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一战前奏2/3:欧洲火药桶 – 巴尔干问题 – 译学馆
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一战前奏2/3:欧洲火药桶 - 巴尔干问题

Tinderbox Europe - From Balkan Troubles to World War I PRELUDE TO WW1 - Part 2/3

My Name is Indy Neidell and
the Great War 这个频道是在一百年后,来以星期为单位讲述第一次世界大战的故事
This channel, the Great War, follows World War One week by week exactly 100 years later,
不过在我们讲之前,我想我们可以来看一些
but before we can do that properly, we thought we’d give you a little background on Europe
1914年的欧洲背景
in 1914.
一战的直接原因,我想是Franz Ferdinand大公的暗杀事件
Okay, the immediate cause of World War I was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand,
我们将会把这个事情作为一个独立的小插曲来讲。今天,我将
which we’ll cover in a separate special episode. Today, I’m going to talk a little
讲一些关于导致这次暗杀事件的文化仇视和民族狂热情绪
bit about the cultural hatred and nationalistic fever that led up to his assassination. This
这是当时一个席卷整个欧洲,哦不,整个世界的现象
was something happening all over Europe, heck, all over the world at this time, but especially
但是巴尔干半岛尤为严重 所以让我们来看一下奥地利-匈牙利帝国和巴尔干半岛上的其他国家吧
in the Balkans. So let’s take a look at the empire of Austria-Hungary and the Balkan nations.
这个帝国尽管还在扩张 但是已经开始逐渐被多民族统治地区的野心分裂了
The empire, even as it still grew, was slowly being torn apart by the ambitions of its multi-ethnic
尤其是斯拉夫民族 在1908年 Franz Josef 国王已经正式吞并
states, in particular the Slavic ones. In 1908, Emperor Franz Josef had formally annexed
了波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那地区 现在这个吞并行为
Bosnia and Herzegovina. Now this annexation
在巴尔干半岛上激起了反奥地利帝国的怒火 尤其是塞尔维亚
inflamed anti-Austrian hatred throughout the Balkans, but especially in Serbia who were
它被奥地利帝国侵占了375英里长的海岸线 同时被夺走了亚得里亚海的港口
denied the chance of an Adriatic port by Austrian expansion into 375 miles of Slavic coastline
这个事件也有利于奥地利帝国在与塞尔维亚未来的战事中
territory. This also gave Austria a base she could use for any future military actions
采取行动
against Serbia.
现在,你必须认识到斯拉夫人分散在奥地利-匈牙利帝国、塞尔维亚
Now, you have to realize that the Slavs were split up between Austria-Hungary, Serbia,
黑山共和国、保加利亚之间,他们中的大多数人都希望有一个泛斯拉夫国家。尽管这些国家,除了奥地利
Montenegro, and Bulgaria and most of them dreamed of a pan-Slavic nation. Those nations,
在几个世纪前就已经成为了奥德曼帝国的一部分
though, except for Austria, had been not only part of the Ottoman Empire for centuries,
他们有时还受到土耳其帝国的其他地区的压迫,最近才有了掌握自己命运的力量
but often violently oppressed parts of the Ottoman Empire and only recently were finally
所以看到奥地利帝国突然疯狂地侵占了拥有大量
able to determine their own fates. Seeing Austria suddenly gobble up new territory with
斯拉夫人的土地
a sizable Slavic population… well…
他们心里可不好受
not good.
如果你在20世纪初来看塞尔维亚的话,这是你所找到的
If you look at Serbia in the first decade of the 20th century- here’s what you find:
首先它是一个年轻气盛的国家 塞尔维亚在1878年时刚刚获得了独立
First and foremost- a young and proud nation. Serbia had only gained its independence from
有着强烈的民族主义情绪。欧洲的其他国家
the Ottoman Empire in 1878, and it was intensely nationalistic. The rest of Europe looked at
怀疑地看着塞尔维亚,这是他们的标语“哪里住着一个塞尔维亚人,哦哪里就有个塞尔维亚”
Serbia suspiciously, though, and its catchphrase “where dwells a Serb, there is Serbia”…well,
你可以想象到这么多人有多不舒服了,让我们来面对现实
you can see how that didn’t sit well with a lot of people, and let’s face it, the
塞尔维亚人唯一能与南面的斯拉夫人联合的方法,就是
only way for Serbia to have united the southern Slav peoples would have been to bring down
不得不与奥匈帝国摊牌,这或许意味着一场战争也就是后来所发生的事情
Austria-Hungary for good, which would’ve taken a war, which is kinda what happened.
只有不到五百万人居住在塞尔维亚,所以所有内部的紧张情绪
Fewer than five million people lived in Serbia, though, so all intentions aside, that wasn’t
都还不至于爆发 然而 在寻找同盟的过程中 塞尔维亚
going to happen by itself. However, in the search for allies, Serbia alienated a lot
粗暴地镇压和压迫国内的少数民族尤其是对穆斯林
of Europe by the brutal and violent repression of its own minority peoples, especially Muslims,
就像塞尔维亚和其他少数民族在奥匈帝国受到压迫那样 因此塞尔维亚疏离了很多欧洲国家
in much the same way Serbs and other minorities were repressed in Austria-Hungary, so they
他们自己也没有得到多少同情 而且 巴尔干半岛上无穷无尽的冲突
didn’t get a whole lot of sympathy, and also- endless Balkan violence was nothing
对人们来说也不是新鲜事儿事实上 这是大多数欧洲人经常在
new to people. In fact, it was just one of those things that most Europeans were resigned
在报纸上看到的事情 见怪不怪了
to reading about in the papers from time to time
一个又一个谋杀 一个又一个爆炸 在欧洲如此偏远的角落
another murder, another bombing, in that far off corner of Europe where such things
这些事情正在发生 而政变通常是由谋杀事件引起的
just seem to happen and regime change was often by murder.
实际上 不说别的 最后一场这样的事件发生在1903年Alexander国王和Draga王后
Actually, stereotypes aside, the last did happen- in 1903. King Alexander and Queen
在他们的私人公寓中被一群年轻的军官谋杀及碎尸
Draga were murdered in their private apartments by a group of young army officers and their
负责人之一 是Dragutin Dimitrijevic 他被皇家卫队所伤
bodies were mutilated. One of the men responsible, Dragutin Dimitrijevic, became a national hero
他因此成为了一个民族英雄 他也因神牛(古希腊人把牛视为神的化身)的称呼而为众人所知。此外,他还是
when he was wounded by Royal Guards. He was also known simply as Apis and had been a founding
黑手党最初的成员和领导者,是他组织策划了国王和王后的谋杀案
member and leader of the Black Hand- who organized the hit on the king and queen.
黑手党,你一听就知道,这些人不会
The Black Hand. You just sort of know from the name that these guys aren’t going to
有心去开一家做汤的店或者维护城市公园的治安问题
be devoted to, you know, starting soup kitchens or maintaining city parks.
不管怎么说,在第一次世界大战开始之时,黑手党就有上千个成员
Anyhow, by the beginning of the first World War there were thousands of members of the
他们中大部分都是塞尔维亚的军官,甚至是政府要员,而且,这个
Black Hand, many of them Serbian army officers and even government officials, and this secret
秘密组织和你想象中的恐怖分子一样
organization did pretty much what you would expect of a terrorist organization-
策划政治谋杀,组建游击队等等
plan political murders, train and equip guerillas, and so forth,
这些人和塞尔威亚的爱国主义者的野心愈发膨胀,在1912年到1913年之间的
and they and Serbian nationalist goals in general got a big boost in 1912 and 1913 from
两次巴尔干战争期间。我接下来就给你们讲讲巴尔干战争
the two Balkan wars, which I’m going to tell you about right now.
恩,但不是现在,因为再讲巴尔干战争之前,不得不先提一下
Okay, not RIGHT now, because to talk about the Balkan Wars I have to talk about the Moroccan
摩洛哥危机。
crises first.
有两次危机,一次是在1905年,而另一次是在1911年,你可以查找一下这两次危机的细节
There were two of these, one in 1905 and one in 1911, and you can look them up for details,
但它们基本上或者大致是就是,皇帝想要
but what they very basically and generally involved was the Kaiser trying to drive a
让英法两国之间产生分歧,或者更好的是,能够让德国
wedge between England and France and hopefully even form an alliance between Germany and
和英国成为同盟。然而,事与愿违,他们恰好促成了完全相反的结果
England but they succeeded in doing the opposite-
反而导致英法两国的关系前所未有的坚固,
and made the alliance between Britain and France stronger than ever and drove a deeper
导致德国和它们的矛盾更深了,来看看细节
wedge between them and Germany. Again, look them up for details.
还有一个结果就是法国控制了摩洛哥,现在,英国在这个时刻掌控了
Another result was that France took control of Morocco. Now, Britain at the time had control
埃及,对吧。那么然后会发生的时期非常重要,那就是意大利
of Egypt, right? And what happened next is very important. Italy,
意大利看到奥斯曼帝国正渐渐分崩离析,于是就想
Italy saw Ottoman land being seemingly handed out, and thought “I
我也想要一份地!所以意大利就发起了战争。因为摩洛哥人的愚钝
gotta get me some of that!”… So Italy went to war. Because of all the Moroccan foolishness,
意大利,准确去推测出英国,法国和德国不会采取任何措施
Italy figured correctly that England, France, and the German Empire would do nothing to
来阻止自己。所以她先攻打了奥斯曼帝国。战争持续了不到一个月,意大利就
stop her, so she attacked the Ottoman Empire. The war lasted less than a month and Italy
成功地占领了利比亚
successfully took Libya.
奥斯曼帝国的统治力开始衰落
And the dominoes start to fall…
巴尔干地区,发现,即便是最微弱的力量也可以摧毁奥斯曼帝国
The Balkan states, seeing how easily the weakest of the powers could beat the Ottoman Empire,
他们团结一致,挑起了第一次巴尔干战争,塞尔维亚,黑山共和国,希腊,保加利亚
got together and attacked in the First Balkan War. Serbia, Montenegro, Greece, and Bulgaria,
在俄罗斯的帮助之下,形成了巴尔干联盟,并且,他们齐心协力,那奥斯曼帝国
with Russian influence, formed the Balkan League- and together succeeded in driving
完全的挤出了巴尔干地区,这还是500年来第一次。这对
the Ottomans out of the Balkans entirely for the first time in 500 years. It was a big
奥斯曼来说是一个巨大的损失。然而,一个月以后,保加利亚
loss for the Ottomans. However, one month after the war Bulgaria wasn’t satisfied
就不满足于征服已经分裂的领土,它转头想要攻打塞尔维亚
with the way conquered territories were split up and turned around and attacked Serbia and
和希腊。有迹象表明,塞尔维亚在第二次巴尔干战争中已经占领了阿尔巴尼亚(巴尔干半岛南部国家)
Greece. A side note: Serbia occupied Albania in the 2nd Balkan war and finally
并且拥有了属于自己的港口,但是奥地利下了最后通牒,要求塞尔维亚
had a seaport of her own, but Austria issued an ultimatum to remove all Serbian forces
在八天的时间里,将塞尔维亚的军队撤出阿尔巴尼亚。塞尔维亚同意了
from Albania within eight days. Serbia complied.
你们可能觉得,这什么乱七八糟的。那现在就来看看一些重要的结论
As you may guess, this was all a complete mess, and here are some important results:
在第二次巴尔干战争中,塞尔维亚几乎把自己的领土翻了一番,即使没有阿尔巴尼亚
Serbia pretty much doubled her territory in the Balkan Wars, even without Albania, and
如果在1914年前期,你问一个塞尔维亚人,他们可能会说,打仗对他们来说,似乎很有好处
if you asked a Serb in early 1914 they’d probably say that wars seemed to work out
但是最后,他们付出了惨痛的代价
pretty well for them, but they’d pay a terrible price in the end:
在1912年到1918年期间,六个塞尔维亚人中,无论男女或者是孩子,就有一个人
between 1912 and 1918 one out of every six Serbs- men, women, and children- would die
惨烈地死去
violently.
在巴尔干联盟崩溃之后,俄罗斯明确表明支持
After the collapse of the Balkan League and Russia’s clearly Pro-Serbian position in
第二次战争中的立场。俄罗斯,是塞尔维亚在整个巴尔干半岛仅剩的盟友
the second war, Russia was left with only Serbia as an ally left in the entire area,
在1914年,俄罗斯其实没有什么选择,只能无条件地支持塞尔维亚
and Russia wouldn’t really have much choice but to unconditionally support Serbia in 1914.
奥匈帝国和德国都担心塞尔维亚领土的扩大和地位的上升
Both Austria-Hungary and Germany were worried by Serbia’s growth in both size and stature,
很多说德语的人把塞尔维亚当作是俄国的棋子,
and since a lot of German speaking people saw Serbia as a Russian satellite, well, Austria
那么奥地利将很乐意去打遏制塞尔维亚快速增长的趋势,并且打消斯拉夫民族的民族主义
was ready and willing to put its foot down on Serbian growth and Slavic nationalism.
与此同时,在1905年败给了日本之后,没有成功地阻止波斯尼亚的
At the same time, after losing a war to Japan in 1905 and being unable to prevent the Bosnian
合并之后,沙皇就迫切的想要阻止一切
annexation in 1908, the Tsar was ready and willing to put his foot down to prevent any
俄罗斯可能面临的损失
further loss of face for Russia.
于是,就到了1914年的六月。所有各方,互相牵制
And that’s where we were in June 1914. All of these sides playing off against one another
在这所有一切的中心,在巴尔干半岛上,出现了一个曾经通过恐怖主义和政治
and at the epicenter of it all, in the Balkans, an organization that used terrorism and political
谋杀来实现自己目标的组织
murder to try and achieve its goals.
然后,弗朗德斐迪南去了萨拉热窝
And then Franz Ferdinand went to Sarajevo.
如果,你错过了战争前奏曲的第一部分,请点击这里,直接观看
If you missed our prelude to war special number one you can click here and watch it right now
你也可以查找其他的社交网络平台,比如脸书,比如twitter,
you can also check out our other social media platforms like facebook or twitter in the infobox
在下面的信息框里查找更多有关the grate war的资料
below for more information about The Great War

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