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第3周:军队部署

To Arms! - The Deployment of Troops I THE GREAT WAR - Week 3

在上两集中 我们见到了战争动员实际上是怎样进行的
In the last two episodes we’ve seen how the mobilization for war really got going
以及一如既往的政治阴谋 而今天我们将看到一些关于战斗的内容
and the usual political intrigue and today we’re going to see a little bit of fighting.
我现在想将你的注意力转移到奥匈帝国
I’d like to now direct your attention to the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
奥地利准备好与塞尔维亚作战
Austria was now ready for war with Serbia,
1914年8月12日 奥地利军队入侵塞尔维亚
and on August 12th, 1914 the Austrian army invaded,
此时已经炮击贝尔格莱德几个星期了
having already bombarded Belgrade for a couple of weeks.
然而有一些事情需要考虑:
A couple of things to think about, though:
奥匈帝国想要通过战争惩罚 摧毁 或者吞并塞尔维亚
Austria-Hungary went to war to punish, destroy, or annex Serbia,
但有趣的是 她几乎没意识到
but it’s really funny when you think how little she seemed to realize that
在这个时间点有一个更大更危险的敌人
she had a much largermore dangerous enemy at this point.
俄罗斯
Russia.
而奥地利在一战早期的许多军事演习
And a lot of the early Austrian maneuvers in World War One
都是怎样避免进行战争的范例
are a textbook case in how NOT to run a war.
问题的一部分是 与塞尔维亚战争在维也纳很受欢迎
One part of the problem was that war against Serbia was really popular in Vienna,
所以陆军参谋长康拉德派遣了比你想象的更多的军队去塞尔维亚
so army chief of staff Conrad sent a lot more troops down to Serbia than you would expect,
以及更少的军队对战俄罗斯
and a lot fewer to fight Russia than you would expect.
这是他做的其他让奥地利的盟友德意志帝国很是愤怒的事
And here’s something else he did, which really pissed of Austria’s ally the German Empire.
为了将更多的军队派遣到塞尔维亚 他实际上瞒着德国人
In order to send an even larger army down to Serbia, he actually arranged for troops
安排已经前往俄罗斯的军队 秘密前往塞尔维亚
that were heading to Russia to sort of secretly head to Serbia instead, without telling the Germans,
所以德国人发现时 他们真的很生气
so when they found out they were really angry
因为俄军看起来有亿万人 而塞尔维亚没有那么多
because Russia had like a bajillion men and Serbia… did not.
现在 德国人情有可原地询问军队是否可以转换路线 重新派遣至俄罗斯前线
Now, the Germans, understandably, asked if the troops could be re-routed back to the Russian frontier
而这正是你了解奥匈帝国在这场战争中面临的一些问题的地方
and here is where you get an idea of some of the problems facing Austria-Hungary in this war.
奥匈帝国是一个超级多元国家 而其疯狂的铁路系统反映了这一点
Austria-Hungary was multi-multi national and had a crazy railway system that reflected this.
在帝国的不同区域 铁路有不同的尺寸 所以火车不能互通
In different parts of the empire the railways were different gauges so trains couldn’t go through,
在一些地区 铁路只修到他控制的区域
and in some places the train lines would just end when they got to an internal border
你只能带着货物下车 尽管要绕个大圈
you’d have to get off and carry stuff although go the long way around
因为匈牙利或波斯尼亚不希望与特定的人群进行特定的贸易
because Hungary or Bosnia didn’t want certain trade to happen with certain people.
所以当德国询问奥地利
So when Germany asked Austria
是否可以让他们的火车换线 并调回军队
if she could re-route her trains and turn the troops around,
答案是否定的
the answer was no.
他们不能在整体军队动员中 让某一路火车换线
They couldn’t re-route single track railways in the middle of total army mobilization,
所以在军队在能够掉头并送回俄罗斯前线前
so the troops would have to goall the way down to the Balkans,
他们必须一路前往巴尔干
before they could be turned aroundand then sent back to the Russian front.
接着一个巨大的恐惧就是对铁路的安排不善
On top of this was a huge fear of railroad mismanagement.
我觉得这是个合理的恐惧
This was a justified fear, I suppose,
因为所有的国家都知道 一个能快速移动军队的国家
because all nations knew that a country that could move her troops around quickly
对做不到这点的国家有巨大优势
would have a big advantage over one who couldn’t.
所以这是奥地利的做法:
So here’s what Austria did:
为了避免铁路问题
To avoid railroad problems,
所有的火车被要求以
all of the trains were required to move
最慢的线路上最慢的火车的速度前进以达到最大的协调
at the speed of the slowest train on the slowest line for maximum coordination.
那个速度是每小时10英里
That speed was ten miles per hour.
每小时16公里
16 kilometers per hour.
那是自行车的速度
That’s how fast bicycles go.
所以奥地利军队以自行车的速度入侵了塞尔维亚
So the Austrian army invaded Serbia at the speed of a bicycle.
但最终他们有两支军队到达了波斯尼亚 相互间隔110公里
But eventually they got two armies into Bosnia, about 110 kilometers apart from each other,
在之前没有见过任何军事行动的将军奥斯卡·波蒂奥雷克的统领下
under the command of General Oskar Potiorek, who had never actually seen any military action before.
现在 他的军队的训练和装备很差
Now, his army was poorly trained and equipped,
而当然 参军的斯拉夫人对与其他斯拉夫人战斗稍有迟疑
and of course the Slavs in the army were a little hesitant about fighting other Slavs,
而波蒂奥雷克也固执地无视了现代层面的战争
and Potiorek was also willfully ignorant of the modern aspects of warfare.
与其相反 塞尔维亚了解现代战争的各个方面
Serbia, by contrast, knew all about modern warfare
在过去的两年中陷入了两场战争
having been in two wars in the past two years.
塞尔维亚人也要在本国的领土中的山地里战斗,
The Serbs were also going to be fighting on their home territory, in the mountains,
并在总人口只有约400万的情况下设法动员了50万人
and managed to mobilize half a million peopleout of a population of only around 4 million.
很让人印象深刻 当然 这些人大多都没有步枪或任何弹药
Pretty impressive. Of course, a lot of these people didn’t have any rifles or any ammunition,
但他们确实有自信 这真是奇怪 考虑到他们一方有400万人
but they certainly had confidence, which is odd, really, considering there were four million of them
而对方有4500万人 但塞尔维亚的确相信他们会赢
and 45 million of the opposition, but Serbia really believed they were going to win.
所以奥地利人越过德里纳河与塞尔维亚人交战 我们下周会看到那是如何进行的
So the Austrians began crossing the Drina River to engage the Serbs. We’ll see how that went next week.
在西面 法国进行了他们战争中的第一次进攻 于8月8日在阿尔萨斯占领了牟罗兹
In the west, the French mounted their first offensive of the war, occupying Mulhouse in Alsace on August 8th.
德国军队于8月9日在塞尔奈反击
The German army counter attacked on August 9th at Cernay
并在10日将法军赶出了牟罗兹
and forced the French out of Mulhouse on the 10th.
法军退到了贝尔福
The French retreated to Belfort
之后 在8月25日 在将军保罗·包的指挥下发动了新一轮进攻
and then, on August 25th, mounted a new offense under General Paul Pau.
现在 又说一遍 我们将在下周看到法国与德国是怎样真正冲突的
Now once again, we’ll see how that went next week when France and Germany clash for real.
这是英国在这周发生的事
Here’s what was happening this week in Britain.
在8月7日 基钦纳勋爵召集了10万志愿军
On August 7th, Lord Kitchener called for 100,000 volunteers,
基钦纳是少数几位认为这将成为一场持久战的人
Kitchener being one of the few who thought that this was going to be a long war
尽管在10日德皇自己承认有些担心一旦英国参与进来
although by the 10th the Kaiser himself admitted some worries about it being a long war
这将成为一场持久战
once Britain was involved.
英国在欧洲大陆没有任何军队
Now Britain had no troops at all in mainland Europe,
但她是唯一一个有一支非常专业军队的国家
but she was the only country that had a purely professional army.
它很小 但训练得很好 总共有6个师
It was small but it was very highly trained and totaled 6 divisions.
四个师要送到法国
Four divisions were to be sent to France,
而在8月12日 英国远征军的第一批部队穿越了英吉利海峡
and on August 12th the first troops of the British Expeditionary Force crossed the English Channel.
在10天以内 他们运输了12万人 无一缺漏
In ten days they moved 120,000 men,without a single loss.
还是在8月12日 法国和英国向奥匈帝国宣战
Also on August 12th, France and Britaindeclare war on Austria-Hungary.
这其实很有趣 英国和奥地利早前非常友好
It’s interesting, actually, that England and Austriahad been on very friendly terms earlier,
英国当然也不需为塞尔维亚承担什么义务
and Britain certainly had no commitments to Serbia or anything,
但如果你往后回顾整个八月的几周
but if you look ahead through the August weeks,
英国成为奥匈帝国内部斯拉夫少数民族权利的口头捍卫者
Britain became the vocal defender of the rights of the Slavic minorities in the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
尤其是对捷克
Especially the Czechs.
在南边 8月10日
On August 10th in the south,
两艘德国军舰设法避过英国进入达达尼尔海峡
2 German warships managed to elude the British and enter the Dardanelles.
土耳其的国防部长 拥护德国的恩维尔·帕夏
The Turkish Minster of War, the pro German Envar Pasha
让他们进来 并说如果英国人跟在后面 他们被射击
let them enter and said that if the British followed they would be fired upon.
但奥斯曼帝国依然中立
But the Ottoman Empire was still neutral,
所以这些船只被“卖”给土耳其 得到了新的土耳其名字 升起了土耳其旗
so the ships were “sold” to the Turks, given new Turkish names, and raised Turkish flags.
在8月12日 两道海上封锁线建立起来
On August 12th two naval blockades were established;
一道为了防止货物经北海抵达德国港口
one to prevent cargo from reaching German ports on the North Sea,
另一条是法国的封锁线 以中断奥地利港口与亚德里亚海的联系
and the other was a French blockade to cut off the Austrian ports on the Adriatic.
在北海 U-15潜艇由英国撞沉
In the North Sea, submarine U-15 was rammed and sunk by the British,
这是德国在战争中失去的近200艘U-潜艇中的第一艘
the first of nearly 200 U-boat losses Germany would suffer in the war,
而在中非 尼亚萨沙湖 一艘英国炮艇俘获了一艘德国炮艇
and in central Africa, on Lake Nyasa, a British gunboat captured a German gunboat.
德国船长没有意识到他在与英国战斗
The German captain was not aware that he was at war with the British.
真实的故事
True story.
而仅仅因为之前没有恰当的时间提到这个
And just because there’s been no right time to mention this before,
我将要在现在讲这些:
I’m going to mention it now:
回到7月25日 基尔运河终于开启
back on July 25th, the Kiel canal was finally opened
因而德国可以在北海和波罗的海之间安全而迅速的派遣军舰
so that Germany could safely and quickly send ships between the North Sea and the Baltic sea.
让我们在这里思考一点事情 现在整个欧洲的战争开启了
Let’s think about something here, now that we have a full European war starting,
尽管还未成为一场世界大战 好吧我们的确在中非有炮艇 但仍然……
though not yet a world war- okay, yeah, we did have the gunboats in central Africa, but still…
此时我们的确有一系列完全不同的战争
We actually have a bunch of totally different wars at the moment,
由不同的势力引起 造就了一场普通的大战
caused by different forces that make one big general war.
我们在之前几集里讨论过这个话题 但让我们简略的回顾一下
We’ve talked about this in earlier episodes,but let’s briefly go over it again.
奥地利想对小塞尔维亚发动战争
Austria wants to go to war against the little guy Serbia
因为像参谋长康拉德那样的人 有帝国主义的巨梦
because of guys like chief of staff Conrad who have big imperialistic dreams.
俄罗斯认为一整个斯拉夫国家没有必要
The Russians don’t think that it is necessary for a entire Slav state to be destroyed
因为一场刺杀 或黑手党 或无论哪个人而摧毁
because of an assassin, or the Black Hand, or whoever,
尤其当这是他们在敏感区域的唯一一个盟友时
especially when it’s their only ally in a sensitive region.
英国不怎么关心塞尔维亚的命运
The British didn’t much care about Serbia’s fate;
他们关心的是比利时和德国在欧洲的霸权
they were concerned with Belgium and German hegemony in Europe.
德国现在就想和俄罗斯较量
The Germans want to take on Russia now
因为他们担心几年后 俄罗斯将过于强大
because they fear that in a few years Russia will be too powerful,
但要做到那个 他们还必须对付俄罗斯的盟友法国
but to do that they also have to deal with Russia’s ally France,
而其想要为上一场战争报复德国
who wants revenge on Germany for the last war.
看 这些都是同时发生的不同的战争
See, these are all different wars, happening at the same time,
但拥有不同的缘由
but for different reasons.
只需想想我指出的那点 这是今天我结束的地方
Just thought I’d point that out. This is where I’m going to leave you today,
此时德国军队距华沙80公里
with German forces 80 kilometers from Warsaw,
但下周将从大屠杀开始
but come back next week when the carnage really begins.
如果你想了解上一集发生了什么 点击这里
If you want to know what happened in the last episode. Click right here.
让我知道你也喜欢他
And let me know how you liked it too.
如果你有任何问题 你可以在下方评论区提出
If you have any questions you can put them in the comments below.
如果你在其他社交媒体平台 例如脸书和推特上 关注了我们
And if you follow us on other social media platforms like Facebook and Twitter
你可以了解更多关于一战的事情
you can learn more about the Great War.
我们有幕后花絮和各种各样的背景知识提供给你
We have behind the scenes footage and all kinds of background informations for you.
我们真的有
We really do.

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