多都没有步枪或任何弹药
Pretty impressive. Of course, a lot of these people didn’t have any rifles or any ammunition,
但他们确实有自信 这真是奇怪 考虑到他们一方有400万人
but they certainly had confidence, which is odd, really, considering there were four million of them
and 45 million of the opposition, but Serbia really believed they were going to win.
So the Austrians began crossing the Drina River to engage the Serbs. We’ll see how that went next week.
在西面 法国进行了他们战争中的第一次进攻 于8月8日在阿尔萨斯占领了牟罗兹
In the west, the French mounted their first offensive of the war, occupying Mulhouse in Alsace on August 8th.
The German army counter attacked on August 9th at Cernay
and forced the French out of Mulhouse on the 10th.
The French retreated to Belfort
之后 在8月25日 在将军保罗·包的指挥下发动了新一轮进攻
and then, on August 25th, mounted a new offense under General Paul Pau.
现在 又说一遍 我们将在下周看到法国与德国是怎样真正冲突的
Now once again, we’ll see how that went next week when France and Germany clash for real.
Here’s what was happening this week in Britain.
On August 7th, Lord Kitchener called for 100,000 volunteers,
Kitchener being one of the few who thought that this was going to be a long war
although by the 10th the Kaiser himself admitted some worries about it being a long war
once Britain was involved.
Now Britain had no troops at all in mainland Europe,
but she was the only country that had a purely professional army.
它很小 但训练得很好 总共有6个师
It was small but it was very highly trained and totaled 6 divisions.
Four divisions were to be sent to France,
and on August 12th the first troops of the British Expeditionary Force crossed the English Channel.
在10天以内 他们运输了12万人 无一缺漏
In ten days they moved 120,000 men,without a single loss.
Also on August 12th, France and Britaindeclare war on Austria-Hungary.
It’s interesting, actually, that England and Austriahad been on very friendly terms earlier,
and Britain certainly had no commitments to Serbia or anything,
but if you look ahead through the August weeks,
Britain became the vocal defender of the rights of the Slavic minorities in the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Especially the Czechs.
On August 10th in the south,
2 German warships managed to elude the British and enter the Dardanelles.
The Turkish Minster of War, the pro German Envar Pasha
让他们进来 并说如果英国人跟在后面 他们被射击
let them enter and said that if the British followed they would be fired upon.
But the Ottoman Empire was still neutral,
所以这些船只被“卖”给土耳其 得到了新的土耳其名字 升起了土耳其旗
so the ships were “sold” to the Turks, given new Turkish names, and raised Turkish flags.
On August 12th two naval blockades were established;
one to prevent cargo from reaching German ports on the North Sea,
and the other was a French blockade to cut off the Austrian ports on the Adriatic.
In the North Sea, submarine U-15 was rammed and sunk by the British,
the first of nearly 200 U-boat losses Germany would suffer in the war,
而在中非 尼亚萨沙湖 一艘英国炮艇俘获了一艘德国炮艇
and in central Africa, on Lake Nyasa, a British gunboat captured a German gunboat.
The German captain was not aware that he was at war with the British.
And just because there’s been no right time to mention this before,
I’m going to mention it now:
back on July 25th, the Kiel canal was finally opened
so that Germany could safely and quickly send ships between the North Sea and the Baltic sea.
Let’s think about something here, now that we have a full European war starting,
尽管还未成为一场世界大战 好吧我们的确在中非有炮艇 但仍然……
though not yet a world war- okay, yeah, we did have the gunboats in central Africa, but still…
We actually have a bunch of totally different wars at the moment,
caused by different forces that make one big general war.
We’ve talked about this in earlier episodes,but let’s briefly go over it again.
Austria wants to go to war against the little guy Serbia
because of guys like chief of staff Conrad who have big imperialistic dreams.
The Russians don’t think that it is necessary for a entire Slav state to be destroyed
因为一场刺杀 或黑手党 或无论哪个人而摧毁
because of an assassin, or the Black Hand, or whoever,
especially when it’s their only ally in a sensitive region.
The British didn’t much care about Serbia’s fate;
they were concerned with Belgium and German hegemony in Europe.
The Germans want to take on Russia now
because they fear that in a few years Russia will be too powerful,
but to do that they also have to deal with Russia’s ally France,
who wants revenge on Germany for the last war.
See, these are all different wars, happening at the same time,
but for different reasons.
Just thought I’d point that out. This is where I’m going to leave you today,
with German forces 80 kilometers from Warsaw,
but come back next week when the carnage really begins.
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