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情态动词实用小技巧p1:可能性和机率性 – 译学馆
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情态动词实用小技巧p1:可能性和机率性

TIPS for English Modal Verbs 🔹PART 1🔹 Possibility & Probability

[音乐]
[Music]
大家好 我是’mmmenglish’的爱玛
Hello, I’m Emma from mmmenglish!
请告诉我 这些单词的种类是什么
So tell me, what type of words are these?
它们是情态动词
They’re modal verbs.
现在我已经收到大量问题
Now I’ve been getting lots of questions
关于最近你们提到的情态动词
about modal verbs from you lately.
所以我将要分享一些有用的小建议
So I’m going to share some useful tips
来帮助你们说英语时更有效地使用情态动词
to help you use them a little more effectively when you’re speaking English.
这些情态动词都是助动词
Now these modal verbs are auxiliary verbs,
就像 是 做 有
just like be, do and have,
因为他们与谓语动词一起使用
because they work together with a main verb.
情态动词常与谓语动词一起使用
You always have a modal verb with a main verb,
谓语动词经常是跟随
and the main verb that follows is always
不带to的动词原形
in the bare infinitive form – without to.
我可以去……
I could go…
你应该采取……
You should take…
他们想要……
They would like…
保罗可能会借……
Paul may borrow…
现在 英语中情态动词常被用来
Now, these modal verbs are used in English
去表达某些东西
to express something.
他们具有目的性
They have a purpose.
所以 今天我们需要试着理解这些目的
So we need to try and understand that purpose today.
现在 他们可以用来表达
Now they can be used to talk about
可能性和机率性
possibility and probability.
来表达某件事情有多大的可能性
To talk about how likely something is.
现在 记得你使用情态动词时总是
Now remember you’re always using that modal verb
带有谓语动词。
with a main verb.
那么这件事发生的可能性会有多大呢
So how likely is it the that action will happen?
你确定吗
Are you certain?
你确定 你确信这会发生
You’re sure. You’re confident that will happen.
真的吗
Is it probable?
可能会发生吗
Is it likely to happen?
有机会发生吗
Is there a good chance it will happen?
可能吗
Is it possible?
或者不可能
Or is it unlikely?
现在 在这些所有的情况中
Now in all of these situations,
你可以使用情态动词
you can use a modal verb
来解释你多么确定
to explain how certain you are
那件事会发生 发生的可能性有多大
that something will happen, how possible something is.
现在 这些情态动词也可以用于
Now these same modal verbs can also be used
解释‘能力’
to explain ability.
所以 你有多大可能去完成某件事
So how able you are to do something.
它们常被用来征询许可 提出要求
They can be used to ask permission, make requests
和提供帮助
and offer help.
事实上 这还有几种不同的用法
In fact there’s quite a few different uses,
所以 我将把这节课分为两部分
so I’m going to split this lesson in two,
这样做是因为我想慢点讲
and I’m doing this because I want to take this slowly,
我不想让你们感到压力和困惑
I don’t want you to feel overwhelmed and confused,
所以我们一步步来讲解
so let’s just take one step at a time.
在这节课里
In this lesson,
我会讲到如何使用情态动词来表达确定性
I’ll talk about how we use modal verbs to talk about certainty,
机率性以及可能性
probability and possibility.
所以 这就是某件事有多大可能性会发生
So this is how likely something is to happen
或是这完全有可能发生
or if it’s possible at all.
下节课会重点讲能力和其他用法
And the next lesson will focus on ability and the other uses.
所以 现在试着不要担心它们
So try not to worry about them right now,
但是如果你不是一个订阅者
but make sure that if you’re not a subscriber
你可以点红色按钮进行订阅 这样
you click that red button and subscribe so that
确保你能发现新课程什么时候上线
you find out when that next lesson is available.
好了 我们先来讲机率性
Okay, so let’s start with probability,
某些事发生的机率有多大
how likely something is to happen.
现在 我们用’将要’来表达将来时
Now we use “will” to talk about the future,
当我们肯定某事即将发生时
when we’re confident that something will happen.
我们相信它会发生 肯定那是真的
We believe it, we’re certain it’s true.
太阳明天会升起
The sun will rise tomorrow.
我很肯定这会发生
(I’m) pretty sure that will happen.
艾希丽会迟到
Ashley will be late.
好吧 她经常迟到 所以我能肯定这是真的
Well, she’s always late so I definitely believe that to be true!
如果你不穿外套 你肯定很冷
If you don’t take a jumper, you will get cold.
因为外面特别冷
It’s freezing out there!
你也会听到’will’用于
You’ll also hear “will” used
给予安慰 当你想确认
to give reassurance when you want to confirm
某些事情是真的时
that something is true.
你知道当你的妈妈告诉你
You know when your mum tells you
你会通过考试的 别担心
“You will pass the exam. Don’t worry!”
即使你并不真的确定这是真的
even though you’re really not sure that’s true.
她用“将要”去告诉你她对此非常自信
She’s using “will” to tell you that she’s confident,
她相信你
she believes in you.
当你沮丧的时候
When you’re upset,
你的朋友会告诉你: “一切将会变好的。”
your friends tell you “It will be okay”.
他们很自信地相信一切都会变好的
They’re confident, they believe that everything will be okay.
如果你现在很确定
Now if you’re certain
某些事情将不会发生
that something is not going to happen,
就用‘will not’ 或者‘won’t’
use “will not” or ”won’t”.
如果他们步行 他们不能准时到达
If they walk, they won’t arrive in time.
因为路程太远了
It’s too far!
我确定那件事不会发生
I’m certain that won’t happen.
我们也用’must’ 当我们确信
We also use “must” when we are confident
和确定某些事情目前正在发生时
and sure of something that is happening in the present.
通常我们给一个理由或解释
And usually we have a reason or an explanation
去告诉我们为什么某些事情正在发生
to tell us why something is happening.
那个小孩在哭 他一定是饿了
The baby’s crying. He must be hungry.
我认为莎拉现在应该在这
I thought Sarah would be here by now.
她一定是被堵在路上了
She must be stuck in traffic.
他们什么肉都不吃
They didn’t eat any of the meat.
他们一定是素食主义者
They must be vegetarian.
注意我如何给出一个原因
Notice how I’ve given a reason
从这些例子中去说明为什么我相信
for all of these examples to show why I believe
某些事情是真的并很常见 当你使用’must’时
something to be true and it’s quite common when you’re using “must”.
它说明你非常确信
It explains that you are quite confident
这件事情 你能给出理由去解释
about the statement and you’re able to give a reason to explain
为什么你如此确定
why you’re so sure.
使用’must’去表达过去时
To use “must” to talk about the past
当你非常确定某些事情已经发生了
when you’re quite sure that something happened,
那就使用’must have’
then use “must have”.
在飞行了36个小时之后 你一定感到精疲力尽
After flying for 36 hours, you must have felt exhausted.
我认为我能在考试中做的更好
I thought I’d do better in the exam.
我一定是太紧张了
I must have been really nervous.
噢 杰克现在不在这里 他一定认为
Oh, Jack’s not here right now. He must have thought
你在楼下等他
that you were meeting him downstairs.
现在看看这个完成时是如何产生的
Now see how this creates the perfect tense.
谓语动词跟在’have’后面
The main verb following “have”
是过去分词形式
is in the past participle form.
所以当表达关于现在或者将来时
So when talking about the present or the future,
‘must’跟着原型
“must” is followed by the bare infinitive form
但是当表达关于过去时
but when talking about the past,
‘must’跟着’have’和动词的过去分词形式
“must” is followed by “have” and the past participle verb form.
这种模式适用于许多形态动词
And this pattern is true for many of the modal verbs
我们今天所讲的
that we’ll talk about today.
我们使用’should’去表达某些事情是可能的
We use “should” to say that something is likely.
我们不是百分之百的肯定 但我们相信这是真的
We’re not a hundred percent certain but we believe it to be true.
他们离开一个小时了 他们现在应该在这里
They left an hour ago, they should be here by now.
如果他们开车 他们应该在三点前到达
If they take the car, they should arrive by three.
在表达过去时时 我们使用’should have’
To talk about the past, we use “should have”.
这是相同的模式
It’s the same pattern.
我没有意识到他不舒服
I didn’t realise he was unwell.
我们早就应该提议带他去看医生
We should have offered to take him to the doctor.
学校知道山姆会迟到
The school knew Sam was going to be late.
他们应该给她妈妈打电话
They should have called her mother.
现在我们讲可能性
Now let’s talk possibility.
所以 如果你正在做一般的陈述
So if you’re making really general statements
关于某些事情是可能的
about something that is possible,
使用’can’
use “can”.
人们可能是非常粗鲁的
People can be really rude.
小心点 因为晚上在路上可能非常危险
Be careful because it can be quite dangerous on the streets at night.
这可能非常困难 找一个说话对象
It can be really hard to find a speaking partner
去一起练习英语
to practise English with.
这可能花费超过十二小时
It can take over twelve hours
去徒步穿越那些山
to hike through those mountains.
现在这些都是一般性陈述
Now these are all general statements,
他们不是特殊的
they’re not specific.
我说的这些观点是可能的
I’m saying these statements are possible,
但我并没有说确切地发生了什么
but I’m not saying exactly what is happening.
现在 在这个语境中’could’被使用
Now in this context “could” is used
作为’can’的过去时态
as the past tense of “can”.
我记得伦敦的冬天
I remember winters in London.
好几周都不曾看见阳光
Weeks could go by without ever seeing the sun!
所以 当我们不确信或不确定关于现在
So when we’re uncertain or unsure about the present
和将来的时候 我们使用情态动词’could’
and the future, we use the modal verbs “could”
‘might’和’may’
“might” and “may”.
他们解释某些事情是可能的
They explain that something is possible
但并不确信或保证
but not certain or guaranteed.
如果你在路易斯街的入口附近等候
If you wait near the door on Lewis Street,
你可能看到总理离开
you could see the Prime minister leaving.
他们可能在午餐前到达
They might arrive before lunch.
但我不确定
But I’m not sure.
我可能需要借你的车
I may need to borrow your car.
现在’might’和’may’在这里非常相似
Now “might” and “may” here are very similar.
这两个只有些许不同
There is a very slight difference between the two
‘might’告诉我们结果
in that “might” tells us that the outcome
可能性更少一些
is a little bit less likely.
但事实是有百分之九十九的地道英语
But the truth is that ninety-nine percent of native English
母语者都没有意识到这一点
speakers don’t even realise this.
所以你完全不需要担心它们的区别
So you don’t need to worry about the difference at all.
当我们说口语时 你可以使用其中任意一个
When used in spoken English, you can use either
当我们表达可能性时
when talking about possibility.
只要认为它们是相同的就可以了
Just consider them to be the same.
我们可能在九月份去度假
We may go on a holiday in September.
我们或许九月份去度假
We might go on holiday in September.
足够接近了
Close enough!
这些句子的意思如此相似
The meaning of this sentence is so similar,
但是第二句表明它的可能性更小
but the second one suggests that it’s a little less likely,
完了
that’s all!
我们也可以使用’could’去解释 我们
We can also use “could” to explain that we are
不确信或不确定对于将来的事
uncertain or unsure about the future.
今天下午也许会下雨
It could rain this afternoon.
今天下午或许会下雨
It might rain this afternoon.
今天下午可能会下雨
It may rain this afternoon.
现在这些句子告诉我们这是可能的
Now all of these sentences tell us that it’s possible
但不确定
but not certain.
它有可能会发生
There is a chance that it will happen.
西蒙可能在比我们先到
Simon could arrive before us.
西蒙也许能在我们之前到达
Simon might arrive before us.
西蒙可能在我们之前到达
Simon may arrive before us.
现在这些例子全是表达现在时或将来时
Now these examples all talk about the present or the future.
情态动词后面跟着的
And the modal verb is followed
是动词原型
by the bare infinitive verb form.
但现在 我们将回到过去 时光倒流
But now, we’ll go into the past, back in time.
然后我们使用相同的情态动词 带有’have’
Then we use these same modal verbs with “have”
后面跟动词的过去分词形式
followed by the past participle verb,
所以 突然间我们使用现在完成时
so suddenly we’re using the present perfect tense.
他们现在可能已经吃完晚饭了
They might have finished dinner by now.
我很担心 莎拉可能发生了什么事
I’m worried. Something could have happened to Sara.
好的 那些就是可能性的表达
Okay, so that was talking about possibility.
现在 让我们关注不可能性 当某些事情不可能发生时
Now, let’s focus on impossibility, when something is not possible,
当我们知道某些事情不可能发生时
when we know that something is unlikely to happen.
发生这种情况的可能性
The chances of it happening are,
非常 非常 非常小
really, really, really small.
当我们认为某些事情不可能发生时
When we think that something is impossible,
我们使用’can’和’could’的否定形式
we use the negative forms of “can” and “could”.
你不会那么认真的
You can’t be serious!
这不可能 我不相信你
It’s not possible. I don’t believe you!
现在 这个表达方式经常用于某人
Now this expression is often used after someone
说了某件事 你不相信之后
says something that you just don’t believe.
当我们认为所说的内容不太可能是真的时
When we think that what is said is very unlikely to be true.
当我们告诉他们 他们将会赢 他们不敢相信
When we told them they’d won, they couldn’t believe it!
他说他曾在一个叫’Meatball’的乐队中
He said he was in a band called “Meatball”!
他一定是在开玩笑
He couldn’t have been serious.
所以在说话时 这些否定形式
So when spoken, these negative forms
通常被简写
are usually contracted.
不能
Can’t.
不能
Couldn’t.
还有不能有
And couldn’t’ve.
现在你从没看到过最后一个形式
Now you will never see this last one
写成双重简写
written as a double contraction
但你会听到它被说
but you will hear it spoken.
不可能有
Couldn’t’ve.
即使你会听到人们说出完整的否定形式
You will hear people pronounce the full negative form though
特别是增强语气 使意思更强
especially to add emphasis, to make the meaning stronger.
那不可能是真的
That cannot be true!
你能使它更引人注目 通过强调每一个单词
You can make it even more dramatic by stressing every single word.
那不可能是真的
That can not be true!
好的 现在让我们总结一下
Okay so let’s summarise now.
如果你非常确定某事时用’will’
If you are certain about something use “will”
或者用’won’t’如果你确定某些事情
or use “won’t” if you are certain that something
是不可能的
is impossible.
现在如果你对某些事情充满信心并且你有
Now if you’re confident about something and you have
一个理由相信它
a reason for believing that
用’must’或者’should’
use “must” or “should”.
如果你表达某些事一般
If you’re talking about something generally
是可能的 用’can’
that’s possible, use “can”.
如果你不确定但它可能会发生
If you are not certain but it’s possible
用’migh’ ‘may’或者’could’
use “might”, “may” or “could”.
所以记住这几个不同的意思
So remember that there are different meanings
对所有的情态动词来说
for all of these modal verbs
我们将在下一节课中讲解更多
and we’re going to talk about these more in the next lesson.
好吧 我希望你喜欢这节课
Well I hope that you enjoyed that lesson!
我相信你有点信心
I hope you feel a little more confident
用情态动词去表达
using modal verbs to talk about
可能性和概率
possibility and probability.
现在请记住 我们下节课将讲解
Now remember that the next lesson will talk about
如何使用这些情态动词
how these modal verbs can be used
关于能力 去征询许可
for ability, to ask for permission,
提出建议和征求意见
to give suggestions and ask for advice.
但现在 继续练习这些课程
But for now, keep practising with these lessons
我将在下周回来
and I will be back again next week
给你带来一节新的课程
with a new lesson for you.
感谢观看 下次见
Thanks for watching I’ll see you again soon.
先再见了
Bye for now!

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视频概述

这节课用实例说明如何使用情态动词去表达可能性和发生机率。

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翻译译者

那一年夏至

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=skqj4jOSQU4

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